THE GERMAN BATTALION OF THE AMERICAN
REVOLUTION
By CHARLES FRANCIS STEIN
Secretary, The Society of the Cincinnati of Maryland.
President, The Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland,
                  1971-1975.
Early in the year 1776, anticipating the possibility of hostilities with
England, the Continental Congress decided to raise an army from the
thirteen colonies, each colony to furnish a quota of officers and men based
upon the size of population and the ability to procure arms and supplies.
This was the genesis of the Continental Army, as distinguished from the
local colonial militia forces.
In addition to the regular Colonial units, the Congress authorized the
establishment of a number of additional regiments. One of these was the
German Battalion composed of officers and men selected from among the
German settlers of Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Accordingly, the Continental Congress, in pursuance of this objective,
in the spring of 1776, passed several resolutions as follows:
Resolves of the Continental Congress of 25 May 1776
"Resolved that one Battalion of Germans be raised for the Service of
the United Colonies"
Resolves of the Continental Congress 27 June 1776
"Resolved that four companies of Germans be raised in Pennsylvania
and four companies in Maryland to compose said regiment"
In Maryland, the Convention then in charge of the Colonial Govern-
ment, in order to comply with these requirements of the Continental
Congress, passed the following resolutions:
Resolves of the Maryland Convention 6 July 1776
"Resolved that this Province will raise four companies, and that two
companies of Germans be raised in Baltimore County and two in Frederick
County."
"Resolved that another company be added to the German Battalion
and that David Welper (Woelper) be appointed Captain of said company."
This, the Ninth Company, consisted of both Marylanders and Pennsyl-
vanians under command of Captain Woelper.
Each Company consisted of ninety enlisted men and the following
officers: a Captain, a 1st Lieutenant, 2nd Lieutenant, Ensign and non-
commissioned officers: 4 Sergeants, 4 Corporals, 2 Drummers or one Fifer
and one Drummer and 80 privates. The Regiment was commanded by a
Colonel, and the officers under him were a Lieutenant-Colonel, two Majors,
a Chaplain, a Surgeon and a Surgeon's Mate.
The German Regiment was organized under the command of Colonel
[26]
Nicholas Haussegger of Pennsylvania, commissioned July 17, 1776. Pre-
viously Colonel Haussegger had been a Major of the 4th Pennsylvania
Battalion of Militia. Next in rank was Lieutenant-Colonel George Stricker
of Frederick, Maryland, whose commission also is dated July 17, 1776.
Colonel Stricker resigned his commission April 29, 1777 and was succeeded
by Major Ludwig Weltner of Maryland, who then became Lieutenant-
Colonel.
Next in line of rank was Major William Klein, a native of Prussia, who
had previous military training in Europe. When Major Weltner was raised
to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel he was succeeded by Major, formerly
Captain, Daniel Burkhardt of Pennsylvania. Subsequently Major Klein
was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel. His place was filled by Captain
George Hubley of Pennsylvania, who was commissioned Major.
The Chaplain was Rev. James Francis Armstrong of Maryland, ap-
pointed December 3, 1777. He did not serve for long, as he resigned on
February 1, 1778. The Surgeon was Dr. Charles Ritter of Maryland,
appointed Regimental Surgeon September 1, 1776. He served until August
1778, when he was succeeded by Dr. Peter Peres of Philadelphia. The Sur-
geon's Mate was Alexander Smith of Maryland, who was appointed in
August, 1778 and served until January 1, 1781.
Count Louis von Linkensdorf, a German officer from Europe, became
Adjutant of the Regiment. The Paymaster was Michael Eberhardt, and the
Regimental Quartermasters were Jacob Meil and later, Ensign Jacob Ray-
bold of Maryland. Eberhardt and Meil were Pennsylvanians and served
until the reorganization of the Regiment in August, 1778.
The Pennsylvania Companies were staffed as follows when the Battalion
was organized on July 17, 1776:
Captains: Jacob Bonner, John David Burkhardt, George Hubley and
Benjamin Weiser.
First Lieutenants: Jacob Bauer, Peter Boyer, Bernard Hubley, Frederick
William Rice and Frederick Rohlwagen.
Second Lieutenants: George Haubecker, William Ritter, George Schaff-
ner and Frederick Weiser.
Ensigns: Jacob Cramer, Christian Gleckner, Christopher Helm, Philip
Schräder, Christopher Gottfried Schwartz and John Weideman.
The four companies of the German Battalion which were organized in
Maryland had the following original officers as of July 12, 1776:
The officers of the two Companies established from Baltimore County
were:
Captain Henry Fister's Company
Captain Henry Fister
1st Lieutenant Charles Balzell
2nd Lieutenant Michael Mayer
Ensign Jacob Grommet
Captain George Keeport's Company
Captain George Keeport
1st Lieutenant Samuel Gerock
2nd Lieutenant William Ritter
Ensign John Lindenberger
Two Companies organized in Frederick County, Maryland, had officers
as follows:
[27]
Captain Philip Graybill's Company
Captain Philip Graybill
1st Lieutenant John Lorah
2nd Lieutenant Christian Meyers
Ensign Martin Shugart
Captain William Keyser's Company
Captain William Keyser
1st Lieutenant Jacob Kotz
2nd Lieutenant Adam Smith
Ensign Paul Christian
It may be noted that many of the men of Captain Keyser's Company
came from Washington County. Some of the men in the two Baltimore
County Companies actually came from the Frederick area or from the part
of Baltimore County adjacent to Frederick which later became Carroll
County.
The swift completion of the organization and equipment of the German
Battalion in the Summer months of 1776 is a credit as much to the
recruiting skill of the commissioned officers as to the spirit of the German-
speaking settlers. Particularly in Baltimore and in the western counties
of Maryland, the sons of German and Swiss immigrants responded well
to the call to arms. The local communities provided everything from
uniforms to arms. Ironmen and gunsmiths in the German settlements
could scarcely keep up with the requirements of their battalion. The so-
called Lancaster County rifle (later to be known as Kentucky rifle) was
provided by German gunsmiths in many communities. By rifling the inner
barrel of the weapon, this rifle was a much more accurate and deadly weapon
than the conventional smooth-bore musket. The latter weapon, however,
could be fired more rapidly than the rifle. The British soon came to dread
the deadly accuracy of the rifles of the German Battalion, but for the most
part it was the bayonet charge, rather than gunfire, which decided the
outcome of the battles of the American Revolution.
The original enlistment for the German Battalion was for three years
and some of the first men were so enlisted. For the farm population of
Western Maryland such a long absence over three harvest seasons seemed
an undue hardship and eventually shorter enlistments were accepted. On
July 17, 1776 an additional company could be raised.
The German Battalion, commanded by Colonel Haussegger, then
marched from Philadelphia to New York, where it took part in the Battle
of Long Island, August 26 to 28, 1776, the Battle of Harlem Heights on
September 16, 1776 and in ensuing skirmishes, particularly at White
Plains, until the retreat following the British capture of Fort Washington
in November. In each of these engagements the fire of the riflemen suc-
ceeded in holding back the attacks of the enemy for several hours. The
British and their German mercenary forces had great respect for the
marksmanship of the American Germans, but due to the excessive time
required to reload the rifles, it was the bayonet which decided the ultimate
outcome of the battles. In this connection the comments of the Hessian
Colonel von Heerigen to his superior, General von Lossberg are pertinent:
"These people are more to be pitied than feared. After the first rounds of
fire, it takes a full quarter of an hour to reload a rifle, and they soon
fell victims to our bayonets."
[28]
After the fall of Fort Washington the remainder of the Continentals
withdrew across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. In this situation
when the American cause was at its lowest, General Washington realized
the necessity of reviving the hopes of his countrymen by some bold action.
With this objective in mind, he crossed the Delaware River on Christmas
night 1776 and attcked the British and Hessian forces at Trenton. The
enemy was enjoying Christmas festivities and was completely surprised.
In the confusion of the night fighting which ensued, the Continentals
inflicted heavy losses on their opponents, and captured large amounts of
ammunition and other supplies which they badly needed. The German
Battalion was in the forefront of the fighting, and suffered losses accord-
ingly. Among the victims was their regimental commander, Colonel
Nicholas Haussegger, who was taken prisoner by the Hessians.
On January 3-4. 1777, General Washington repeated the same tactics,
recrossing the Delaware and falling upon the British camp at Princeton,
again capturing supplies of food and munitions needed by his men. In
this engagement the German Battalion fought under the command of
Lieutenant Colonel Stricker of Maryland.
During the late winter and spring, the Continental army was reorg-
anized. The militia regiments had proven unreliable. The Maryland forces,
seriously reduced by losses in battle, were consolidated into two regiments
and five more Maryland regiments were raised. These, with the German
Battalion, were organized into the celebated "Maryland Line." They were
divided into two brigades. Four regiments were placed under General
William Smallwood of Maryland, and the German Regiments and three
Maryland regiments were put under command of General de Borre, a
Frenchman. These two brigades constituted the force commanded by
Major General John Sullivan.
There were important changes among the officers of the German Bat-
talion. After the inglorious exit of its original commander, Colonel Nicholas
Haussegger, a Prussian officer, Baron d'Arendt, was imposed on the
battalion as field commander with thes rank of colonel. This prompted the
angry resignation of Marylander George Stricker. Since the baronial
colonel was largely absent during the subsequent months, the command
of the German Battalion was virtually and ably performed by Major
Ludwig Weltner of Maryland. Weltner was appointed Lieutenant Colonel,
as was Major William Klein who belonged to the original Pennsylvania
contingent. Captains Daniel Burckhardt and George Hubley were pro-
moted to majors.
Captains Henry Fister, George Keeport and Benjamin Weiser were
replaced. Among the lieutenants of the German Regiment who were com-
missioned as captains in the reorganization of the spring of 1777 were
John Baltzell, Samuel Gerock, John Lindenberger, George Lorah, Frederick
William Rice and John David Woelper. Lieutenant Paul Bentalou, a
French cavalry officer, became First Lieutenant.
In August 1777 the reorganized German Battalion had its first action
in the night raid on Staten Island. After initial success, the American
forces were driven into retreat. Despite heavy fighting, the German
Battalion escaped with only minor losses. After the British landed at
Elk River, the scene of the war was shifted to the area between Wilmington
and Philadelphia. The German Battalion was guarding the crossing of
Brandywine Creek at Chadd's Ford at the beginning of the Battle of
Brandywine on September 11, 1777. The seasoned riflemen forced a strong
contingent of Hessians under General von Knyphausen to abandon the
[29]
initial attack. But then tactical mistakes and rivalry on the part of some
American commanders and a superb strategy of the British and Hessian
forces led to a disastrous defeat.
The German Battalion suffered most severely. The extent and severity
of these losses is indicated by the fact, as stated in Heitman's Historical
Register of the Officers of the Continental Army, that the manpower of
the German Battalion had been reduced from the original nine companies
to two companies which spent the winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge,
plus a detachment of Maryland Germans who were in winter quarters with
General Smallwood.
During the winter of 1777-1778 General von Steuben transformed the
American army into an efficient fighting unit. He compiled a manual of
arms and instructed the men in the proper use of the bayonet. He held
classes in strategy and tactics for the senior officers.
The German Battalion was reorganized. The best officers were promoted
and new men were recruited in Maryland and Pennsylvania to fill the
ranks. Colonel Ludwig Weltner became the commanding officer. Among
the officers who were retired or who resigned in the spring of 1778 were
Captain Philip Graybill, Captain William Keyser, Captain John Lorah,
Captain John Baltzel, Lieutenant Jacob Kotz, Lieutenant John Linden-
berger, all of Maryland, and Captain John David Woelper and Lieutenant
George Haubecker of Pennsylvania. Lieutenant John Weidman of Penn-
sylvania had been taken prisoner at the Battle of Brandywine. He was not
exhanged until December, 1780. Lieutenants Paul Bentalou and George
Schaffner transferred to Pulaski's Legion.
Officers of the German Battalion who were promoted in the spring of
1778 were as follows: Lieutenant Bernard Hubley of Pennsylvania and
Lieutenant Christian Meyers of Maryland became Captains, as did Lieu-
tenant Jacob Schräder of Pennsylvania. The Second Lieutenants, Jacob
Cramer and Christopher Gottfried Schwarz, both of Pennsylvania, and
Martin Shugart of Maryland became First Lieutenants. David Diffenderfer
and Christian Gleckner, both of Pennsylvania, received Ensign's commis-
sions.
On February 26, 1778 the German Battalion was officially made a part
of Maryland's quota to improve and facilitate recruitment as well as
supplies. It was numbered as the Eighth Maryland but in most records
its original designation as the German Battalion was retained.
The German Battalion, as part of General Sullivan's division, served
in the operations at Rhode Island in the late summer and fall of 1778. For
the most part these actions consisted of surprise attacks on British outposts.
The only definite documentation of the Battalion is dated September 5,
1778. It is a record of a payroll for a part of the Battalion, then stationed
at White Plains, New York.
In 1779 Sullivan was assigned the duty of protecting the western
frontier against the Indians. As an important unit of his Brigade the
German Battalion was active in the punitive expedition against the Iroquois
Indians and Butler's Rangers. The Indian warfare was brought to a suc-
cessful conclusion in September 1779. The First Maryland Brigade, now
commanded by General de Kalb, was sent south, where it remained for the
remainder of the war. The German Battalion, under the immediate com-
mand of Colonel Ludwig Weltner of Maryland, continued its assignment
of guarding the frontier, under the overall command of General Sullivan.
In 1780 the German Battalion was sent to Pennsylvania Where it served
thoughout the year in Northumberland County, guarding the frontiers
[30]
against the Indians. There were no large scale engagements during this
final period of the activity of the Battalion.
On January 1, 1781, on General Washington's order for the "Reform
of the Army," the Maryland forces were consolidated into five regiments
serving in the Southern compaign. By this order the German Battalion
was officially disbanded, and the officers and men were retired, thus ending
the existence of this Battalion which had served its country in good and
bad days with honor and distinction for nearly five years. A respectable
number of the veterans of the battalion was retained for service in the
Frederick Detachment of the Maryland Line, a unit set up to guard the
prisoners quartered in Frederick in 1781 and 1782.
General Washington held the German Battalion in the highest esteem,
which is evidenced by his report to the Board of War dated February 19,
1781 which concluded: "The Board of War will be pleased to pay attention
to a memorial of Lieutenant Colonel Weltner of the German Battalion.
He is a deserving officer and has always conducted himself and the officers
of his regiment, the charge of which was in fact always upon him, with
singular propriety. His health is much impaired by the Service, and if
Baron d'Arendt was considered as having quitted the command of the
Regiment when he returned to Europe, I think Colonel Weltner is justly
entitled to the emoluments of a Lieutenant Colonel Commandant from that
time."
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON THE OFFICERS OF THE GERMAN BATTALION
Colonel Nicholas Haussegger
Nicholas Haussegger of Pennsylvania was the first commanding officer
of the German Battalion. He is said to have been born in Germany and to
have received military training there prior to coming to Pennsylvania.
On January 4, 1776 he became a Major in the 4th Pennsylvania Battalion
of Militia. When the German Battalion was organized in July 1776,
Haussegger was transferred to it, promoted to the rank of Colonel, and
made Battalion Commander. Under his command the Battalion was
engaged in the Battle of Long Island from August 26th to August 28th,
1776 and in engagements of Harlem Plains, Montressor's Island Septem-
ber 24th, Harlem Heights October 12th, White Plains October 28th, and
Fort Washington, November 16th. He commanded the Battalion during
subsequent campaigns around northern New Jersey. During this entire
period Colonel Haussegger showed himself to be an able field commander
and a man possessed of courage and qualities of leadership. He led the
Battalion in the attack on the Hessians in the Battle of Trenton, January
3, 1777, but was taken prisoner in that engagement. His subsequent career
has been difficult to trace, and has been the subject of controversy.
General George Washington in a letter to John Beatty in reference to
the exchange of prisoners of war wrote: "You are not to exchange . . .
Colonel Haussegger ... he was taken in a manner which will not suffer
us to consider him in the light of a common prisoner." It has also been
stated that "On February 1, 1781, Colonel Hassegger sent in his resigna-
tion and commission to General Washington, having joined the enemy"
(Writings of Washington, XVI, 131).
Accounts of the defection of Colonel Haussegger are inconsistent and
probably inaccurate in the light of the subsequent history of Colonel Haus-
segger. At the end of the Revolution Haussegger returned to his home in
Lebanon County, Pennsylvania, where he lived until his death in July,
[31]
1786. During his later years he applied for bounty lands to which the
soldiers of the Revolution became entitled, and after his death his heirs
received the land grants in question from the State of Pennsylvania. His
heirs surely would not have received such bounty lands if Colonel Haus-
segger had been regarded as a traitor. This aspect of his career has not
been clarified and remains a mystery. (Cf. Need, Settlement, 225-6 and
Richards, Rev. War, 399).
Colonel Heinrich Leonhardt von Arendt
Baron Heinrich Leonhardt von Arendt, known in America as d'Arendt,
was born in Germany and served in the Prussian army. He came to
America early in 1777, and was appointed Colonel of the Battalion on
March 19, 1777. As such he became the commanding field officer of the
Battalion in the place of Colonel Nicholas Haussegger, who had been taken
prisoner at the Battle of Trenton. In this capacity he served under General
Prudhomme de Borre, a Frenchman, to whose command the German Bat-
talion had been assigned.
On June 25, 1777 Colonel von Arendt requested permission of General
Washington to go to Philadelphia and lay before the Continental Congress
his proposal for a treaty of alliance with the King of Prussia. Washington
consented, provided "that he should not be absent from the German
Battalion for more than two days, as the officers needed supervision."
(Writings of Washington, VIII, 301) Colonel von Arendt was unsuccessful
in that attempt. Furthermore, as a foreigner and one accustomed to the
strict discipline of the Prussian army, he was not popular with the officers
serving under him. His brief and much resented command ended in August,
1777 when he applied for a leave of absence on account of ill health. His
request was granted and he returned to Europe. When he came back to
America late in 1780 he did not re-enter the service as the German Bat-
talion was then about to be retired.
Colonel George Stricker
George Stricker was born in Frederick County, Maryland in 1732. His
parents were Swiss who settled in North Carolina but later came to
Frederick County, Maryland. As a young man he served as an officer in
the French and Indian War in 1755, and took part in the defense of
Western Maryland against the Indians after the defeat of General Braddock
in 1755. At the approach of the American Revolution he was commissioned
Captain in January 14, 1776 in the regiment organized by Colonel William
Smallwood and was stationed near Annapolis for several months. Upon
the organization of the German Battalion he was appointed Lieutenant
Colonel on July 17, 1776, being then its highest ranking officer from
Maryland.
Stricker, a prominent member of the German Reformed church in
Frederick, was probably the most ardent recruiter among his fellow
Germans. Time and again his name appears in the Maryland records. At
one point he reported that he had raised twenty-one men for his German
company in two days. The Council was well aware of his effectiveness
and, in recommending him for the commission, it was stated: "We think
the service will be benefitted by his Appointment. If he should be com-
missioned the sooner 'tis done the better as it will probably be a great
inducement to his Countrymen to enlist." Stricker fought, with the
German Battalion, in the battles around New York City and in the cam-
[32]
paigns of northern New Jersey. He was the second highest ranking officer
of the Battalion and became its field commander when Colonel Nicholas
Haussegger was taken prisoner at the Battle of Trenton. Colonel Stricker
led the Battalion at the Battle of Princeton on January 3-4, 1777. When
the Battalion was reorganized in the spring of 1777, Colonel von Arendt
was placed in command with Colonel Stricker as his subordinate. Colonel
Stricker became angered at being passed over in this manner and thought
that he should have been promoted to full Colonel and continued as Bat-
talion commander. For this reason he resigned his commission on April
29, 1777 and retired to private life. His oldest son was General John
Stricker. He died in Ohio County, Virginia (now West Virgina) on
November 29, 1810.
Colonel Ludwig Weltner
Ludwig Weltner was an officer in the Frederick County Militia during
the French and Indian War. He took part in the defense of the western
frontier in the difficult years after Braddock's defeat. Weltner was either
the immigrant of 1751 or a son by the same name. At any rate, he was
born in Germany. When the German Battalion was organized Weltner
was commissioned as a Major. He took part in the battles around New
York City, as well as the Battles of Trenton and Princeton. Major Weltner
was raised to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel on April 29, 1777, and from
all accounts was actually acting in command of the regiment after the
resignation of Colonel George Stricker.
As Lieutenant Colonel, Weltner was in charge of the remnants of the
German Battalion at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777-1778. When the
Battalion was reorganized in the spring of 1778 he became its field com-
mander, serving in this capacity at the Battle of Monmouth and in the
campaigns of General Sullivan against the Indian tribes of Western New
York and Pennsylvania. Colonel Weltner was the most outstanding of
all the officers of the German Battalion. He was a competent field com-
mander and was respected and liked by his junior officers and by the
enlisted men. As commanding officer of the German Battalion Weltner
should have been made a full Colonel. In the later years of the War,
however, it was the policy of General Washington not to create any new
Colonels because a Lieutenant Colonel, if taken prisoner, had a better
chance of being exchanged, Washington having observed that almost no
British officers of the rank of full Colonel were ever captured.
Colonel Weltner continued in service until he was retired, together
with the Battalion, on January 1, 1781. On February 19, 1781, General
Washington wrote a letter to the Board of War, in which he expressed
the highest praise of Weltner as an officer and soldier, and requested that
he be given the emoluments of a full Colonel. After the war Colonel
Weltner resumed life in Frederick County, where he was also active in
the affairs of the Lutheran Church.
Colonel William Klein
Lieutenant Colonel William Klein was born in Germany and, as a
young man, is said to have served in the Prussian army. He emigrated
to America and probably settled in Lancaster County. Upon the organiza-
tion of the German Battalion he was one of the two majors appointed
from Pennsylvania, July 17, 1776. He served with the Battalion con-
tinously in this capacity until September 3, 1778. He then became second
in command under Colonel Weltner, taking part in General Sullivan's
[33]
campaigns against the Indians. His health had suffered during the long
years of warfare and on June 21, 1779, there being no further fighting in
prospect, Colonel Klein resgined his commission and returned to Germany.
Major Daniel Burchart
Daniel Burchart (Burkhardt) possibly of York County, Pennsylvania,
having had experience as a militia officer, was commissioned as Captain
of one of the Pennsylvania Companies when the German Battalion was
organized. He seems to have made on excellent officer and soldier, leading
his company in the campaigns around New York City and in the ensuing
fighting in New Jersey. He was raised to the rank of Major when the
Battalion was reorganized on April 7, 1777. He was in command of one
of the two companies of the German Battalion which wintered at Valley
Forge. He continued in active service with the Battalion until the summer
of 1779, when the Indian tribes on the Pennsylvania-New York frontier
were finally subdued. He resigned his commission on July 2, 1779 and
retired.
Major George Hubley
George Hubley came from one of the pioneer families of Lancaster
County. He was of Huguenot ancestry. His paternal ancestor, Bernard,
fled to Switzerland and later to Germany from where he emigrated to
Pennsylvania in 1732. The family contributed four officers to the first
American army. George Hubley was one of the first appointed Captains
of the German Battalion. He received his commission on July 12, 1776.
It is probable that he had previous military experience and that he had
taken an active part in recruiting enlisted men for the Company which he
commanded. He served as leader of his Company with distinction during
the first year's fighting around New York City and in northern New
Jersey. He was promoted to the rank of Major on April 8, 1777. He con-
tinued to serve with the German Battalion and died in service on February
7, 1778.
In addition to Major George Hubley, both Captain Adam Huhley and
Captain Bernadd Hubley were officers of the German Battalion. The fourth
member of the family, Lieutenant Frederick Hubley, was Paymaster of
Thompson's Rifle Battalion and later Quartermaster of the First Pennsyl-
vania Continental Infantry.
Captain Charles Baltzell
Charles Baltzell was born in Alsace on October 15, 1737. He came to
America and settled near Frederick. Later he lived in Baltimore County.
He took part in the defense of the frontier against the Indians, after the
defeat of General Braddock. He was appointed 1st Lieutenant in the
German Battalion on July 12, 1776, and was raised to Captain on May 10,
1777. He was wounded at the Battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777, but
recovered and continued in the service with the Battalion until January 1,
1781 when the Battalion was retired. After the Revolution Captain Baltzell
returned to is Maryland home. He died at Woodstock in Baltimore County
on December 31, 1813.
Captain Jacob Bonner
Jacob Bonner (Bunner) of Philadelphia was appointed Captain on
July 12, 1776 when the German Battalion was organized. He served in
that capacity throughout the War, retiring on January 1, 1781.
[34]
Captain Michael Boyer
Michael Boyer is said to have been born in Baltimores County. The
name is spelled variously as Boyer, Bowyer and Bayer, the last-mentioned
being the orignal name. He served as an officer of the German Battalion
throughout its entire period of service. He was commissioned as 2nd
Lieutenant on July 12, 1776, raised to 1st Lieutenant in November, 1777,
and promoted to Captain May 25, 1778. He retired January 1, 1781. The
Boyer or Bayer family has had many descendants in both Maryland and
Pennsylvania.
Captain Peter Boyer
Peter Boyer served in one of the Pennsylvania companies of the German
Battalion. He was probably a brother or cousin of Captain Michael Boyer.
He was appointed 1st Lieutenant on July 12, 1776 and promoted to Captain
June 20, 1779. He retired January 1, 1781. After the Revolution he lived
in Philadelphia.
Captain Henry Fister
Henry Fister, probably of Baltimore County, was appointed Captain of
the German Battalion on July 12, 1776. Many of the men in his Company
were from Baltimore County. After serving in the first year of the War,
he resigned, probably as a result of wounds or ill health, on April 7, 1777.
Captain Samuel Gerock
Samuel Gerock was the son of the Reverend Johann Siegfried Gerock,
pastor of Zion Lutheran Church in Baltimore. He volunteered early in
the war and was appointed 1st Lieutenant in the German Battalion on
July 12, 1776 in the company commanded by Captain George Keeport.
He served in that rank until July 1, 1777, when he was raised to the rank
of captain. In November 1777 he left the battalion and was appointed
quartermaster to the state hospital. However, he held that office less than
a year. Although a state document refers to him as "a person that has
fought Bravely in our Service in the Beginning of the War," Captain
Keeport reported to the Council that Samuel Gerock had stolen eleven
barrels of powder. Gerock was given a discharge which included the
statement, "that he has behaved with very great Impropriety." Later
Gerock was arrested in Frederick under the suspicion of trading with the
enemy. He remained in the Frederick jail for three months until his widely
respected father secured his release on the promise of guaranteeing his son's
further conduct. The charges were never heard in court afterward and
were evidently suppressed.
Pastor Gerock's patriotism was beyond doubt throughout the war
years. Another son of his, George Gerock, was Captain Keeport's supply
assistant for the procurement of munitions, equipment and food.
Captain Philip Graybill
Philip Graybill of Baltimore County was appointed Captain of the
German Battalion on July 8, 1776. He is credited with having recruited
the equivalent of two companies in and about Baltimore. He served for
two years and resigned March 12, 1778. His family, originally named
Krähenbühl, came from Emmenthal in Switzerland.
[35]
Captain Adam Hubley
Adam Hubley received his commission in the German Battalion on
October 27, 1776. His service with the Battalion was brief. He was trans-
ferred to the 10th Pennsylvania Regiment on December 6, 1776 and
promoted to the rank of Major. He became a Lieutenant Colonel and on
February 13, 1779 he was assigned to the 13th Pennsylvania Regiment.
He retired from the service on January 17, 1781 and died in 1793.
Captain Bernard Hubley
Bernard Hubley was probably the youngest of the three Hubleys to
serve as officers of the German Battalion. He began his career with the
Battalion as a First Lieutenant on August 12, 1776. After a year and a half
with the Battalion he received his Captain's commission on February 24,
1778. He continued in service with the Battalion until it was disbanded on
January 1, 1781. He died in 1808.
Captain George Keeport
George Keeport (the name was originally Kühbord) was a native of
of Baltimore County. His family was a prominent one in business and
in the affairs of the German Reformed church. He began his military
career on January 4, 1776 as one of the lieutenants in the Seventh Company
Baltimore County. When plans were formulated for organizing the German
Battalion, he was largely instrumental in enlisting men, many of whom
were from Baltimore County, and made up his Company. He received
his Captain's commission on July 12, 1776. Captain Keeport led his men
in the battles around New York City and Brooklyn in late 1776 as well
as in the battles of Trenton and Princeton in the winter of 1776-1777.
He resigned his commission on May 4, 1777 and retired to his home in
Baltimore for the purpose of becoming supply officer and purchasing agent
for the Continental Army. He opened his office in Baltimore City and was
successful in obtaining much needed supplies for the Army. He succeeeded
in obtaining guns, ammunition and powder for the armies of General
Washington, much of which was manufactured by German artisans of
Frederick County, Maryland. In addition, he furnished large quantities of
horses, tents, shoes, as well as meats, flour and beans. A report of the City
published in 1779 described the manifold activities of Captain George
Keeport and praised him for the efficient manner in which he conducted
his business.
After the war, Keeport was one of the most outstanding merchants of
Baltimore. His substantial home, built after the Revolution, was a land-
mark at the southeast corner of Pratt and Charles Streets. It was originally
in an area where the well-to-do merchants of Baltimore resided, and was in
existence until it was demolished in 1973 for the Harbor Center Develop-
ment of Baltimore.
Captain William Keyser
Captain Wiliiam Keyser was probably born in Frederick County. He
was appointed Captain of the German Battalion on July 12, 1776. The
men making up his Company were mostly from Washington County,
Maryland. Captain Keyser served for two years and resigned May 21, 1778.
[36]
Captain John Lorah
John Lorah of Frederick County, Maryland began his military career
as a 2nd Lieutenant of the Frederick County Flying Camp in June, 1776.
Shortly thereafter he was transferred to the German Battalion, becoming
a 1st Lieutenant in the Company of Captain Graybill on July 12, 1776.
He was in active service in this capacity in the first year of war. On May
28, 1777 he became Captain and Commanding Officer of his Company,
continuing as such until the end of the winter of 1777-1778. He resigned
his commission, probably on the grounds of ill health, on February 28, 1778
and retired to Washington County, Maryland, where he lived for the
remainder of his life.
Captain Christian Meyers
Christian Meyers was one of the officers who served with the German
Battalion throughout the Revolutionary War. He began his career on
July 12, 1776 as 2nd Lieutenant in the Company commanded by Captain
Graybill. His record of steady promotions indicates that he was an
excellent officer. On May 12, 1777 he was promoted to 1st Lieutenant
and nearly a year later on March 12, 1778 he became Captain and Company
Commander. He continued with the Battalion in this capacity for the
remainder of the War. He was retired when the Battalion ceased its
existence on January 1, 1781.
Captain Frederick William Rice
Frederick William Rice (Reiss) was one of the Pennsylvania officers who
served with the German Battalion throughout its entire existence. On
July 12, 1776 when the Battalion was organized he was commissioned as
1st Lieutenant, which would indicate that he had had previous military
experience. He served through the Campaigns of 1776 with distinction
and was promoted to Captain on January 4, 1777. He continued as Captain
and commanding officer of his Company until January 1, 1781, when the
Battalion was disbanded and its officer retired. He lived in Lancaster in
his later years. He died at Kensington, Lancaster, Pennsylvania in January,
1805.
Captain Philip Schraeder
Captain Philip Schraeder, whose name also appears as Shrader and
Shrawder, was one of the original officers of the German Battalion. He
began his service as 2nd Lieutenant on July 12, 1776. After the first year's
campaigns, he was promoted to 1st Lieutenant on May 17, 1777, and
raised to the rank of Captain on February 8, 1778. He retired when the
Battalion ceased its existence on January 1, 1781. He is said to have been
especially skilled in Indian warfare, and upon his retirement he became a
Captain in the Pennsylvania Rangers and spent the next two years safe-
guarding the Pennsylvania frontier. In his later years, Captain Schraeder
lived in Philadelphia, where he died in 1828.
Captain Benjamin Weiser
Benjamin Weiser was a descendant of the Weisers, a pioneer family of
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Weiser was active in recruiting men for
Company, and on July 12, 1776 was commissioned Captain of a company
composed mostly of men from Lancaster County. According to Heitman,
[37]
Captain Benjamin Weiser was cashiered on October 31,1776 for misconduct
at Montressor's Island. The offense probably consisted of failure to restrain
his men from looting the farmers of the island. After the War, Captain
Weiser resided at Selingsgrove, Pennsylvania.
Captain John David Woelper
John David Woelper (Welper) was appointed Captain of the 3rd
Pennsylvania Battalion of Militia in January 1776, and was commissioned
Captain of the German Battalion July 17, 1776. His Company was the
Ninth Company of the Pennsylvania Regiment and was composed both
of Marylanders and Pennsylvanians. He served with the Battalion for the
next two years. On June 11, 1778, as a result of wounds suffered in battle,
Captain Woelper was transferred to the Invalid Regiment. He continued
in the service until April 23, 1783.
1st Lieutenant Jacob Bower
1st Lieutenant Jacob Bower or Bauer of Pennsylvania was appointed
one of the 1st Lieutenants of the German Battalion on July 12, 1776. He
was transferred to Ottendorff's Battalion on April 9, 1777, and later was
an officer in Pulaski's Legion.
1st Lieutenant Paul Bentalou
Paul Bentalou was born in France and became an officer in the French
Cavalry. In August 1776 he arrived in Philadelphia and went to the head-
quarters of General Washingtin and offered his services. Washington
informed Bentalou that he had no need for cavalry officers. According to
his autobiography, Bentalou then offered to serve in any capacity, even
that of private in the Continental Army. Impressed by Bentalou's devotion
to the cause of freedom, Washington on September 25, 1776 assigned
Bentalou to the German Battalion with the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. On
June 21, 1777 he was advanced to 1st Lieutenant. As he still desired to
serve as a cavalry officer, he resigned his position with the German
Battalion on December 10, 1777, and on April 12, 1778 he received his
commission as Captain of the 1st Cavalry in Pulaski's Legion. Captain
Bentalou retired from Continental service on January 1, 1781. He spent
his later years in Baltimore, becoming one of its leading citizens.
1st Lieutenant Jacob Cramer
Jacob Cramer probably of York County, Pennsylvania, served as an
officer of the German Battalion throughout the entire period of its exis-
tence. He was appointed Ensign on July 8, 1776 and was named 2nd
Lieutenant on May 15, 1777. He was promoted to 1st Lieutenant on
February 8, 1778, probably at Valley Forge, and continued to serve until
the Battalion was disbanded on January 1, 1781. Thereafter Lieutenant
Cramer served for several years as an officer of the Pennsylvania Rangers,
protecting the frontier against the Indians. The Cramer family has been
prominent for generations both in York County, Pennsylvania, and in
adjacent areas in Maryland.
1st Lieutenant Jacob Grommet
Jacob Grometh or Grommet served with the German Battalion through-
out its entire existence. On July 1 1776 he was commissioned as Ensign
[38]
in Captain Henry Fister's Company. He was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant
on May 12, 1777 and advanced to 1st Lieutenant on January 4, 1778. He
retired January 1, 1781 when the Battalion was disbanded.
1st Lieutenant George Haubecker
The name is also spelled Hawbecker. George Haubecker, one of the
Pennsylvania officers of the German Battalion, was appointed 2nd Lieu-
tenant on July 12, 1776 and promoted to 1st Lieutenant on August 10,
1777. He resigned in January, 1778 possibly because of ill health.
1st Litutenant Jacob Kotz
Jacob Kotz, sometimes called Kortz, became 2nd Lieutenant in Captain
William Heyser's Company on July 12, 1776 and was promoted to 1st
Lieutenant on September 25, 1776. He served with the Battalion in that
capacity until April 8, 1778, when he resigned and returned to his home
in Western Maryland.
1st Lieutenant Frederick Rohlwagen
Frederick Rohlwagen, whose name is also spelled Rowlwagen, one of
the Pennsylvania officers, was one of the original officers of the German
Battalion. Heitman states that he was cashiered on April 15, 1777, but
gives no further details of his career.
1st Lieutenant Christopher Gottfried Schwartz
Christopher Gottfried Schwartz was one of the Pennsylvanians serving
with the German Battalion throughout the War. He was appointed Ensign
July 12, 1776 (Heitman says 19th) and raised to the rank of 2nd Lieu-
tenant on May 14, 1777 after the first year of service. He was promoted
to 1st Lieutenant on February 12, 1778, and retired when the Battalion
was disbanded on January 1, 1781.
1st Lieutenant Martin Shugart
Martin Shugart was appointed Ensign of Captain Graybill's Company
from Western Maryland, on July 11, 1776. He was probably related to
Lieutenant Zacharias Shugart of the Pennsylvania Battalion of the Flying
Camp, who was taken prisoner at Fort Washington on November 16, 1776.
Ensign Martin Shugart of Maryland was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant on
November 15, 1777, and after spending the winter at Valley Forge, was
promoted to 1st Lieutenant on May 25. 1778. He continued in service with
the Battalion until its dissolution on January 1, 1781.
1st Lieutenant John Weidmann
John Weidmann of Pennsylvania was appointed 2nd Lieutenant of the
German Battalion upon its organization in July 1776 and was promoted
to 1st Lieutenant on May 15, 1777. Lieutenant Weidmann was taken
prisoner at the Battle of Brandy wine on September 11, 1777. This ended
his active military service. He remained in British custody until December
30, 1780 when he was exchanged. He was decommissioned or resigned
January 1, 1781 when the Battalion was discontinued in service.
[39]
1st Lieutenant Marcus Young
Marcus Young (Jung) of Pennsylvania enlisted as a private when the
Battalion was organized in July 1776, and during the insuing campaigns
displayed abilities which caused him to be advanced to corporal and then
to sergeant. On June 8, 1777 he deceived his 2nd Lieutenant's commission,
and ths following year on March 12, 1778 was promoted to 1st Lieutenant.
He continued to serve with the Battalion until it was disbanded January
1, 1781.
2nd Lieutenant Christian Helm
Christian Helm of Pennsylvania was appointed Ensign in the German
Battalion on July 12, 1776. He was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant on May
13, 1777. He was taken prisoner at Fort Washington, but later was ex-
changed. According to Heitman he was superceded September 12, 1777.
2nd Lieutenant Jacob Laudermilk
Jacob Laudermilk was commissioned as Ensign of the German Battalion
on November 19, 1776 and was assigned to the Company of Captain
"William Heyser. He was an able officer and was promoted to the rank
of 2nd Lieutenant on May 13, 1777. He resigned his commission on April
8, 1778, probably for reason of health, after enduring the hardships of the
winter at Valley Forge.
2nd Lieutenant John Lindenberger
John Lindenberger a Baltimorean and member of Zion Lutheran
Church, was appointed Ensign in Captain George Keeport's Company,
which was largely composed of officers and men from Baltimore County.
He served with the Battalion throughout the first year of the Revolutionary
War. In April 20, 1777 Lieutenant Lindenberger was transferred to the 4th
Continental Artillery (Maryland) with the rank of 1st Lieutenant. He
continued in service until his resignation on February 3, 1779.
2nd Lieutenant David Morgan
David Morgan of Frederick County, Maryland, began his long career
with the German Battalion as an enlisted man. He became a Sergeant in
the Company commanded by Captain William Heyser on November 5,
1776.
He received his officer's commission the next year on August 13,
1777,
with the rank of Ensign. The following year when the Battalion was
reorganized after the winter at Valley Forge, Morgan was promoted on
April 8, 1778 to 2nd Lieutenant.   He continued in service until the exis-
tence of the Battalion was terminated on January 1, 1781.
2nd Lieutenant George Schaffner
George Schaffner of Pensylvania, was one of the original officers of the
German Battalion, appointed Ensign July 12, 1776. He served with the
Battalion for only a short time. On February 4, 1777 he was transferred
to Lieutenant Paul Schott's Company of Ottendorff's Battalion. On
February 8, 1778 he became a Captain of the 3rd Company of Count
Pulaski's Legion. Heitman states that Schaffner subsequently was advanced
to the rank of Major, but gives no date for either such promotion nor
for the date of Schaffner's separation from the service.
[40]
2nd Lieutenant Adam Smith
Adam Smith (Schmidt) was one of the original Maryland officers in
the German Battalion. He was made 2nd Lieutenant in Captain William
Keyser's Company on July 12. 1776. This Company was made up largely
of men from the area of Washington County, Maryland. Lieutenant Smith
resigned May 4, 1777.
Ensign Paul Christian
Paul Christian was commissioned as Ensign in the German Battalion
on July 12, 1776. He was assigned to Captain William Heyser's Company
of men from Western Maryland. His service was of short duration. He
resigned his commission, probably for reasons of health, on November 8,
1776.
Ensign George Cole
George Cole of Baltimore, where his family was active in Zion Lutheran
Church, began his military career as a corporal in the Company of Captain
George Keeport. He served as a non-commisioned officer of the German
Battalion until August 17, 1777, when he received his Ensign's commission.
He resigned June 2, 1778 and returned to Maryland, where he died on
May 21, 1828.
Ensign David Diffenderfer
David Diffenderfer of Pennsylvania enlished as a private in the German
Battalion on August 25, 1776. He was promoted to corporal on December
1, 1776. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of Monmouth on May 10,
1777 but later released and rejoined the Battalion on April 24, 1778.
He became a commissioned officer when he was made Ensign on July 23,
1778. He resigned and retired from the service on June 23, 1779.
Ensign Christian Gleckner
Christian Gleckner began his career in war as a non-commissioned
officer, when he was appointed on July 12, 1776 as a sergeant of one of
the Pennsylvania Companies of the German Battalion. He continued with
the Battalion throughout its existence. After two years of service, Gleckner
received his commission as Ensign on July 23, 1778. He spent the next
two years with the Battalion, guarding the western frontier against the
Indians. He continued in the service until the Battalion was disbanded on
January 1, 1781.
Ensign Henry Hain
Henry Hain, probably of Baltimore County, began his long career with
the German Battalion on July 18, 1776 as a private in the Company com-
manded by Captain Henry Fister. He was advanced in rank each year.
On March 1, 1777 he became a corporal and the following year, on June 12,
1778, he became a sergeant. He received his commision as Ensign of his
Company of the German Battalion on July 23, 1778. He spent the next
year with the Battalion, protcting the frontier against the Indians. He
resigned on June 20, 1779.
Ensign Henry Maag
Henry Maag was a sergeant in one of the Pennsylvania Companies of
the German Battalion, appointed July 10, 1776. He received his commis-
[41]
sion as Ensign on August 15, 1777 and continued in service for the next
two years. According to Heitman, he was cashiered on March 26, 1779.
Ensign John Machenheimer
John Machenheimer, of Frederick County, Maryland, began his career
with the German Battalion as a non-commissioned officer on July 19, 1776,
when he was appointed Sergeant in the Company of Captain Graybill. He
received his Ensign's commission on August 8, 1777. He resigned and
returned to his home on May 31, 1778.
Lieutenant John Stricker
Lieutenant (later General in the War of 1812) John Stricker was born
in Frederick County, Maryland in 1752. He was the son of Colonel George
Stricker. At the outbreak of the Revolution, he was appointed as Cadet
in the German Battalion, serving in the company of Captain Philip Graybill
at the Battles of Long Island, Harlem Heights, White Plains, Fort Washing-
ton, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth. After
the Battle of Trenton he was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant placed in charge
of Hessian prisoners. He conducted them to the prison camp at Frederick.
Thereafter he was transferred to the 2nd Pennsylvania Regiment, and later
to the 3rd Pennsylvania Regiment. He took part in the campaigns of
General Sullivan against the Indians.
After the war Stricker engaged in business in Baltimore. Stricker or-
ganized a company of Baltimore Militia and in 1794 took part in the
suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania. In 1801 he was
appointed Naval Agent for the Port of Baltimore.
At the outbreak of the War of 1812, as General Stricker he became the
commanding field officer of the Maryland Militia for the defense of
Baltimore. He was in command of the American forces at the Battle of
North Point, September 10-12, 1814, when his men successfully withstood
the attack of 5000 veteran soldiers.
In later years he was a member of the City Council of Baltimore, but
declined to run for the United States Senate. Stricker Street in Baltimore
City is named in his honor. He was instrumental in reorganizing the
German Society of Maryland in 1817 and was one of its vice-presidents
until his death. He was an Original Member of the Society of the Cincin-
nati, which was formed by officers of the Continental Army, first of the
Pennsylvania Society, later transferring his membership to the Maryland
Society of the Cincinnati. He died in Baltimore on June 23, 1825.
Ensign William Trux
William Trux or Truax was probably from Baltimore County, Mary-
land, as he enlisted as a private in the German Battalion in the Company
commanded by Captain George Keeport on July 21, 1776. He was raised
to the rank of sergeant on March 1, 1777 and was promoted to Ensign
of his Company on July 25, 1778. He continued in service as an officer
of the German Battalion until his resignation on July 1, 1779.
SPECIAL BATTALION OFFICERS
Adjutant Ludwig von Linkensdorf
Count Ludwig von Linkensdorf was one of the officers sent by the
Prussian General Staff to observe the North American war. As he was
[42]
desirous to go beyond mere observation, he was assigned to the German
Battalion by order of General Washington on August 9, 1776. He served
as its Adjutant throughout all its campaigns. He resigned his post and
returned to Europe in June 1779, when the active duties of the Battalion
were terminated.
Paymaster Michael Eberhardt
Michael Eberhardt of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, was the pay-
master of the German Battalion. He was appointed paymaster on July 12,
1776 and served until his health failed. He died at Lancaster on July 16,
1778. After his death the duties of paymaster were performed by Colonel
Ludwig Weltner, or by various officers under the supervision of Weltner.
Quartermaster Jacob Meil
Jacob Meil of Pennsylvania was the first quartermaster of the German
Battalion. He was assigned to that position on October 24, 1776 and
continued in such duty until he retired in July 1778 and was succeeded
by Jacob Rayboldt of Maryland.
Regimental Quartermaster Jacob Raybold
Jacob Raybold of Maryland, probably of Baltimore County, became
Quartermaster-Sergeant of the German Battalion in July 1778, the previous
Quartermaster, Jacob Meil, having resigned. Quartermaster-Sergeant Ray-
bold received his Ensign's Commission on July 24, 1778. Six days later,
on July 30, 1778, Ensign Raybold became the Regimental Quartermaster
of the German Battalion. He served the Battalion in such capacity until
its dissolution on January 1, 1781, when he retired.
Surgeon Charles Ritter
The first Surgeon of the German Battalion was Dr. Charles Ritter of
Baltimore County. He acted as Battalion Surgeon during the most impor-
tant compaigns in which the Battalion participated. He resigned his
position in August 1779 and returned to his home in Maryland.
Surgeon Peter Peres
Dr. Peter Peres of Philadelphia, succeeded Dr. Charles Ritter as Surgeon
of the German Battalion. He was appointed Battalion Surgeon on Septem-
ber 1, 1778 and served until the Battalion was disbanded on January 1,
1781.
Surgeon's Mate Alexander Smith
Dr. Alexander Smith of Baltimore County was the Surgeon's Mate of
the German Battalion. He was appointed August 1, 1778 and served until
January 1, 1781 when the Battalion was terminated.
NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES
OF THE
MARYLAND COMPANIES
In the early stage recruiting for the German Battalion was restricted
to German-speaking men. The case has been cited of one James Fox, who
was enrolled by eager George Keeport but wo had to be transferred to
another unit "not being a German or the son of a German could not serve
[43]
in that Regiment." George Washington expressed his satisfaction with
the recruiting activities of the officers when he reported to Governor Lee
that the German Battalion had enlisted 1074 men by July 1776.
No complete muster roll has been found. Together with the church
records of the many Lutheran and German Reformed congregations in
Maryland, such a roll would provide genealogists with as complete a roster
of colonial German settlers and their sons as possible. In the absence of
a complete listing for a given date, a reproduction of lists contained in
Archives of Maryland, XVIII, 261-8 must suffice to do credit to the
sergeants, corporals and privates who made the German Battalion the out-
standing fighting force it was in the face of so much adversity. The names
are given here as they appear in the official publication. The dualism of
spelling names practiced by most colonial Germans has not been taken
into consideration as the anglicized form was used in all public records.
Valuable additional information on many Maryland members of the
German Battalion is contained in Harry Wright Newman's Maryland
Revolutionary Record (Washington, 1938) among the 3050 pension claims
listed.
Roll of Capt. Henry Fister's Company.   In the German Battalion.
Commd. by Col. Nicholas Hussecker. 1776.
Lieut. Charles Balzel
"     Michael Bayer
Ensign Jacob Grommet
Sergt. John Balzel, recommended
                by the Major & Capt.
"     Philip Shroop
"     Philip Shopper
Sergt. George Wintz
Corpl. George Hoover
"    Fredk. Wilhite
"    Jacob Tudderow
"    Jacob Low
Drummer John Heffner
Privates
Henry Delawter
Htnry Hawk
Fredk. Mittag
Jacob Fantz
Peter Copple
Jacob Kuntz
John Ridenhour
Willm. Snider
Adam Froshour
Christn. Sheafer
Leonard Everley, absent
John Wachtel, Dis. 24 July
George Studdlemier
Philip Colour
Valentine Shotter
Henry Ziegler
Jacob Tabler
Mathias King
Jacob Miller
Philip Isingminger
John Leather
Henry Hildebrand
Anthony Miller
Jacob Farber
Michael Moser
Privates
Lud wick Visinger
Jacob Hammer
Martin Watkins
Nicholas Frye
Jacob Weaver
Jacob Eggman
John Beckerson
George Clinton
Christopher Slender
Michael Beiker
Anthony Hamilton
Jacob Sheafer
Adam Charles
Abraham Fettie
John Imfeld
George Shrantz
Adam Smeltzer
John Bird
Gottlieb Klein
Peter Graff
John Ringer, absent
Jacob Croumer
Philip Stouder
Peter Hoover
Privates
Peter Americk
Conrad Houseman
John Klein
Henry Hain
Jacob Kurtz
John Zimmerman
Henry Smith
Adam Gentner
Henry Cronies
Leonard Ludwick
John Snider
Henry Herring
Peter Kuntz
Justinius Hogshield
Edward Robertson
John Shatz
Michael Stiener
John Able
Michael Shoemaker
Frederick Henninghouse
Thomas Polehouse
Bartle Engel
John Klein
John Miller, absent
[44]
Pay Roll of Capt. Michael Bayer's Company in the German Regi-
ment, Continental Troops in the United States. Commanded by Lt. Col.
Ludwick Weltner. For the months of July, August, September and October,
1779.
NAMES                       REMARKS
Capt. Michael Bayer, (Boyer)
Sergt.  -----  -----            Promoted Aug. 1st
  "      -----  -----            Dischd.        "    9th
   "      -----  --nley             "         July 20th
Corpl.   -----  Polehouse   Promoted Aug. 1st
   "       ----k Shoemaker         "              "      "
   "       ---rew Robinson Dischd. July 20th
  
"     John Hoshield         "         "   24th
   "     John Shotz               "          "      "
Drum. Thomas Hatchcraft
   "      Henry Ferrins
        Privates
Thomas Mahony 
George Kepphard
Peter Kuntz
Abraham Kettle
Henry Fisher
John Foliott                Joined Oct 10th
Owen Curley
Charles Fullim
James Johnson
------
Wade
------
Mallady
------  ----rd
  -----  -----                  Deserted Augt 35th
Edward Robinson       Dischd. July 20 
NAMES
REMARKS
Privates
Ludwick Wesinger
Rudolph Marolf
Jacob Miller, Jr.
John Abel
Adam Gantner
Jacob Miller, Sr.
Jacob Cramer
Leonard Ludwick
Michael Shoemaker
Peter Emerick
Henry Herring
Michael Moser
Henry Cronise
Phillip Fisher
John Snider
John Wachtel
Phillip Strider
Jacob Riggnagle
Casemar Hill
Conrad Housman
Michael Stoner
William Taylor
John Zimmerman
John Cline
Peter Hewer 
Dischd.
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
July
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
Oct.
"
"
"
"
20
"
"
"
"
"
"
24
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
26
"
"
12
"
"
"
"
Bartle Engle 
Died Aug 6 
Muster Roll of Capt. Geo. P. Keeport's Compy. of the First German
Battalion Continental Troops. Commanded by Colonel Nichs. Husacker.
Philadelphia, Sept. 19th, 1776.
ENLISTED
.
NAMES
.
1776
July   8
12
"
"
July 15
30
Aug. 19
"
July 15
19
21
"
15
"
"
Michael Grosh 
George P. Keeports, Capt.
Saml. Gerock, 1 Lt.
Willm. Ritter, 2 "
John Lindenberger, Ensign
Jacob Smith, 1st Serjt.
Henry Speck, 2nd "
John Keener, 3rd Serjt.
Christa. Kearns, 4th "
George Cole,             1st Corpl.
Fredk. Moppes,       2nd   "
Ulrich Linkenfetter, 3rd   "
Philip Bitting,           4th   "
Benja. England, Drummer
         Privates
Michael Brubacher
ENLISTED
.
NAMES
.
1776
17
"
20
21
"
"
"
"
28
Aug   1
3
5
"
Jacob Wagner 
Privates
Michael Dochterman
Christa. Settlemires
Peter Kries
Jacob Koefflich
Adam Markel
David Streib
Joseph Carrol
David Levy
Willm. Trux
John Capes
John Trux
Jacob Bigler
Jacob Burk
John Weller
Gotfried Loure
[45]
ENLISTED
.
NAMES
.
1776
6
Peter Bast
Aug   7
Jacob Stein
8
John Schorcht
9
Christa. Lichte
10
George Schlesler
"
Danl. Fuhrman
11
Henry Traut
"
Jacob Shütz
14
Peter Hahn
19
George Miller
25
Peter Anckle
5
Jacob Wink
"
Danl. Boechler
ENLISTED
.
NAMES
.
1776
12
John Harring
18
John Franken
July 15
John Cole
21
Adam Schaeffer
"
Mathias Schreier
"
Conrad Reitz
"
John Brown
"
Fredk. Mongoal
23
John Bauer
26
Conrad Boehm
28
John Miller, sick
30
Phillip Boehm
"
John Smith
Roll of Capt. William Keyser's Company.  Dated October 23rd, 1776.
William Keyser, Captain.
Jacob Kottz, 1st Lieut.
SERGEANTS
David McCorgan, (recomd.
by Maj. & Cap.)
Jacob Hose
Daniel Taquet, (or Jaques)
Jacob Miller
Adam Smith, 2nd Lieut.
Paul Christman Ensign.
CORPORALS
.
Andrew Filler
Phillip Reevenach
Barnard Frey
William Lewis
Privates
Peter Sheese, Deserted
Henry Stroam      "
Adam Stonebreaker
John Fogle
Jacob Klein
George Miller
Phillip Fisher
Jonathan Hecket
Henry Tomm
Jacob Hoover
Michael Gambler
George Harmony
Thomas Clifton
Micgael Boward
Henry Wagner
John Crafft
John Shoemaker, Deserted
Mathias Gieser
Mothias Dunkle
Frederick Filler
Christian Sides, Deserted
John Kibler
Stuffle Wagner
Jacob Heefner
Conrod Hoyle
Balsor Fisher
Privates
John Smith
Michael Weaver
Jacob Belsoover
John Rothe
Wentle Strayly
John Flick
John Mettz, Deserted
Henry Michael
George Riggleman,
Deserted
Nicholas Baird
John Hottfield, Destered
Jacob Greathouse,   "
George Buch
Stuffle Reever
George Wise
John Michael
John Robertson
Adam Lieser, Deserted
Robt. Hartness,   "
Henry Benter
John Armstrong
Simon Fogler
Jacob Grass
Phillip Smithly, Deserted
George Wilhelm
Privates
James Duncan
John Beecher
Fredk. Switzer
Jacob Fowee, Deserted
Thomas Burney,    "
John Itnier
Phillip Greechbaum
Jacob Bishop
Alex. Sailor
Martin Pifer, Deserted
Peter Gittin
Frances Myers
Melcher Benter
Tobias Friend, Deserted
Jacob Heefner,        "
John Smithley,"
Everhard Smith
Godfrey Young
Frederick Locher
Michael Yeakly
James Furnier
Henry Queer
Henry Statler, Deserted
John Cropp
Pay Roll of Lt. Col. Weltner's Company in the German Regt, of the
Continental forces of the United States. Commanded by Lt. Col. Ludwick
Weltner, for the months July, August, Sept and Oct, 1779.
[46]
DRUMS
.
& FIFES.
George Gittin, Drum
Jacob Gittin, Fife
NAMES
.                   
REMARKS
.
Capt. Philip Shrawder
Serjt. William Lewis       Disd. July 16th
  "     Jno. Danl. Jacquet   "     "   26th
  "     Jacob Hose               "      "     "
Corpl. James Smith       Promd. Aug 1st
  "      John Michael       Disd. July 16th
  "      John Brucher         "       "   17th
  "      Adam Stonebreaker "       "   26th
  "       Bernard Frey         "       "     "
Drum. Moses McKinsey
  "     Joshua McKinsey 
ENLISTED
.
NAMES
.
Privates
Michael Gambler
James Ashley
William Pointer
Jacob Mosen
Jonathan Hackett
Henry Straam
James Duncan
George Wilhelm
Melcher Benner
Fredrik. Schwidzer 
Deserted Aug 25th
Disd. July 17th
"     "   16th
"     "   17th
"    “  "            
"     "   16th
NAMES
.
REMARKS
.
NAMES
.                  REMARKS
Privates
Michael Yockley
Conrod Hoyle
John Fliet
Fredrik. Filter
Michl. Weaver
James Forney
Jacob Beltzhoover
John Groop
George Getting
John Hatfield
Henry Michael
Thomas Clifton
John Craft
Francis Gavin
Jacob Kline
John Kebler
Mathias Keiser
John Armstrong 
Dischd. July 17th
             "                 “   
       “             20th
        “             26th
"                 “  
"                 "
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “
"                 “ 
 
Privates          Dischd.  July  26
John Etnier               "                   "
Jacob Bishop              "                   "
Chris. Raver               "                   "
Philip Fisher               "                   "
Fredk. Locker             "        Aug. 9
Alex. Taylor                "                   "
Patrick Fliming           "                  "
George Regliman        "        Oct. 12
Henry Stalter              "                   "
Christopr. Waggoner  "                   "
John Smith                 "                   "
Henry Benter             "                 "
Philip Smithly             "                   "
Jacob Heefner             "                   "
John Smithly              "                    "
Jacob Haver                "                   "
Henry Quier                "        July 29 
A Roll of Capt. Philip Graybell's Company.  1776.
ENLISTED BY CAPT. GREYBELL.
Ferdinand Lorentz
Philip Miller
Henry Millberger,  (Mill-
burger)
Jacob  Freymiller,   (Fry-
miller
James  Cappelle, (Caple)
John Rick
Lorentz Kneary
Jacob Etter
Peter Baker
Rudolph Crower
Adam Rohrbach, (Rohh-
baugh)
Rowland Smith
John  Shriock, (Shryock)
William Rommelsem,
Serjt.
Jacob Striter
Martin Lantz
John Hearly,  (Harley)
Wilfgang Ettsperger
Christopher Regele, (Regle)
Frederick Wm. Haller
John Moore
Wendell Andrews, (An-
dreas)
Michael Kearshner
Wolfgang Ettzinger
John Shaffer
David Mumma, (Muma)
Abraham Frantz
Frederick Weger
Henry Hartman
Wendel Lorentz
Jacob Hartenstein, (Har-
denstein)
William Altimus
Jacob Burke
Jacob Kintz, (Keintz)
George Rittlemyer
Philip Kautz
Jacob Myer, (Myers)
John Shlife
John Machenheimer, Sjt.
George Stauffer, Corpl.
Gottlieb Danroth
Lorentz Danroth
Henry Decker
Jacob Hoffman
Charles Zarrell
Charles Charles
Joseph Procter
Joseph Braeter
Christian Apple
George Myers, (Myer)
Henry Willsdaugh
George Lighthauser, (Leit-
hauser)
Joseph Smith
Henry Wilstock
Henry Rumfeld
George Hyatt, Fifer
[47]
ENLISTED BY LIEUT. JOUN LOHRA,  (LORAH).
Thomas  Kimmel, (Kem-
Jacob Miller                         Henry Hargeroder, (Herge-
mell)                                 Frederick Heller, Serjt.            roder)
Anthony Miller                   Andrew Gorr, (Gore)            Michael Growley
Joseph Hook                      William Speck, Corpl.          Frederick Sollers, Corpl.
Jacob Miley
                          Nicholas Frey
ENLISTED BY LIEUT. CHRISTIAN MYERS.
Jacob Kerns, (Kearns)
Jacob Ruppert                       William Litzinger, Serjt.
Simon  Rinehart, (Rein-
Nicholas Keyser                    Fredk. Downey, (Tawney)
hart)
John Welty                            William Cunius, (Cunnius)
Mathias   Boyer, (Byer),    John Summers                       James Smith
Corpl.                              Michael Huling                     Peter Finley, Drummer
                                       John Eyssell
ENLISTED BY ENSIGN MARTIN SHUGART.
John Smith
William Kraft                       Henry Smith
John Bartholomew Deitch,         Joseph Williams                   John Stricker, Cadet
(Dych)
Henry Spengle                        Peter Segman
A List of Recruits belonging to the German Regiment.   Commanded
by Lieut. Colonel Weltner.  White Plains, Sept. 5th, 1778.
NAMES.                      TIME OF SERVICE.     NAMES.TIME OF SERVICE.
Johns Kendrick
3 yrs           William Johnston                       do
James Champness
War            John Richards                             do
George Buch
3 yrs           Albert Hendricks                      9 mos
Adam Mussler
do             Philip Bates                                 do
William Vincent
do             George Arnold                            do
Stepen McGrough
do             Adam Mattrit, fifer                 War
William Neving
War           Michael Smith, drummer       War
James Woolford
3 yrs           John Malady                              do
James Stiles
War            Thomas Mackall                         do
Pearer Batolomey
do             Charles Fulham                          do
Richard Hazlip
3 yrs           John Hughmore                          do
Robert Porter
do             Thomas Hutchcrofft                   do
William Mummard
War            John Wade                                  do
Hugh McKoy
do             Alexander Smith                         do
John Ammersley
do             Frederick Shoemaker                 do
John Stanton
do             James Johnston                           do
John Bennet
do             Casimir Hill                              3 yrs
John Roach
do             Tomas Mahony                           do
Benj. Elliott
do             John Smadern                             do
Cornelius Quinlin
3 yrs           Jacob Dolton                              do
Philip Fitzpatrick
9 mos          John Timhen                               do
Francis Carns
3 yrs           Michael Hardman                       do
Charles Jones
War            Henry Ferrins                             do
Samuel Barts
War            James Dyer                               3 yrs
Mathias Smith
do             Henry Fisher                               do
William Rider
do             Jacob Alexander                          do
William Malinia
do             Christian Kepplinger                9 mos
Benj. Cole
do             Philip Kinkel                              do
Timothy Cahill
do             Thomas Polehouse                      do
Robert Smith
do             Abraham Miller                          do
Cornelius Vaughan
do             Bernhard Ridenhour                  do
James Murphy
do             Levy Aaron                               3 yrs
Christian Castner
do             Moses McKinsey                         do
William Pope
do             Joshua McKinsey                       do
John Fennell
do             Jacob Moser                                do
[48]
NAMES.                      TIME OF SERVICE.NAMES.                    TIME OF SERVICE.
Jacob Kauffman                        3 yrs
Richard O'Quin                        War
Thomas Proctor                          do
James Ashyey                             do
Richard Gaul                               do
James Smith                                do
John Shivey                                 do
Thomas Rowlands                    9 mos
Thomas Halfpenny                     do
George Bantz                              do
REMARKS.
Thomas Hazelwood                  War                 on Furlough
Richard Hopkins                      9 mos                died 7 July
Christn. Mumma                        do                   Died July 27th, '78
William White                           War
Was a Deserter from Carolina
James Connoway                      3 yrs                 Ditto of Coy. Chambers
Thomas Holdup                       War                  Ditto of Carolina
Mathias Custgrove                  3 yrs                 Deserted
John Waldon                               do                             ditto
Andrew Shuler                          War                            ditto
John Stout                                   do                              ditto
Robert Barnet                             do                   sick, absent
George Kephard                        3 yrs                  Deserted
Edward Connoly                         do
     Taken by the Virginia Artillery
Frederick Stone                           do
Given up to the Laboratory
John Weeguel                              do                    Left at Frederick Town
MISCELLANEOUS.
Jacob Myers, Discharged 20 July
Peter Bartholomay
Henry Smith,          "         15 Aug                          Albert Henricks
David Mumma,     "         20 Puly                          Thos. Mahoney
Corpl. Wm. Krofft, "         26     "
Chris. Mummard
John Emersly                                                          Thos. Machall
Adam Musler
                            Jas. Tomey, Discharged July 26
John Henrick                                                          John Viebler
Stephen McGraw                                                    John Weegul
Hugh McCaw, (or Koy)
ENLISTMENTS FOR 3 YEARS, ALL, IN CAPT. MICHAEL BAYER'S COMPANY.
Edward  Bairford,  Enlisted  June  19th,   Dineas Doron, (Dinnis Dorah), Enlisted
1780.  Joined the Regiment at North-          June 26th, 1780
umberland
     George Silver, Enlisted March 31st, 1780
Michael Rightmyer, (Right Myer), En-   John Rogers     " April 10th, 1780
listed Feb. 1st, 1780
       John Nevet,     " April 13th, 1780
Charles Lago, Enlisted April 1st, 1780
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES
The German Battalion has received very inadequate attention in the
past. The data necessary to compile the present article had to be gathered
from a great variety of sources. Some of it was found in formerly private
collections now part of the records of the Society of the Cincinnati in
Maryland and of the Society for the History of the Germans in Maryland.
Much of the basic information about creation, recruiting, organization
and composition of the German Battalion was located in the official
state publications of the archives of Maryland and Pennsylvania. In the
Archives of Maryland the pertinent source material is found mainly in
volume XVIII but also in volume XVII.
[49]
Particular thanks are due Colonel Rieman Steuart, for many years
Secretary, and now Secretary Emeritus,of the Society of the Cincinnati
in Maryland. He compiled a list of officers of the German Battalion from
the records of that society. His work The Maryland Line in the Revolu-
tionary War proved invaluable.
F. Millard Foard, Esq., a friend of the writer, also contributed greatly
to the compilation of the history of the German Battalion, especially in
the matter of reconciling conflicting data and evaluating data drawn
from many sources.
Among related works, the following were consulted in the preparation
of the manuscript:
Berg, Fred Anderson, Encyclopedia of Continental Army Units
(Harrisburg, Pa., 1972).
Cunz, Dieter, The Maryland Germans (Princeton, N. Y., 1948).
Heitman, Francis B., Historical Register of Officers of the Continen-
tal Army (Washington, 1914).
Nead, Daniel W., The Pennsylvania Germans in the Settlement of
Maryland (Lancaster, Pa., 1913).
Richards, H. M. M., The Pennsylvania Germans in the Revolutionary
War (Lancaster, Pa., 1908).
[50]