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1908-1909 Meeting Minutes

[MS988 Box 4, Book 5]


The 625th Meeting. [Oct. 6, 1908]

The 625th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, October 6th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This was the October Salon, and the opening meeting of the season of 1908-1909. The musical programme was under the direction of Miss Annie Hollins, Chairman of the Committee on the music of the Salon. We were given a Piano Recital by Miss Hollins, assisted by Miss Bash.

The President, Mrs. John C. Wrenshall, called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of May 26th, 1908. The President announced the subjects of the programmes for the remaining meetings in October: --On the 13th, Poetry, Miss Lizette Reese, Chairman; on the 20th, Current Topics, Mrs. Frederic Tyson, Chairman; on the 27th, Fiction, Mrs. Percy Reese, Chairman. The President also announced that the Programmes of Topics and Committees for the coming year were on her table ready for distribution to the members. The book, also, containing the programmes of the Club meetings since its beginning was open for reference to those who would like to trace its history and progress for the more than eighteen years of its existence.

Mrs. Wrenshall also read a letter to herself


from our honorary member, Miss Alice Fletcher, who has entertained us on several occasions. She is a fellow of Harvard College, and an authority on the aborigines of our land, not only from historical studies, but from personal observation of their life and characters. She has also been doing good work for the National Museum. Miss Fletcher, in sending us her greetings, spoke of her interest in our Club and its work; and her wish that she might sometimes leave her desk in Washington to attend our meetings.

We then enjoyed the first article of the programme: a Duo, a Waltz by Moszkowski [Moritz], played by Miss Hollins and Miss Bash. This was followed by two solos: Chopin's "Nocturne," Opus 9, No. 2; and Raff's "Etude Melodiane," both played by Miss Hollins. The third number was "A Rhapsodie" by Andreas Hallen, a Duo, given by Miss Hollins and Miss Bash.

The next article of the programme was the "Address" of the President. Mrs. Wrenshall gave a happy greeting to all her fellow members, congratulating us on the mental purpose and stability of our more than eighteen years that have brought their own reward. We are so busy in this twentieth century that we undertake too much; but here we have a quiet corner


for rest, recreation, intellectual progress, and congenial development. In our roll call we find a good number who were with us in our early days, and are with us now; though some have passed away and some for good reasons have been obliged to resign, but often leaving with us the memory and inspiration of their high ideals and achievements. Mrs. Wrenshall recalled the names of Mrs. Colvin, graduate of the University of Zurich; Miss Alice Twight from the Sorbonne; Miss Goessmanna [Goessman], Mrs. Elizabeth Brown Davis, whose work at the National Observatory at Washington was used for National Almanac by the United States Government, and Miss Fletcher, among others. The more than eighteen years have meant much to all of us; we have made roads for ourselves and walked and worked together. Mrs. Wrenshall went on to speak of a corner of the world she visited some time ago, Devonshire in England. She traced the evolutions of the prehistoric ages, the days of the glaciers and of the granite boulders. Then of the hills and ravines where soil was formed and the birds brought seeds. Then of the primaeval people who have left their strange records in the caves with their rude implements of the stone and bone. The early inhabitants had no paths but stumbled and lost themselves


in the morasses and hollows. But the trees came and the rude huts of clay, and they found the art of pottery which gave them their most precious possessions. Soon the broken fragments were strewn from hut to hut and made paths for the people, the shining ways through the darkness that became roads to better and higher things leading up toward the beautiful homes of the noble people of to-day. So, she said, we are building our shining ways of our precious possessions—our time and our thoughts. Let us make our best better still; let us command our time and do justice to our Club. Let us shed light on the paths for leading ourselves and others to higher levels than we have ever known before.

At the close of Mrs. Wrenshall's address, Miss Hollins gave us a solo: Bendel's "Cascade du Chaudron." This brought out such enthusiastic applause that Miss Hollins gave us a solo, Rubinstein's "Romance." The last article was a Duo: Scharwenka's "Polish Dances," played by Miss Hollins and Miss Bash.

The President thanked Miss Hollins and Miss Bash for their beautiful musical entertainment. The meeting adjourned.

Refreshments were served by the House Committee, and a social hour followed.


The 626th Meeting. [Oct. 13, 1908]

The 626th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 13th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman of the Committee on Poetry.

The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 6th. The President announced a change in our programme of Topics and Committees for the coming year. Miss Henderson had been appointed Chairman of the Committee on the Authors and Artists of Maryland. But as Miss Henderson expects to be out of town she will not be able to attend our meetings regularly; she has resigned her chairmanship. Mrs. Wrenshall said she took pleasure in announcing that Mrs. Charles W. Lord had concented [consented] to take the chairmanship of the Committee on the Authors and Artists of Maryland. Notice was given of the resumption of the meetings of the Committee on Essays and Essayists under the chairmanship of Mrs. Sidney Turner.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Lizette Reese, and was on Elegiac Verse. Miss Reese spoke of the world old grief for those loved and gone before us. 


In the earliest literature it finds expression in the cry of Rachel for her children, and the lament of David for Johnathan. She quoted from the old Greek poet Callimachus the elegy on his lost friend. She reviewed Milton's "Lycidas" written in 1637 on the death of his friend Edward King, in connection with Matthew Arnold's elegy whose subject was Arthur Hugh Clough. She said there was really no comparison between Milton's lofty rhyme, rich organ tones and trust in immortality, and Arnold's half-sceptic, half-pagan poetic views of death. Each touches nature with a loving hand, but there is the difference between the glowing dawn and sad autumnal day. Miss Reese spoke of elegies on little children from Emerson's ["]Threnody["] to several little known and very beautiful memorial poems to fair young innocence and blighted earthly promise. She went on to the greatest of all elegies, Tennyson's "In Memoriam." To speak of this, she said, would be worth a whole afternoon from its grand beginning

"Strong Son of God, Immortal Love" on to

"The one far-off divine event

"To which the whole creation moves."


"Poem by Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud." Miss Reese announced that there had been a misunderstanding of the dates, and that Miss Cloud's poem would have to be deferred to a later meeting. In place of the poem Miss Reese gave her appreciative reviews of two new volumes of verse by two Baltimore poets. The first was "Narrative Lyres," by Mr. Edward Lucas White. Mr. White is a graduate of Johns Hopkins University, a well-known teacher, and a writer of stories and other articles in magazines and papers. Some of his narratives deal with the characters of the Old Testament, and he has the faculty of weaving a story around a small clew of facts. Miss Reese told of his poem about Benaiah, who was a Captain of King David's guards and who slew a lion in a pit in the time of [snow?]. Mr. White builds a story of motive, of tragedy and vengence [vengeance] around the mention of the slain lion. Miss Reese also read from Mr. White's forceful poem "The Last Bowstrings." It tells of the women in the beseiged [besieged] city who made bowstrings of their hair in the low stifling armory; "Where they could hear but could not flee

"The roar of that engulfing sea

"Whose waves were helmet-crested foes."

Toiling to save their:


"Home that already was their grave."

Miss Reese's second review was of the poems of H. Graham DuBois, a young Baltimorean who calls his book "The Soul of the Singer and Other Verses," dedicated to the late William Ward Crane. She spoke of these poems as simple, hopeful and real, with fine touch in them—something near and dear for nature, for life and spirit, and for all things that are beautiful. Miss Reese read from the poems of Mr. DuBois the one on "Dawn and Dark" (Birth and Death); and an exquisite poem of six lines called "Autumn," of which she said: "I think no one can do better than that."

The next article was by Miss Anne Cullington and was called "Four Poets." Miss Cullington's first review was of Earnest Reese, who was born in London in 1860, and was a mining engineer. There is the suggestion of a Welch strain in his writing, there is the Keltic ring, and sometimes the melancholy tones of departed glory. They seem to bring into modern London the mystic harpings of the bards of Merlin's time. They tell of the old melancholy jester coming to the gate of the gods too late, for now his only jest is death. In the poem "London Feasts" he tells of the dismal company that is going to them one after another; too late,


but still they come, though they cannot taste of the banquet. Miss Cullington spoke of the novel of the decadent of which we learn only the side of life that is sordid or emotional; and of the poems of the decadents in which we deal with the flesh and not spirits and sometimes it has been said we hear not a wail but a whine. She went on to speak of Earnest Doren, who died in 1890, who was not a dreamer but a child who clamored for the impossible, called his own weakness ill luck and took things at their worst; a sensitive, feeble soul. She spoke of his poem "The Last Word," which is Despair,--the cry of weak infidelity. A poet not clearer than Doren was Francis Thompson, the author of the "Hound of Heaven," his fanciful name for Conscience—or God. His words have rhythm and melody, but are only words. They are striking contrast to those of the great Hebrew Psalmist: "Whither shall I flee from Thy presence? If I ascend up into Heaven, Thou are there,--if I make myself in hell Thou are there also, &c."

We were brought pleasantly for the fourth poet to our own countryman Thomas Bailey Aldrich, born in New Hampshire in 1836, If not deep he was not shallow, and he polished even trifles to brightness. He was


happy and fortunate in life. He had the dramatic instinct but turned to verse kindly. He wrote various other things, but was a lyric poet. Miss Cullington quoted from his poems, and gave us his sentiment that, "For those who love the world is wise but not for those who hate."

The last article of the programme was "Poems by Miss Lizette W. Reese,["] read by request by Mrs. John C. Wrenshall. The first was "An English Missal," and the second was "Fra Gregory's Word to the Lord." The love of the illuminated pages; and the simple faith of the truly benevolent old brother's prayer seemed to bring down from mediaeval times the pious devotion that appeals to us truly still in our later days. The third poem was "Keats." Mrs. Wrenshall said she thought this poem ought to have its place on the fly leaf of the poems of Keats himself. Miss Reese's poem told of an English lad sitting reading a book, and seeing the borders of the Aegean Sea, hearing the purple waves lapping at his feet, listening to the gods of elder time thundering down from above. "An English lad, he rose and knew himself a Greek" The next poem was "As Cock Crow." The last was "The Shepherd." It took us to our own Druid Hill Park, where the Shepherd and his sheep give a Syrian look, and an old world


survival of the pastoral ages in our very modern life.

After reading these poems with true spirit and appreciation, Mrs. Wrenshall thanked Miss Reese and her Committee for the enjoyment of her programme, and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 627th Meeting. [Oct. 20, 1908]

The 627th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, October 20th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of Mrs. Frederic Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on Current Topics. The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 13th, 1908.

The President called the attention of the Club to our custom of decorating, on All Soul's Day, November 2nd, the graves of the "Authors and Artists of Maryland," under the direction of Miss Lizette Reese, and asked for co-operation in this beautiful work.

The programme called for "A Talk on Current Topics" by Mrs. Frederic Tyson. Mrs. Tyson spoke first of "Topics at Home." She did not dwell long upon the approaching


election, but called attention to the fact that the differences between the two leading candidates are made much more prominent than the differences between the two platforms, or those of the historic party principles.

She went on to the Panama Canal, which it had been expected would take thirty or forty years to construct it; but now it is believed will require only five or six years for its completion. She spoke of the wonderful sanitary arrangements on the Isthmus, changing a pestilential region to one so salubrious, that it is suggested for a health resort.

Mrs. Tyson spoke of the voyage of the great American Naval fleet which had been considered impossible, or at least hitherto unheard of. She considered it an object lesson appealing to the eye instead of the ear of every other nation visited, especially with regard to the Philippines and to Japan, teaching the present power and position of the United States.

She then took up the "Growth of American Nationalism." She described the want of unity in the thirteen Colonies after the war of the Revolution; the disagreements and even animosities of States and Statesmen. She told of President Washington's visit to Boston where the Governor of the State


gave out that he himself, being at the head of the great Commonwealth of Massachusetts, did not consider it his place to call on the newly elected President of the new United States. General Washington, who knew how to do the right thing, took the position that, as he represented the whole of which Massachusetts was only a thirteenth part, it was the Governor's place to come to see him, which the Governor and his staff soon did. The American idea of nationality is not, she said, like that of Greece or Rome; there is far more individualism in it. It works not entirely for the greatest good to the greatest number, but for the right of every man, woman, and child to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Our danger is that of running into the extreme of self-assertion. It is not strange that in foreign countries American children are apt to be considered little pests. But we are learning that each one of us is not one-half as important as we think, and more knowledge and experience must work the cure for old and young. She told the anecdote which Cicero related of himself: how in coming back from his very successful and reforming government in Sicily, he met people who did not know he had been there, or knew only of his appointment to the position.


Mrs. Tyson's next topic was "American Diplomacy." She said that a generation or two ago American diplomacy was unknown, and European diplomacy was supposed to consist chiefly in adroit lying. But now with our insistent Monroe Doctrine, with our protectorates, and connections in the South and the East, there is the need and the presence of a true and able diplomacy, of which she gave Secretary Root as the exponent.

Mrs. Tyson then spoke of "The Development of Canada." For many years Canada seemed to stand still; but of late there has been a great awakening, especially in the western part. The climate there is fine, and it is a wonderful wheat growing country. There has been a large emigration, and the government has given land to those who will occupy it. Many farmers of our own New England states have sold their home farms, and gone to take up the free lands in Canada; and after profiting by their productions, have sold them for high prices.

Mrs. Tyson next described the Aeroplanes and other inventions for the advancements which seem approaching for travelling through the air, and also on the land.

Mrs. Tyson next spoke of the "War


Cloud in Europe" reminding us of the lately declared independence of Bulgaria from Turkey. Bulgaria, once, she said, the bulwark of Europe against the Turks had when Europe was comparatively rude and uncultured received Greek civilization. But after the Turkish conquest the people had become dull and hopeless. Now, however, the aggrandizement of their ruler is in line with that of his people. She went on to tell of the antagonisms and jealousies which keep alive the fear of an outbreak of war in Europe.

Her next topic was "China" and the rumors of her wish for an "American Aliance." She combatted the impression that the people of Japan are superior to those of China. The Japanese, she said, though a brilliant race, are superficial,--the Chinese are more solid. The Chinaman will hold to his word; the Japanese will lie and cheat. China has now cause for gratitude to the United States for the return of the excess of an indemnity exacted from her after the Boxer troubles. The allied armies then claimed remuneration for the losses of their citizens which was paid. But the United States considered the indemnity excessive, and proposed to refund a large part of its own


portion, which has increased the popularity of our nation, of course.

Mrs. Tyson next gave a rapid review of some new books. Among others she spoke of "Cousin Cinderella," a story of an American girl in London; of "Peter," by F. Hopkins Smith; of "Thou Fool," by [J.J.] Bell; "The [A] Spirit in Prison," by [Robert] Hichens; and "The Testing of Diana Mallorey [Mallory]," by Mrs. Humphrey Ward.  The last, she said, has the doctrine which we find in many English books, that self-sacrifice and self-effacement belong to woman alone. She spoke of the novels of the present day as given much to psychical dissection. She spoke highly of Senator Beveridge's new book, "The Americans of To-day and Tomorrow."

The President thanked Mrs. Tyson for her instructive and suggestive "Talk." She said we were to have the great pleasure of meeting now our member Miss Duvall, who, though living elsewhere is still one of us. The meeting adjourned, after which Miss Duvall received the glad welcome of her fellow-members.



The 628th Meeting. [Oct. 27, 1908]

The 628th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 27th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of Mrs. Percy M. Reese, Chairman of the Committee on Fiction. In the absence of our President on account of affliction in her family, the Second Vice-President, Mrs. Alan P. Smith, called the meeting to order, and presided. The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 20th.

Mrs. Smith announced that on the following Monday, November 2nd, All Souls' Day, Miss Lizette Reese and Mrs. Thomas Hill, joint Chairmen of the Committee on the Decoration of the Graves of the Artists and Authors of Maryland, would be in our assembly room between two and three p.m. to receive flowers and greens, and to take them to the cemeteries where those honored Marylanders are buried.

Our much[-]valued member and Director, Miss Virginia Cloud, who had not been able to be with us since last winter, came to greet her fellow members, and was by them received with great pleasure. She said she


had missed us very much; and could now only run in for a moment to give her love to all of us; and to say "Good bye" for the present.

Mrs. Smith then announced the subjects of the programmes for our meetings in November: On the third by the Committee on Foreign Travel, Mrs. Atwater, Chairman; on the tenth, Art, Mrs. Wylie, Chairman; on the seventeenth, Current Criticism, Miss Latane, Chairman; on the twenty-fourth, Colonial and Revolutionary History, Mrs. Thomas Hill, Chairman.

The first article of the programme was given by Mrs. William M. Smith, and was called "The Promise." It opened with the familiar scene of a mother and her grown son sitting together, the former knitting and the latter reading his Bible, and breaking the silence with a somewhat hilarious tribute to the young Jacob as a fine foxy fellow who got even with his father-in-law Taban, after serving fourteen years for the wife he wanted. Hiram's mother knew well that her son was thinking of his own seven years' long waiting for the woman he loved, who was spending her young life in caring for her sick mother,


utterly refusing to be married while this duty continued. An any remonstrance from his own mother met the assertion that Mary was the only girl in the world for him. Still when death came to remove the reason for waiting, apparently, both mother and son felt pangs of conscience for wishing this death, and possibly thereby hastening it. When without unseemly haste Hiram goes to press his suit, he finds that a promise had been exacted from Mary not to marry while her old bachelor uncle James should need her care. No lover's pleading, nor the anger of a patient man could avail against Mary's promise to her dead mother made on the Bible. Then Hiram's mother takes up the case; and engages the interest of the uncle himself with regard to it. But his conscience makes him confess, sadly, that he is only sixty-one, of a long-lived race, with a good appetite, and comparatively good health, not even taking cold easily. One afternoon she brings about Hiram's taking Mary to a fair, and then with the coast clear she goes to remind the old gentlemen of his youthful love affairs, telling him that Sophy or Sarah she felt sure would be willing to marry him. But one is not to his taste in temper, nor


the other in looks. He says that the latter could not hold a candle to herself when they were both girls, and soon reaches the point that Hiram's mother is handsome as she ever was to him. When the young people come back from the fair they find the old ones sitting on a porch together in a radiant state of happiness, which they explain by saying; "We were married this afternoon." And the young ones answer, "So were we."

The next article of the programme was by Mrs. Robert Bowie, and was called: "The Fragonard." Mrs. Bowie spoke of the charm of the old city of Verona, where commonplace objects seem to take on the air of unreality, and in modern life there is the impression of antiquity. The writer goes from this environment to be the sole guest of an old palazzo, where the Countess to whom the estate belonged, being unavoidably absent, an old care-taker is acting as groom, butler, and general manager. After the dinner served in a room full of somber green tapestries the visitor took up a Book of Hours, and found inscribed on a marked page the soliloquy of a despairing soul going from Life's dreams into dark oblivion. The vast sleeping-room was


lighted by tall candelabra on both sides of the bed. The remarkable thing in the room was a picture, a Fragonard, signed by that painter of French courtaceen [courtesan]. But this picture was a landscape and portrayed perfectly the beautiful Italian scenery around the palazzo. The guest awoke before morning to find a wild storm all around the old building. The first look at the Fragonard showed a wonderful change from the peaceful beauty of the afternoon. The sky was [s]tormy, the trees rocking, and there seemed a convulsion of nature all over the picture. Through all of this a heavy sigh made itself heard. The awakened sleeper sprang out of bed to see if it was the effect of imagination, but it seemed real by the evidence of the senses. Two years afterwards came another visit, this time to the Countess at her villa, on the anniversary of that stormy night. The guest spoke of having tried to believe her experience a dream. The Countess said, "It was not a dream." She then told the story of one hundred years before, about two brothers, one handsome and attractive; the other just the reverse, but both loved the same young lady. The girl preferred the penniless younger brother. The lovers were married and left the palazzo to live elsewhere; while the elder


brother, heir to the title and estate, shut himself up, refusing companionship, especially with the two whom he would not forgive. At last he relented, and sent for the young pair, who gladly accepted the invitation. But when nearly arrived they were, during a storm, robbed and murdered by bandits. In his remorse the elder brother caused the picture to be made before he died. And now on the anniversary of the tragic fate of the lovers the spirit of Danilo is believed to wander back to his home, while the picture reproduces the storm in which Pietro & Anastasia were killed.

The last article of the programme was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was called: "The Other Side." Miss Reese's article was the expression of the opinions of her cousin Augustina on the novels of the present day. "If I am ever allowed to vote," she says, "it will be for the return to the Catechism. I want to vote for this because of the writers and readers of the novels whose heroes and heroines are "The Elementals." These books tell us of the woman who sweetly tears the Ten Commandments all to pieces; and describe, for instance, the community in which every man has had "a past." They need a double dose of Catechism. I suppose there are such


things in real life; yes, as there are poisons and more in real life, but there they are called their right names. The Elementals present Virtue in the guise of a prig. They are also given to suicide and murder, and we make the acquaintance of an extensive list of criminals. ["]Is this life?" asks Cousin Augustina. The prehistoric Elemental had, perhaps, morals as scant as his clothes, but the modern one, though he knows more about bath tubs, etc., seems on some lines not very far above his hairy brother. These books may be written with grammar and literary style, but they have no sense of perspective, no right seeing. They have no comprehension of love as a sacred thing.

The presiding officer thanked Mrs. Percy Reese and her Committee for our very interesting afternoon's entertainment, and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 629th Meeting. [Nov. 3, 1908]

The 629th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, November 3rd, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of Mrs. A.P. Atwater, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Travel.


The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 27th.

The President called for the Report of the Committee on Decoration of the Graves of the Authors and Artists of Maryland. Mrs. Thomas Hill joint Chairman with Miss Lizette Reese of this Committee responded. She said the Committee of which [Miss] Nicholas, Miss Davis, and others are members, decorated twelve graves in Greenmount cemetery, one in Baltimore cemetery, and sent wreaths to honor other Marylanders. The grave of Edgar Allan Poe was decorated by Miss Schnauffer, who agreed to act in place of Mrs. Percy M. Reese. Miss Schnauffer succeeded in having the wreathes placed on the grave and on the tombstone of the poet. Acknowledgement was made of the contributions of flowers from the members of the Club.

The President read a list of the authors and artists of Maryland whom we commemorate yearly on the second of November, and especially those who had been members of our Club.

The first article of the programme was given by Mrs. Wrenshall Markland; and was on the "National Animal Pets of Europe." Mrs. Markland spoke of the donkeys met


everywhere in Italy, and of the names often given to them; such as Jerusalem, or Michael Angelo. She made us pleasantly acquainted with the virtues and graces of the owner of the latter distinguished name, whose picture she took in Naples. She told of the caged wolves in Rome, recalling the memory of the wolf nurse of Romulus and his brother; and spoke of the traditions and the historical events in which the symbol of the wolf is linked with the life of the "Eternal City." She went on to speak of the pigeons of Italy, especially of those who congregate around the great square of St. Mark's in Venice, to the number of a thousand or more. She told of the English tabby cat, wise as a Sphynx, large but not lazy, resting with a lordly air on window sill or hearthstone, and seeming quite capable of dying for king or country. In England there is the pet donkey, also. She told of the well one hundred and sixty feet deep at Carisbrooke Castle on the Isle of Wight where the donkeys who draw up the water stand each waiting for his turn, seeming to have perfect appreciation of the business on hand. She spoke of the raven, so well[-]known to song and story; and related a pleasant legend of a castle in France where the ravens were


the good fairies of the little children.

The next article of the programme was by Mrs. G. Lane Tannyhill [Taneyhill], and was called "How We Entered Pekin." Mrs. Tannyhill [Taneyhill] showed us the flag of China with the dragon upon it; and also some models of the dress of Chinese men and women, noting the difference in costumes in the north and in the south of the country. She described the slow journey by steamboat of herself, her parents and sisters from Korea,--the country of which she told us many interesting things—some time ago to China. She described their arrival at Tientsin, the nearest port to Pekin. But the bar, the accumulation of silt of centuries, obliged them to wait for the tide to rise so that they could go over the rampart of mud. After some interesting descriptions and references to historic events, Mrs. Tannyhill [Taneyhill] told of their landing and entering the train of cars to go to the long[-]forbidden city. But they were stopped by a sea of dried mud, and placed in different vehicles, carts and Sedan chairs, even her smallest sister went alone. The progress was slow and they soon found themselves in the midst of a Chinese mob. The people took up and through [threw] at them what looked like rocks. But the missiles were dried mud and


lime lying around a building in course of erection nearby. She thought that if she were killed she would prefer not to be disfigured, and tried to save her face from injury. Her chair was damaged but she was not physically hurt, though one of the gentlemen of the party had two ribs broken and his face cut. The crowd were not all assailants, there were spectators, but in China it is dangerous to help anyone who is assaulted. If you save a life you are considered responsible for the support of the rescued one, as foreigners have to be inconveniently aware. Mrs. Tannyhill [Taneyhill] said, that while she thought herself doomed to death she was composed and quiet, but when help came by the police sent by her father who had arrived in Pekin, she became badly frightened and excited. The little child sister was the next arrival and reported that her mother and sister were murdered. Though this was a false alarm, and though the family all at last entered Pekin really unhurt, they for a time did not like to talk of their journey thither.

The last article of the programme was given by Miss Nellie C. Williams, and was called" "From a Traveller's [Traveler's] Note Book." Miss William's "Notes" began on the North


Sea, and described her landing at Antwerp. She and her friends were glad to find that the Belgian police and custom house officers understood their brand of French, and answered politely in an excellent one of their own. Later on, however, in enquiring their way of strangers, they generally found themselves told wrong, apparently, until they discovered that while Belgian officials and educated people understood French, the populace talk a composite language called Flemish or Walloon. Antwerp was of great interest with its wonderful cathedral showing the greatest two of the pictures of Rubens,--the Elevation of the Cross, and the Descent from the Cross; in which is felt the glory of the Divine presence. She spoke of the sea wall built in the seventeenth century, the longest in the world. Antwerp was once the rival of Venice but wars and changes of government have destroyed its commercial prosperity. Miss Williams went on to Holland, to the Hague, called the cleanest capital in the world. They enjoyed the chocolate and saw the chocolate girl in her own environment. She described Scheveningen, a fashionable watering place and also a fishing settlement of very little houses. She told of the great sea walls that keep Holland from becom-


ing mere swamps instead of rich pasture lands, fertile plains. At Amsterdam the canals, she said, are much cleaner than those of Venice. She saw the making of cheese and [a] factory containing, she said, the Waldorf Astoria of cow houses, which were palatial. In the island of Marken among the fishermen's houses, they were surrounded by tall boys of seven or eight, who essayed conversation with the Americans, and asked if they came from New York; also if they knew a man named Roosevelt, who was a good friend to them. One of them whose name sounded like Hooly Groot, said he hoped to come to live in America. She wished him good luck in his intention to come and live under the star spangled banned.

The President thanked Mrs. Atwater and her Committee for the programme which had taken us to Pekin, to Holland, and elsewhere also. She announced that we can expect to have the pleasure of our honored first President, Mrs. Turnbull, at our next meeting.

The meeting was adjourned.


The 630th Meeting. [Nov. 10, 1908]

The 630th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, November 10th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of


Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of the Committee on Art, Mrs. R. M. Wylie, Chairman; the subject being "The Art of Poetry," and the special theme, "The Poetry of Sidney Lanier.["]

The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 3rd. The President announced that the Board of Management had concluded to have a series of evening meetings for the Club and its guests once a month with musical and literary entertainments, followed by an hour of social enjoyments. The members would receive notices by post cards, as in former years.

[The President read a notice of a concert to be given by the Philadelphia Orchestra on November 23rd, at the Lyric for the benefit of the Maryland Society for the Protection of Children.]

The programme began with an article by Mrs. John C. Wrenshall, called "Personal Recollections of Sidney Lanier." Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of the interest felt in Sidney Lanier here in our own city, where he lived in his later years, and much of his literary work was done. She spoke of his personal acquaintance with the two Presidents of this Club; Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull, and herself. She


was glad to have known him well; to have learned to recognize his genius, his heroic life struggles, his faith and clear vision, and to follow sympathetically his literary career, through the years of its growth and development. She told of his early life, and of his devotion to music, especially his early inspiration from the music of Nature, and his interpretation of the notes in which she spoke to him. She went on to his coming to Baltimore in 1873, to her own long friendship with him. She told of his friendship with Mr. Hamerick and his work in the Peabody Orchestra, especially the music of his flute of which he made so much there and elsewhere. She described his lectures on Elizabethan poetry in 1878, at the home of Mrs. Edgeworth Bird, and the introduction of musical illustrations, the singing of old songs by a class of young ladies. She told of his lectures on English Literature at the Johns Hopkins University, well remembered by all of us who heard them. Mrs. Wrenshall brought before us Sidney Lanier's poems with full appreciation, her quotations were rendered with the spirit and the understanding of one who had known his living presence and the friendship he inspired. Mrs. Wylie, Chairman of the programme,


thanked Mrs. Wrenshall for her fine article.

The next article was on "The Art of Sidney Lanier." This was read by request, having been originally written by Mrs. Turnbull for an English publication, a collection of the writings of "American Poets." Mrs. Turnbull made a graceful reference to the especial friendship enjoyed by herself and her family with Sidney Lanier. He had called her husband his brother, and was always a welcome guest at her fireside. She described his last visit one Sunday afternoon in 1881, when he came to say "Good-bye" before going to North Carolina for improvement in health, which did not come, and from which he did not return alive. After he had gone she wrote a lovely poem of farewell and sent it to him. Though she did not see him again he sent word that he would write his answer, but that did not come. Mrs. Turnbull read her lines commending the loyal poet to the woods and free airs, to Nature's scents and sounds, where the brow, weary from the city's strain, might find rest with the large[-]hearted mother God has made to soothe us all, and dream of all things beautiful. After this fitting introduction Mrs. Turnbull read her article on "The Art of Sidney Lanier." She spoke of Art as standing for the poet as an inspira-


tion. The true poet goes out into the presence of Nature for the revelations long sought for, and whence the world knows not the inspiration comes, and they are recognized and given to his perception and interpretation. We read and listen and discover the singer whose words are lovely to the minds of men. Mrs. Turnbull described and quoted from the poems of Lanier dwelling on the message they bring to us. He was not, she said, a believer in the so called "Art for Art's Sake." He believed in the beauty of holiness, and the holiness of beauty, and it was said of him "he himself was his own best poem. He was a knight full of the true, old chivalry. He was lavish of his beautiful message. Through all his life-struggle he had won.

"God out of knowledge, and good out of infinite pain

"And sight out of blindness, and purity out of a stain."

He trusted to the love that can solve all the discords of life, and of faith. His art was to develop the newer and richer art between the extremes of Helraism and Hellenism, and he gave us a noble symphony that never loses the old in the new.

At the close of Mrs. Turnbull's fine tribute to her friend and the poet


the President expressed our appreciation, and declared the meeting adjourned.

A pleasant hour of tea and talk followed.


The 631st Meeting. [Nov. 17, 1908]

The 631st meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, November 17th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of Miss Lucy T. Latane, Chairman of the Committee on Current Criticism. The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 10th, 1908.

The President spoke of the musical entertainment to be given by the Club the next Monday evening, November 23rd. She expressed regret that it will take place on the same evening as the concert of the Philadelphia Orchestra for the benefit of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; but reminded us that having made all our arrangements with the artists who are to sing and play for us, we could not alter them. The President then spoke of our great interest in each other; and requested


that if any of us knew of a fellow member, at any time being sick or in affliction, she would be glad to have it made known to her by post card or otherwise, in order that the sympathy we feel may find due expression.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Latane, and was a review of the new novel by Mrs. Humphrey Ward; "The Testing of Diana Mallory." Miss Latane told us that in taking up a new novel by Mrs. Ward we know the circle of high life she will introduce us to; the English politics she will bring in; how she will arrange her characters; and we will find strong family likenesses to the actors in the former dramas she has presented to us. Miss Latane said that in this story of "Diana Mallory" and Oliver Marsham, it is really the man, Oliver Marsham, who is tested and found wanting. Diana is a charming English girl born in Barbadoes, and coming to England as a young woman. She is English to the extent of what is called "Jingoism." Mrs. Ward herself was born in Tasmania, and is English accordingly. We were told of Marsham's strong willed, aristocratic mother, who insists on the breaking of his engagement with Diana, when a dark story regarding her mother, hitherto unknown to her-


self, is made public. With the fear of injury to social prestige and political career, Marsham accepts the release offered him by Diana. But his friends grow cool to him, he is a failure in politics and discredited by his party. When disabled by an accident, and threatened by blindness, it is Diana alone, who is independent and happy, who can save for him anything from his wrecked life. Mrs. Ward, we were reminded, has no great originality in her plots; in three of her novels she acknowledges her indebtedness to the histories of real men and women. In "William Ashe" we recall Lord Melbourne's love story; in "Lady Rose's Daughter," Julie de L'Espinasse. "Diana Mallory" takes us back to Mrs. Ward's Marcella and Sir George Tressidy. Miss Latane said that reading one of Mrs. Ward's novels, her gratitude was of that sort defined as a lively sense of favors to come.

The next article was given by Miss Emily Paret Atwater, and was on "The Half-Way House," by Maurice Hewlett. It was read for her by her mother, Mrs. A.P. Atwater. Miss Atwater spoke of this book as being delightful, but not easy to analize [analyze]. It tells of an English clergyman and his family, and of a young nursery governess, who has many very pretty ways of her own, which make a lot of


trouble for the people around her. The good rector's brother, John Germaine falls in love with her, he being a widower without children, who had been unhappily married, an aristocrat, and having a very high ideal of the home and the home life he craves for himself. He marries Mary, the nursey governess, with the opposition of his brother, and to the disgust of his sister-in-law, and he is woefully disappointed. The girl, we were told, is feminine but not womanly, not really sensual but dominated by sex. Mary does not love him and after her first sense of gratitude wears off she is indifferent to him. She has some mild flirtations, such as sometimes seem to be allowed to in English society to married women. Another man appears who might have done much real harm but for the presence of still another, an excentric [eccentric] gentleman tinker, whose tinker's cart is the "Half-Way House." He has given up his patrimony on account of advanced opinions, and his cart stops for the mending of a few pots and pans whenever food, etc. are necessary to him. He has travelled and he paints pictures, and for love of Nature he brings strange plants and sets them out in lawns and gardens he finds in his wayfaring. Without particularly making love to Mary he opens her eyes to the beauty of the world


around her. And it is he, who when she is about to slip over the boundaries of society, gives her the good counsel to go back home, and she goes. To her husband on his death-bed, she makes a characteristic sort of confession, though there has been no real wrong in action, and we are left to imagine the future of the owner of the roving "Half-Way House," and the possessor of the many pretty ways. There is, we were told, no morality in the story, though much artistic merit. There is the meeting of different forces and the ensuing result. Its meaning apparently is: Be happy,--morally, if you can,--but be happy.

The next article was by Mrs. William M. Smith, and was on "The Shadow World," by Hamlin Garland. Mrs. Smith spoke of the modern nineteenth century Spiritualism in its development from the old ideas of the supernatural and the ancient superstitions. She told of late publications, especially those of Sir Oliver Lodge, speaking for the Society of Psychical Research, with regard to the treating the supernatural from a scientific point of view. Mr. Garland is a writer of fiction, and the wide field of the novelist is opposed to the slender one of the scientist. His assertions that he tells perfectly true stories of the "Shadow


World" may not be absolutely convincing. He lays stress on the unreliability of the ordinary professional medium. He describes many, many manifestations of spiritualism, more or less remarkable and interesting, with incidents more incredible sometimes than the stories of Gulliver or Munchausen.

After Mrs. Smith's interesting quotations and criticisms, we were given various theories regarding telepathy, astral bodies, etc. Mr. Garland tells us of the earnest search for a scientific basis for all psychic phenomena. He then develops largely the sub-self. To this it is easy to ascribe many things, though not all our psychic conundrums.

At the close of Mrs. Smith's entertaining review, the President, after expressing our thanks for the evening's entertainment, said that she had no doubt we would all anticipate with much pleasure the next meeting of Miss Latane's Committee in February 1909. The meeting was adjourned.


The 632nd Meeting. [Nov. 24, 1908]

The 632nd meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, November 24th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was


under the direction of Mrs. Thomas Hill, Chairman of the Committee on Colonial and Revolutionary History. The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 17th. The President read a notice of a lecture to be given before the Academy of Sciences by Dr. Rose Slaughter Morton of New York, on Saturday evening, November 28th, her subject being: "Medical Soldiers of the Common Good," at which the Club was invited to be present.

The President said that she took great pleasure in announcing that our First Vice President, Mrs. Jordan Stabler, had arrived in America, and that we can hope to welcome her among us again at our next meeting. Mrs. Wrenshall then announced the subjects of the programmes for the coming month: On December 1st, Foreign Languages, Mrs. Frederic Tyson, Chairman; on the 8th, Essays and Essayists, Mrs. Sidney Turner, Chairman; on the 15th, The Literature of the Bible, Mrs. Alan P. Smith, Chairman. On December 22nd the meeting will be omitted, being very near to Christmas. On December 29th, also, there will be no meeting, as our room will be placed at the disposal of the Academy of Sciences for the entertainment of the National Association for the Advancement of Science, who will


hold a session beginning on December, 28th as the guests of the Johns Hopkins University, and which will probably be attended by two thousand visitors to be entertained in Baltimore. The President said there will be, therefore, only three regular meetings in December; but we may have an open evening meeting near the middle of the month. She spoke of the first of this year's evening meetings on November 23rd recalling Mr. Paulsen's singing of the Russian Folk Songs, as full of strength and pathos, as unique and appealing.

Mrs. Hill, Chairman of the Committee of the afternoon, then spoke of the first article on the programme, which was given as a Recitation by Miss Josephine V. Fox, of the poem of "Tench Tilghman's Ride." But owing to a mistake or misunderstanding before the programme was printed, this poem would be read for us by Miss Fox. Mrs. Hill reminded us of the well[-]known lines by Longfellow on "The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere" in June, 1775, from Boston to Lexington and Concord, "When the fate of a Nation was riding that night." But she reminded us that another ride, as heroic was that of the Marylander, Tench Tilghman, night and day, from Yorktown to Philadelphia, to carry the Continental Congress the news of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis to


General Washington in October, 1781. This poem, she said, was written by an Ohio man, who has, however, caught the true inspiration of the brave rider and the ride. Miss Fox read with fine spirit and feeling the story of the ride through the Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania lands and towns with the call: "Cornwallis is taken, a horse for the Congress;" and the answering cry, "Thank God we are free!" It told, too, that in the old Quaker city the Liberty Bell sounded the glad news of a young nation of freemen.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Mary Forman Day and was called: "In Days of Old." Miss Day told of the olden time in our own State as unintentionally revealed by old letters, old wills etc., with their references, requests and bequests, which have survived the losses and decay of time and change. She alluded to the suggestions of the souls of things that seem to be in the old furniture; doors and walls still left to us. She told of one old Marylander who had his coffin built some time before his death, insisting on its being made of chestnut wood, with the ends open for his better escape from the powers of evil. Our ancestresses wrote to their fathers and brothers to purchase for them beaver hats, saddles, and copper


kettles, feathers and rings, giving an idea of the same every day work and play of old and new things. A letter from a sister of the first rector of old St. Paul's Church in our own city was of local interest. In one letter is much more politics than we might expect to find in a lady's letters. But it was written in Revolutionary days, and tells of the threats of Lord Dunmore to lay Baltimore and Georgetown in ashes, yet indicates some wise incredulity with regard to his making good his threats! This lady says she has been "mistook" in the character of a young candidate for "holy orders," as he drank too much, and had challenged another gentleman to fight a duel. A letter from Miss Mollie Fitz Hugh, written in 1792 discusses events and the affairs of her neighbors. She tells of the Reverend John Allen, who seems to have been remarkable for want of memory, forgetting among other things, his wife and his home. Miss Day regretted our having but few records of our forefathers, too many having left us only their names.

The last article was by Mrs. Edward E. Fayerweather, and was called, "A Portion of Maryland History During Our Revolution." We were reminded that though no Revolutionary battle was fought on Maryland's soil, the sons of Maryland fought with conspic-


uous valor on the battle grounds of the other colonies, and won their part in the final victory. Mrs. Fayerweather spoke of the determination of the English Government to tax the colonies after the "Old French War," a contest which had imposed an immense debt upon England. One of the first expedients was the Stamp Act, which the English Governor Sharpe found so unpopular that he was loth [loath] to attempt to inaugurate it. The English agent sent over to enforce it, Mr. Hood, fled from Maryland to New York. The Stamps were not landed and when the day came for the order to go into effect, the act was disregarded. A protest was sent to the English Parliament in which nine of the colonies united, and the act was at last repealed. Mrs. Fayerweather went on to speak of the tax on tea, which, though small, the colonies would not accept. She spoke of the "Boston Tea Party," the storing of the tea landed at Charleston in damp cellars, where it spoiled, and she dwelt particularly on the undisguised burning of the tea laded Peggy Stewart at Annapolis in October, 1774. She spoke of the part taken by Marylanders in the passing and making effective the Declaration of Independence, reminding us that there were eight of them


on the Committee responsible for it from our State, though only four of their names are to it. She told, too, of the work done by the women of Maryland for the soldiers of the Continental army.

Mrs. Hill gave us an interesting reminder of the Maryland Revolutionary officers who served, like General Washington without payment.

Miss Davis told of some old letters written by her great-grandfather telling of surveying done in the days when the young Washington was engaged in similar work.

The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, spoke of our great interest in Maryland history, and said she herself was born on Maryland soil, and spent on it the first six weeks of her life.

Miss Fox who had begun the programme was requested to close it with a recitation. Miss Fox gave us James Whitcombe Riley's poem, "A Life Lesson," "Don't Cry Little Girl, Don't Cry!" which was very acceptable to the Club, then she also recited from the same author "An Old Sweetheart of Mine," which was enjoyed and appreciated.

The President thanked Mrs. Hill, and also Miss Day, Mrs. Fayerweather and Miss Fox for the pleasure of our programme. She said


that she was glad to tell us that the daughter of Mrs. Powell, Chairman of our House Committee, who has been very ill, is now much better. She felt sure we would send our love and hope for further good news from mother and daughter.

The meeting was adjourned.


The 633rd Meeting. [Dec. 1, 1908]

The 633rd meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, took place on Tuesday, December 1st, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of the Committee on Foreign Languages, Mrs. Frederic Tyson Chairman. The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 24th. The President spoke of our hope to have our First Vice President with us, and our regret that she is unable to be with present. Mrs. Wrenshall, also spoke of having that day received a note from Mrs. Powell, Chairman of our House Committee, in which she writes of the strain and anxiety of her daughter's illness, and of her appreciation of the sympathy shown to her.

The first article given from the programme was by Miss Annie Hollins, and was


called "The Tarantula, A Comedy in One Act from the Italian of Albergati Cappaclli [Capacelli]" of Bologna. The characters are Giannicola Ragagni; Angiola, his daugher; Frederic and Alessio, servants; Valerio, lover of Angiola; the doctors; Cassia; Manua; and Acqua Fresca. The scene is laid in Taranto at the house of Giannicola. Giannicola has come to Taranto from Rome to receive an inheritance left him by his brother. Alessio, the servant, says it is the bequest of one miser to another. While examining the treasure room of the dead miser, the living one is bitten on the hand by, it is supposed, a tarantula. Being disabled and dismayed, he locks up the room and will let nobody have the keys. He had intended to give his daughter in marriage to another old miser, but that one had not dared to come to see them after the bite. In the meantime the household is suffering for money, and has no credit, this deficiency being part of the bequest of the unpopular deceased brother. But Valerio, the lover and beloved of Angiola, came from Rome and is the means of relief to the household, through the two servants. The three doctors are sent for and arrive. They see the patient, and retire to another room for consultation. Valerio, who has seen them coming, and observed their pompous posing, has retired to an adjoining room. The doctors talk


of foreign rumors, and public affairs, speak of their lucrative cases, one saying that cures give them fame but illnesses give the money. At last, finding time passing, one mentions the patient. Another says, "Of course he has been bitten by a tarantula, and there is an easy cure, but we will not mention that now. Let us write something." This they do, in Latin, receive their fees and retire, with the promise to return. Valerio comes from his hiding, and Angiola comes in full of anxiety for her father, but is delighted to meet her lover. The father comes, too, asking in distress and pain if he is to live or die. Valerio tells him that the three dignified gentlemen are only quacks, but that he knows of a remedy that will cure him. The distressed patient offers to give anything for the remedy, and the lover sends for musical instruments. First the soft tones of the flute are tried; then the violin with its sharper sounds; going on to the 'cello and the drum. The patient is excited, then begins to dance, more and more violently; others dance too and the patient at last falls to the ground exhausted, but cured. He is relieved from pain, his hand resumes its normal appearance. A servant comes in to say that all the spiders in the house have been dancing violently, and have all fallen dead. The relieved father thanks Valerio, and


commands his daughter to do so too. The lovers are united, and the curtain falls.

The next article given was by Miss Lilie [Lillie] Schnauffer, and was called: "German-American Poetry, from German Anthologies." Miss Schnauffer said that German[-]American Poetry is a subdivision of American Literature; though written in German, it is the work of naturalized citizens of the United States who have shared in the intellectual, spiritual and historical development of our country. Their translations have made American literature and ideals known to Germans in their own language. While, she said, there is no Shakespeare, and even no Schiller among these German-American poets, they can claim kinship with the classics. After speaking of the honorable past taken by Germans in the historical events of our country, Miss Schnauffer said that from 1675 to 1825 thousands of Germans emigrated to America because of religious disturbances in their homes. Therefore, their literature was religious chiefly, rather than of poetical merit. The only one of these writers mentioned was Franz Daniel Pastorius, founder of Germantown, Pa., to whom a monument has this year been erected. He was a judge, mayor, teacher and author in six different languages. From 1825 to 1840, owning to political troubles


at home, a large number of cultured Germans came to America. Karl Follen and Karl Beck were professors in Harvard College; Franz Lieber was a professor at Columbia College. From Frederick Munch, Miss Schnauffer gave her own translation of his poem "Courage Amid Gloom." Dr. Moritz Wiener, translator and poet was for many years a resident of Baltimore.

The German-American poets from 1848 to 1860 were familiarly known as the "48ers," owing to their having been active in the uprising of 1848 in Germany. This movement for Republican or Con[sti]tutional government originated in the University circles. The "48ers," she said, had sacrificed their homes and their careers for liberty, but losses, hardships and exile had not destroyed their ideals; and they argued that if our eyes were not intended to behold and enjoy beauty God would not have created the flowers in all their varieties; if our ears were not to be pleased with music, He would not have given song to the birds. They wrote their poems of nature, of happiness and of the grandeur of country and the liberty they had found in America. The so called "48ers" were the real creators of German-American Poetry. Some of them stayed in the large cities, but the majority chose the "Middle West," then the "Far


West" for their home. Miss Schnauffer translated from Caspar Butz, Edward Dorsch and Konrad Krez, and told of Mrs. Mathilde Anneke, heroine, teacher and poet. From Johan Stranbenmuller, who lived and taught in Baltimore, she gave us a graceful and well translated Serenade. Of these poets the one most identified with Baltimore was Carl Heinrich Schnauffer. She quoted from a memorial article by another German-American that, "Schnauffer was a lyric poet whose lines find a response in the heart of every reader, be the theme love, home or patriotism." His songs were sung by the Revolutionists, and encouraged them in prison when escaping from captivity, and in danger and destitution. He reached London, where through a friend he was engaged to revise the literary work done by the Queen's German husband, Prince Albert, who was fond of publishing articles under pseudonyms, and with great secrecy. Schnauffer arrived in Baltimore in 1851, and established a German newspaper. He was master of seven languages and had studied philosophy and political science at the University of Heidelberg. At the age of thirty-two he died suddenly of typhoid fever, mourned by Germans and Americans. Miss Schnauffer's quotations from her uncle's writings


showed in translation the spirit and inspiration of the poet. She went on to say that from 1885 to the present time thousands of Germans have emigrated to the United States, chiefly those seeing to improve their circumstances, but there were writers among them. She spoke of Amalie Von Ende who introduced a new form of the sonnet; of Eben [Carl Theodor] translator into German of Poe's "Raven;" of Knortz, a linguist in Chinese and American Indian tongues, who has pointed out Longfellow's misuse of Indian words; of Edward Leyh, translating into German the "Star Spangled Banner," and of a number of other poems. Miss Schnauffer made us acquainted with a goodly number of German-American poets, and with their good work.

The last article of the programme was by Miss Nellie C. Williams, and was called: "The Soul of the Alchemist," from the French of Michael Zevaco. Miss William's story told of a rude Cavalier or wicked knight in Paris,--the Paris of the fourteenth century, in time of civil war, of secret and open crime, and when such men believed that "might was right," and practiced their belief. There are a pair of true lovers, the kind that all the world loves in all ages. Gillette the adopted daughter of an old Alchemist, and Amori the


son of a [sorid?] father who wants a rich bride for his son. The bad cavalier Tancred is in love with Gillette, after his own way. There is the alchemist's old witch of a servant Jeanne, who is willing to help the bad Tancred, for money. The old alchemist Nicholas, besides his fatherly love for Gillette, has another devotion, which is to the memory of his dead wife, and once a year he goes to the cemetery to visit her tomb. On the night when he is shown to us the girl will go there with him, and Amori will go too. Nicholas is more than ever determined to find the secret of making gold, that Gillette may have a dot [dowry] which even Amori's father shall approve, though his sixty-eight years' work has so far failed to find it. And now he has staked his hopes of immortality on a last experiment, fused his soul into his crucible, and his faith in the result. Jeanne, the false servant, slips out to tell Tancred that Nicholas, Gillette and Amori have gone to the cemetery. The old alchemist falls on his knees at his wife's grave, declaring that he has given his soul for his daughter. Tancred came declaring that he will have Gillette and have, too, Amori's life. The true and false lovers fight, and Gillette falls in a swoon. But suddenly a crowd of weird creatures arise before them, and the Dance of


Death,--the Dance Macabre,--is all around them. But the true lover is victorious, the false one slain and his followers dispersed before the spectre dance is over. Gillette recovers to find old Nicholas dead and when the lovers go back to his house they find the crucibles as he left them, but in one there are ingots of gold, and in the other diamonds. Gillette's dot is there, for which the alchemist believed he had given his soul. Miss Williams read her translation with the force and animation that it called for.

After thanking the Foreign Language Committee for their interesting translations, the President declared the meeting adjourned.


The 634th Meeting. [Dec. 8, 1908]

The 634th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, December 8th, 1908, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences. Building. The programme was under the direction of Mrs. Sidney Turner, Chairman of the Committee on Essays and Essayists. There was some little delay, and the reading of the minutes was omitted. The President read an invitation for the Club to be present at the lecture of Professor Paton in McCoy Hall


Johns Hopkins University, on December 10th, 1908.

Mrs. Turner introduced the programme with a few fitting words on the sphere and limitations of the Essay, which excludes personal experiences, tales of travel, and some other subjects.

The first article was given by Miss H. Frances Cooper. The subject was "Purpose." Miss Cooper spoke of the dictionaries' definitions of "purpose," such as, "That which we set before us to be reached or accomplished." She described the purpose of the good man, and its power to go to the future. She quoted "The Toiler's Prayer" which asks for the work not chosen, but accepted, that doing it may be a grateful task and its joy the reward. She spoke of the purpose with which the animals toil; the bees to make honey; the nautilus to build its chambered shell, the coral insect to make land for time to come. She quoted St. Paul's "pressing forward to the mark" of "his high calling." She spoke of the purpose of Mr. Burbank, the "Wizard of the vegetable kingdom" to make the wild cactus edible. He has already eliminated its thorns, and believes he can give a new means of sustenance to the world which can abolish Indian famines and desolation. In conclusion Miss Cooper quoted the


motto which the Chairman had placed on her programme of this meeting: "Aim high and believe yourself capable of great things."

The President here said she must interrupt the programme in consequence of the presence among us of our First Vice-President [Mrs. Jordan Stabler], who has been away nearly a year in Europe, Asia and Africa, and will have much later to tell us of great interest. We can all gladly welcome her at the close of the meeting.

The next article was by Mrs. George K. McGaw, and was on "Great Things." Mrs. McGaw told of a child, who on asking his father what were the seven great wonders[-]of [-]the[-]world, received an up to date answer beginning with: "The roof gardens of New York; the Baltimore Water Supply," and continued with instances of modern politics, finances, etc. She went on to tell of the wonders that can be seen from the windows of a so-called "sky-scraper," buildings erected to overtop the Cologne Cathedral, and double the Pyramids. She spoke of the wonders of invention and discovery, great works, material and intellectual, accomplished till the twentieth century, like Alexander, sighs for more worlds to conquor [conquer] and desires to visit the planet Mars. Still, she reminded, greater than all other things is man himself, made in the image of


his Creator. Last summer in Norway, she said, a wrecked ship was going to pieces, when a woman seized the arm of an old many who had obtained a life buoy for himself. He gave it to her saying: "Your life is worth more than mine;" and sank down into the waves beside the woman whom he had saved by the great gift of his own life.

The next article was by Mrs. P.R. Uhler and was on "Individuality." Mrs. Uhler spoke of Individuality as belonging to the infant in the cradle; though each one be formed on the same plan it is different from all others. Each is definitely a new living work of Nature, though climate, race, and geographical position have their own in its organism. We Americans are a blended race, but we have developed individual traits by which our citizens are recognized in distant lands. She spoke of the individuality of women as being called less than that of men, owing, perhaps, to their more limited environment, or, as has been suggested, owing to the long rule of man having produced an arrested development. She went on to the difference between "Individuality" and "Personality:" Individuality being, she said, broader and more robust than Personality. She went on to


speak of dual personality, the mutable sway of one kind of personality over another in the same individual. Individuality is the separateness of our structure from those of other people, and it remains our own. Personality grows, develops and fulfils its destiny here. But it is Individuality that goes with us across the river.

At the close of Mrs. Uhler's article, Mrs. Turner appropriately introduced the Discussion on "Brief Considerations of the Distinctions between Individuality and Personality."  She was then followed by Mrs. Wrenshall, our President. Individuality and Personality, we were told, are not attributes, but are ourselves. Individuality is the Ego, the original self. Consciousness, Character and Will are inherent in all, though heredity, influence and environment have much to do in forming good or bad personality. Mrs. Wrenshall went on to speak of the difference of development in art and poetry. Tennyson, she said, had personality and Kipling had individuality. Individuality may possess much that is alike in saint and sinner, but the building up of Personality may do much to degrade the real self, or to uplift it to the heavenly plains.

Mrs. Wrenshall was followed by Miss


Nicholas. She spoke of the remarkable contrast in some persons between their Individuality and Personality. There are, she said, good people for whose individuality she has great respect, but who make her wish to take to the woods when she becomes conscious of their personalities.

The next speaker was Miss Lizette Reese. She spoke of these subjects as being represented to her by a pair of eyes and a nose; and she described the influence of both in affecting her actions or desires. The nose once moved her to take her pennies out of the missionary box in order to go to the circus, which might have been worse for the heathen but might have made her wiser and happier. She could not help regretting the things she ought not to have done, and did not do. They might have led to fatal consequences, but she could have found out all about the sweetness of stolen waters and forbidden fruit.

The next speaker was Mrs. Tannyhill [Taneyhill]. She spoke of the charm of magnetic personalities, and following after great minds. She said she differed from Mrs. Uhler, and thought the child had personality, and that individuality is adult and the outcome of personality.


The next speaker was Miss Cullington. She suggested that in the beginning there was no apparent difference between the two subjects under consideration, but that it is individuality that goes on when personality declines. Orators, she said, must have personality to be able to sway their audiences. She spoke too, of a great musical genius, who is no better performer than some others, but who has more sincerity, whose personality inspires his audience; he seems not to think of the notes, to forget himself, and to recognize the mind of the composer and to make the music his own. Miss Cullington said that Abraham Lincoln's individuality made him respected, but General Lee's personality made him beloved.

The last speaker was Mrs. William Smith. She described her search in public libraries for a book of synonyms without finding any of use to her. They were out of date, in Latin or German, and some seemed quite ignorant of individuality or personality. It would seem, she said, that our mental natures carry on two existences, have two selves like "Jekyl [Jekyll] and Hyde." But nature never repeats herself, she has the partial and the whole. It seems as if Individuality is the general, and personality the particular.

The President thanked Mrs. Turner


and her Committee for the delightful afternoon, and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 635th Meeting.

The 635th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, December 15th, 1908, in the assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  The meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Alan P. Smith, Chairman, of the Committee on The Literature of the Bible. The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of December 8th.

The President called attention to the notice on the programme that the two meetings of December 22nd and December 29th would be omitted, and that the December Salon would take place at the close of the then pleasant meeting. The 22nd was very near to Christmas; and on the 29th our room would be at the disposal of the Academy of Sciences for the entertainment of delegates to the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.  She then announced that on the 5th of January we would have a New Year's Evening Reception taking the place of our annual Twelfth Night celebration.


She asked that those members wishing special invitation for their friends for this occasion would send their requests to the Corresponding Secretary as soon as possible.  We would have our Twelfth Night cake, but no special programme of exercises, with each member the hostess, not only of her own friends, but of the friends of her fellow members, also.  Mrs. Wrenshall then announced the subjects of the programme for January. On the 19th of that month the meeting is expected to be deferred, as that day is the centenary of the birth of Edgar Allan Poe, which will be celebrated by the Poe Memorial Association, a society, as we know, originated by our Club, and with which many of us are identified. 

The first article of the programme was by Miss Ellen Duvall, our valued member who had sent it from her present home in Norfolk.  It was read for her by Miss Latane.  Miss Duvall's subject was "The Short Story." It began with the explanation that if the article was not altogether in the line of the programme on "The Literature of the Bible," it was to some extent on the short story as exemplified in ancient and Biblical narratives.  Miss Duvall spoke of the short stories of antiquity long antedating novels and romances as known to us now.  She told of


those that have become Folk Lore and tradition, and of those which hold for us much of the history of the races of mankind.  She referred to the stories of Anderson and Grimm; to the Arabian Nights, true pictures of the East; and to the Canterbury Tales, showing us English life in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.  She went on to review the short stories in the Bible familiar to childhood, and later years.  She dwelt, particularly, on Naaman the Syrian, and the little captive maid out of the land of Israel in the second book of Kings.  She showed that this ancient piece of literature has elements of the [drama?]. Though only a crystal fragment broken off from longer narrations, it reflects the lights of those early days, and brings to us pictures of their life and realities.

The next article was by Mrs. Alan P. Smith, and was on "St. Paul's Address at Athens, the Eye of Greece," and described the beautiful view from the Acropolis, bringing memories of Socrates, Plato and all the philosophers and heroes and great minds and great deeds that made "the glory that was Greece."  She went on to describe the visit there of St. Paul in A.D. 52, and read with full spirit and understanding of


his wonderful oration on Mars Hill. She drew attention to the inadequacy of our old English translation, and the just and wise efforts of the great Apostle to declare the true unknown God to the Greeks and Ephesians without needlessly arousing their antagonism, as shown more clearly and satisfactorily in the revised version.

The next article was by Miss Anne Cullington, and was on "Joseph, Prime Minister of Pharaoh." Miss Cullington spoke first of Joseph the boy, who had inherited the mental ability of his father Jacob, and the beauty of his mother, Rachel. Joseph was always ambitious, and very early began to show his genius.  He believed in dreams and the interpretation of them, and had good reason for doing so. Miss Cullington went on over the wonderful story of Joseph, or wrong endured and overcome, and worldly success; of forgiveness of injuries; and recognition of the turning of human evil intentions into blessings.  But she dwelt chiefly on Joseph as the Prime Minister of Pharaoh, and on his comprehension and application of the principles of political economy some seventeen hundred years before the Christian Era. At the close of Miss Cullington's article, the President asked Mrs. Alan Smith to show us the pictures she had brought


from Athens. We were shown photographs of the Acropolis; the ruins of the Parthenon and of other points of great interest, also curiosities from the same places.  She showed us a long string of beads of the kind which the Greek people, even grown men, seemed fond of playing with.  They were certainly not praying beads. On inquiry a Greek told her they were for conversation, when there was no smoking nor drinking going on, and the beads seemed really to help them to talk. She went to buy beads with a strenuous niece who warned her not to pay more for them than half what the seller first asked her for them.  She followed this warning, and duly received the beads.  The next morning she felt a little bit conscience stricken about her bargain, and went back to the seller.  She found the situation hard to explain, and at last laid down some money before the old Greek.  To her astonishment he looked delighted, and handed her immediately two more strings of beads which was the only settlement he seemed to find necessary.

After thanks to Mrs. Smith, the meeting was adjourned.



The 636th Meeting.

The 636th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club was a New Year and Twelfth Night celebration, held on the evening of January 5th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building; a social reception with no prepared programme, and much enjoyed by the Club and its friends.


The 637th Meeting.

The 637th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 12th, 1909 in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the charge of Miss Anne Cullington, chairman of the Committee on Education.  The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the 15th of December, 1908, the last previous regular literary meeting of the Club.  The President took occasion to give a very pleasing account of the meeting of January 5th, our New Year's and Twelfth Night annual celebration, a social reception for the Club and its friends.  She spoke of the decoration of the room, the growing plants, crimson berries, etc.; the simple ornamentation, and the refreshments provided by Mrs. Powell, Chairman of the House Committee. With


no set programme, there were musical selections, vocal and instrumental; the President's short address of welcome, and her introduction of the large Twelfth Night cake with its wonderful symbolic enclosures.  The informal celebration wound up with the old-fashioned Virginia Reel.  The President then announced that the meeting of the next Tuesday, January 19th, would be omitted, as that evening would be devoted to the commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Edgar Allan Poe, in which the Poe Memorial Association would unite with the Johns Hopkins University for a public meeting in McCoy Hall.  As the Poe Association was inaugurated by the Woman's Literary Club, and its members are largely identified with it, and as the Club is invited to the meeting at the University, it was decided by the Board of Management to omit our regular meeting for that afternoon, January 19th, and join with those who would meet on that evening in honor of the poet who is of special interest to our city.

The President then announced a gift to the Club from Professor Henry Shepherd, of his book on Tennyson's "In Memoriam." A vote of thanks was proposed and given to Professor Shepherd.


The first article of the programme was by Miss Nellie C. Williams, and was on "Education in Munich."  Miss Williams was, from illness, unable to be present, but her article was read for her by Mrs. William M. Smith.  Miss Williams reminded us that Munich with about the population of Baltimore, is famous for its advantages of Art, Music, good government, and the apparent general well-being of its people. It has, we were told, a school system of such excellence and liberality that we who pride ourselves on our advancement and freedom from bigotry might, she thought, yield the palm to this old monarchical city of the monks. By very far the larger number of the schools are for the children of Roman Catholics, who are given instruction by their own priests.  The children of Protestant parents are given religious instruction by Protestant ministers; while the schools for those who[se] parents are of no faith, not more than three of them[,] are permitted to omit these lessons.  Lectures on the Bible are given, and there is evidence of good knowledge and appreciation of its literary and ethical importance.  After giving detail of the school systems she said, modern languages are given much attention and are very important where different nations life [live] so close together as in Continental


Europe. Book stores are very numerous, and your cabman, for instance, will be found reading the works of Goethe and Schiller.

The next article was by Miss Cullington, and was on "The Trinity House Navigation School in Hull, England."  Miss Cullington described the Hull training school for seamen, founded two hundred and twenty years ago.  In fitting out the English boys who are to go to sea[,] the institution on the Mersey is for the rich, the one at Hull is largely for the poor.  There are paying scholars at Hull, but always one hundred and fifty who do not pay.  They are there from eleven to fifteen, after which they must go to service at sea for three years.  Miss Cullington told of the general system, and the good appearance, manners and behavior of the boys.  She saw a class of twenty-five boys having a lesson in the open air with an old sailor teaching by flags, apparently signalling and telegraphing, as he explained the difference of dots and dashes in the representing of the hi and the haitch. The instructor was eighty-eight years old, and had taught four generations of boys, but was allowed to keep his place.

The next article was by Mrs. Wrenshall-Markland, and was on "The Royal Government College for Girls at Florence."  Mrs. Markland


described the drive through the olive groves, and "by Arno's pleasant river," to the Imperial Villa where the school for the daughters of the nobility is established.  The Villa had belonged in turn to several of the old historic noble families of Florence.  She described the entrance into the beautiful rooms with polished floors and mosaic tables, and with absolute spotlessness everywhere. The girls wear a very plain gray uniform, but wear belts of the colors of their different grades.  In the chapel she saw girls preparing for confession, not disturbed by visitors, and apparently unconscious of them.  She told of the dormitories, gymnasium and garden; and of the room associated with the Austrian wife of Cosimo the Second; and the four windows from which is seen Galileo's tower where he made his astonishing observations and the house where he was visited by John Milton.  She was particularly interested in the English course of study, for which only English teachers are allowed.  It is a four[-]year course, and particular attention is paid to the history English literature.  From the thoroughness of their education she seemed to see the future of these women of Italy foreshadowing the uplifting and ultimate goal of the ideals of womanhood.

The last article of the programme


was by Mrs. Robert Bowie, and was on "The Kindergarten in the Public Schools."  Mrs. Bowie spoke of her investigation of the "Kindergarten" as showing a wonderful difference from the teachings of former times; the children now learn to model in clay, reproducing the things they see (though one sometimes has to be told the names of the things they have reproduced,) they have object lessons; but the reading, writing and arithmetic seemed to be left out, or all three left to "come by nature."  Mrs. Bowie referred to the early history and development in Germany of the kind of teaching now known as "The Kindergarten."  She spoke of the tendency to make school too much like play, to doing too much for the children, to the detriment of industry and individuality.  The Kindergarten may be for the children of careful inteligent [intelligence?], not too much occupied parents, superfluous, but for the children of the poor, it may keep them out off the streets, and give them the suggestions and guidance they need.  She spoke of the [N]egro kindergarten, saying that she was surprised at the apparent precosity [precociousness] of the [N]egro children, until she learned that the [N]egro brain reaches its full development earlier than that of the Caucasian, it is said at sixteen, but also reaches its limit much sooner and more conclusively.


In this is an element of danger and a wise and skillful system is needed to divide the grain from the chaff in the teaching of these children. In all she thought it was well to hold on to the old foundation of the "three r's," and put other things in their proper places.  Mrs. Bowie illustrated he article with humorous comments, enjoyed by her audience.

The President thanked Miss Cullington and her Committee, and declared the Club adjourned until January 26th, 1909.


The 638th Meeting.

[Meeting omitted on January 19th for Poe Centenary]

The 638th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 26th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  The programme was for the Committee on Archaeology, Mrs. P.R. Uhler, Chairman.  The President called the meeting to order.  There having been some unavoidable delay the minutes of January 12th were not read.  The President spoke of our regret for the illness of our valued member, Miss Annie Whitney, but said she is believed to be now decidedly better. A proposal was made that


in expression of our sympathy, flowers should be sent to Miss Whitney, which was carried by a rising vote.   It was announced that our member, Mrs. Downs, was ill also, and a similar expression of sympathy was agreed on for her also.  The President announced the subjects of our programmes for the month of February.  On February 2nd, Current Criticism, by the Committee of which Miss Latane is Chairman; on the 9th Fiction, Mrs. Percy M. Reese, Chairman; on the 16th, the Drama, Miss Cloud, Chairman; on the 23rd, The Salon and the Literature of Music, Miss Hollins, Chairman.  Announcement was made of the Lectures on Art by Mr. Frederick Hopkins, beginning on February 4th in McCoy Hall.

The programme announced one article, by our President, Mrs. John C. Wrenshall, on "The Ruins of the Villa Adriana, Near Tivoli in Italy."  Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of the wonderful summer palace of the Emperor Hadrian, the emperor who was lawgiver, soldier, poet, traveller and student.  It is his true memorial, even in ruins, as we now see it, in its beautiful, open-air Italian setting of sky and landscape.  Mrs. Wrenshall told us that the Villa Adriana is still a shrine of beauty, though it was de-


spoiled of its treasures, long ago, by the Goths; and later lost its many works of Art, that now adorn the Vatican and other great galleries of Italy.  She told of the avenue of centuries-old trees through which she passed before entering the Greek theatre; the long wall of the Pecile, where wise and learned men were accustomed to consult together, as their predecessors had done at Athens in the Academic groves.  She told of the wall paintings and colored marble that time and wars have spared, the Natatorium with the six columns still standing and fragments of the walls of the hot and cold steam baths; also of the temple of Venus, among the wonders of this Villa of one hundred and sixty-four acres.  She described the Vale of Tempe with its Mounts Ossa and Pelion, and Olympus.  Also the Greek and Latin libraries where poets might dream and write; and the observatories where astronomers could have studied the stars.  The corridors of the Hospitunus, with its guest chambers are, she said, still to be seen.  She went on to speak of the Basilica, where the emperor dispensed justice, which still shows its waiting room for petitioners, as such royal courts have had in modern times.  She described the bust of the Empress Sabina and the wonderful statue of the Venus


de Medici, said to have been dug up at this Villa, and now in the Uffizi Palace at Florence.  She went on to the representations of the Inferno, and of the Elysian Fields, showing the vaults and [head?] of Tartarus and the fountains and loveliness of the Greek and Latin conception of a heaven one hundred and thirty years after Christ.  Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of the well-known Latin lines, written by the Emperor Hadrian, addressed to his own soul, in which he asks his "poor little flitting guest and partner:" "Whither wilt thou hie away?" She read it to us in Byron's translation.  Mrs. Wrenshall described the Emperor's Temple of Serapis by the Canopic lake made to represent the lake of Canopic in Egypt, where pilgrims were wont to come.  She and her party went down into the subterranean vaults of the Egyptian-like temple, and were soon glad to come back to the twentieth century sunshine and blue birds again.  Spring seemed all around her, the spring of the old days and new ones, and the presence of Pan himself seemed almost real.  And then a seeming little Pan came into view leading his sheep and playing on his shepherd's pipe.  He came, with the native frankness of nine years old, and told her how he made his pipe himself with a hole for each


finger.  She knelt down to see his inscrutable eyes, and, after a little talk, he went to call his sheep, but came back and laid his little pipe in her hands.  Of all gifts, few had ever pleased her more than this.  Mrs. Wrenshall reminded us that the Emperor Hadrian, who, after visiting the provinces of his empire and consolidating its power and its laws, had realized his favorite dream in the creation and enjoyment of the Villa Adriana, and died 130 Anno Domini, leaving to his successor Antoninus Pius rich possessions as seldom fall to the lot of mortals.

The meeting adjourned to enjoy coffee and conversation.


The 639th Meeting.

The 639th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, February 2nd, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This meeting was under the direction of the Committee on Current Criticism, Miss Lucy T. Latane, Chairman.  The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of January 12th, 1909.  The President reminded us of our sending flowers to our member, Miss Whitney, who has been for some time


ill in the hospital.  She then read a very grateful and appreciative acknowledgment from Miss Whitney.  She said she had placed them before her mirror, where they constantly reminded her of the present and former homes of our Club, and of the pleasure and instruction she had gained in both of them.  The President announced that we have arranged to have an evening meeting on Thursday, February 25th, open to our friends, both men and women.  On this occasion Mr. Thomas Mackenzie of the Baltimore Bar will give a lecture on the Legal Status of Women in Maryland.  The President said that as our room will hold scarcely two hundred, the admission will be by cards for members and guests, and it will be well for members to apply to Mrs. Uhler, Corresponding Secretary, for cards of admission for themselves and their friends as soon as they can.

The first article of the programme was by Miss Lucy T. Latane, and was on the "Life of Alice Freeman Palmer."  Miss Latane said she did not like the term typical, but she described Mrs. Palmer as a type of the development of ideals and purpose in the making of individual life.  She was born in 1855; her father was a farmer and her mother was busied with plans and


efforts for the support and rearing of her children. Alice was called on to gather eggs in the barn, and to take care of the other children; but in the midst of a busy, unselfish life she yet determined to go to college and to gain a degree there.  The Woman's College was a comparatively new thing then, and she chose to go to the co-educational University of Michigan, supporting herself by teaching and being the mainstay of her family besides.  She succeeded in her ambition; and after struggling against her want of means, weak lungs and family affliction, she became the assistant to the President of Wellesley College, and afterwards the full President of that institution.  After eight years work there she married Professor George Herbert Palmer of Harvard College, and the union was a happy and congenial one.  The life of Professor Palmer has written as his tribute to her, while not revealing the inner sanctuary of their home life, has given to her rare personality, character and achievements full justice.   It is evident that she did not shrink her work at home or abroad.  She belonged to the Massachusetts Board of Education, to the Board of Managers of the World's Fair, and was identified with the University of Chicago and Radcliffe College.  In all things unselfish, she was an inspiration to those


around her.  She died in 1902, still under fifty, having proved the worth of higher education to the truly womenly women.

The next article was by Mrs. Wrenshall Markland, and was on "Some Pleasant Books on Italy."  She introduced us to very pleasant books on pleasant subjects.  Her first review was of "Italian Shrines" by W. L. Waters.  She said this author showed great care and research, but that his illustrations were remarkably fine.  She spoke of the beautiful Tuscan Shrines, especially of the Pisan Pulpit, called the masterpiece of Nicolo Pisano, who with his son Nicolo Giovanni won great fame in the thirteenth century.  She brought before us other shrines of Italian Art and devotion.  The next books reviews were "Tuscan Feasts and Tuscan Friends," by Dorothy Nevill Lees; and "Florentine Palaces and Their Stories."  They told of delightful Florentine life and traditions, but they reminded her of the old Scotchman's opinion of the quotations in Johnson's dictionary; "Fine readings, but [illegible] short and disconnected." The fourth review was of "On the Shores of the Adriatic," by Hamilton Jackson, also with fine illustrations.  She went on to speak of


"Evolution in Italian Art," by Grant Allen, of "Venezia and Northern Italy," "Along the Riviera of France and Italy," and of "Browning's England" by Helen A. Clark.  She reminded us of Browning in Florence and of the charm of Italy for him, and of Browning in England with his susceptibility to different environments which appears through his writings.

The next article was by Mrs. William M. Smith, and was on "Lewis Rand," by Miss Mary Johnson.  Mrs. Smith said that reading this book made one feel oneself, at least temporarily, a Virginian.  It is of the Virginia of more than a century ago, and is an historical and psychological study.  She told us of "Lewis Rand" the son of a tyrannical father, with aspirations and day-dreams, a sort of protégé of Thomas Jefferson, loving a girl of the old Virginia aristocracy, far above him in station and environment.  Mrs. Smith went over the story of this uncontrolled wild spirit, with the resistless movement of its final tragedy with great force and clearness.  His love is returned, and is the one pure and high thing about him.  It does not keep him from killing in anger, his rival in love and ambition, but it does result in making him give himself up to justice, a sacrifice accepted by the two



The last article was by Miss Virginia Cloud, and was called "Entre Nous."  Miss Cloud referred to an article she had given no[t] a year ago on "Literary Heresies."  She spoke of our impressions of art and literature.  She remined us of the artist who tells us that the autumnal fields and woods are not brown at all, but are purple.  We do not believe him until some sudden sunshine reveals their purple glow to our vision.  The Greeks were impressed by purple shadows, in art; in literature and drama the charms of these amethyst hues are not seen but felt.  There is always the prismatic light beckoning to us, whatever our hindrances may be.  Miss Cloud went on to speak of critics, to whom we ought to afford to be tolerant.  She spoke of several new books, saying, "Diana Mallory" is in Mrs. Ward's second[-]best manner.  Her hero is a cad after all.  Herford's "Together" has, she said, more marriages than the whole state of Utah.  Miss Cloud spoke of the progress of the world which goes on adding more and more to the sum of knowledge, but finds no cure for the disease of egotism.  We are told to go back to Nature, to the open air, to the sea and


to the sunshine.  They can give us the mastery of life, which is the secret of immortal beauty.

The President said we would look forward to Miss Latane's next meeting to review the pleasure she and her Committee had given us in this one.

The meeting was adjourned.


The 640th Meeting.

The 640th Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, February 9th, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This meeting was under the direction of the Committee on Fiction, Mrs. Percy M. Reese, Chairman. On account of delay the reading of minutes was omitted.  The President read a letter from Lady Asger Hamerik of Copenhagen, Denmark, formerly an active member; and now an honorary member of this Club.  Mrs. Hamerik spoke in this letter of the fine work of Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull, "The Golden Book of Venice."  The President reminded us that this book written by our first President is in our Club Library, by the gift of the author.  The President also announced a concert and entertainment to be


given by the Bard Avon school, with a programme from the works of Edgar Allan Poe, for the Poe fund.  She also repeated the notice of the lecture to be given before the Club on February 25th, by Mr. Thomas Mackenzie of the Baltimore Bar, the subject being "The Legal Status of Women in Maryland."  Mrs. Wrenshall also referred to the article by Miss Latane at the meeting of the week before on "Alice Freeman Palmer, President of Wellesley College," and recalled to us that Mrs. Palmer was, up to her death, an honorary member of this Club.

The first article of this programme was given by Mrs. William Milligan Smith, and was called "The Matchmaker."  Mrs. Smith's story begins with the description of a strong[-]willed wife, and undersized husband, with one daughter, Milly, whose absence at a church fair gives her mother an opportunity to unfold her schemes to save her Milly from being an old maid.  Her candidate for a son-in-law is an elderly widower, for the second time, whose entrance into the discussion does not arouse enthusiasm on the part of the father.  Later on the matchmaker condoles with the widower on his loneliness, and he is brought to the point of making his pro-


posal, which is met by Milly with a flat refusal, and the information that she is engaged already.  To the question: why she has not told this before? she answers that she has just found it out herself; young Dick Anderson has just asked her.  As Dick is acknowledged to be a good fellow, the inevitable is accepted, even by the rejected suitor.  Mrs. Smith's clever description of the matchmaker's machinations are offset by her sudden breaking down and sobbingly appealing to her husband if he realizes that they are losing their daughter; that when husbands come parents must stand aside, and when grandchildren come, grandparents are of no consequence.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Emily Paret Atwater, and was called: "Tiger Lily House."  Miss Atwater gave us the story of some strong influential forces: first, the inherited conscientious scruples of a dead father coming back to constrain the freedom of his daughter's volition; then the importance of an accidental circumstance; and lastly the power of traditional insane fancies, this time with regard to a bed of Tiger lilies, giving to the gorgeous flowers that uncanny power which even dumb Nature can exercise over human minds.



The next article was by Mrs. Wrenshall Markland, and was called "Shipmates." Mrs. Markland described a great ocean liner leaving Liverpool, and the varied company of first-class passengers who sat down to the first dinner on board of it.  She described especially those known as the Reverend Mrs. Goodheart; and a young widow, Mrs. Patterson with the young doctor whom she is destined to fascinate.  Also another passenger, Mr. Craig, who is, apparently, an unknown quantity.  As the shipmates reveal themselves to each other there is just enough love story to give that "touch of Nature that makes the whole world kin."  The clergyman talks of his daughter, to whose sick bed, he says, he has been summoned from across the sea, and he shows much interest in the welfare of his fellow passengers.  Soon Mr. Goodheart loses his silver watch, but it is recovered from Craig, against whom he does not prefer charges, and to whom he even offers a small loan as an inducement to lead an honest life.  On the arrival at New York the "parson" gives good wishes to the lovers, but Craig is the first passenger ashore.  Then a patrol wagon appears with a warrant for the arrest of a first class


passenger.  The rest see their clerical shipmate driven off, and catch a glimpse of the old silver watch also.  Then they hear, "That is the greatest diamond thief in the world."  The watch had had its works removed, and was filled with diamonds, before Craig took possession of it temporarily.

The President thanked Mrs. Reese and her Committee for the afternoon's entertainment; and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 641st Meeting.

The 641st meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, February 16th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Buidling.  The programme was under the direction of the Committee on the Drama, Miss Virginia Cloud, Chairman.  The President called the meeting to order and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of February 9th, 1909. The President called attention to the Lecture to be given before the Club on Thursday evening, February 25th, by Mr. Thomas Mackenzie, on "The Legal Status of Women in Maryland." Tickets for our members and their friends are to be obtained from Mrs. Uhler,


Corresponding Secretary.  Mrs. Wrenshall also announced the entertainment to be given on March 1st by the Bard Avon Alumnae; under the direction of Miss Marine, in the room of the Bard Avon School, 2221 North Charles street; the use of the rooms being lent by Miss Haughwant.  There will be a Poe programme; and the entertainment will be for the benefit of the Edgar Allan Poe Association Fund.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Virginia Cloud, and was called “A Word Concerning Our National Poetry.”  Miss Cloud spoke of her subject as not strictly dramatic, but it is allied to the early history of the drama.  She spoke of having some time ago heard a lecture by the editor of one of the leading and long[-]established magazines of our country, in which he alluded to the general aesthetic and literary qualities of other periodicals.  She dwelt on their use of pictorial illustrations, which his “Monthly” had never called to its aid.  Last month she had read an editorial by the same gentleman on our “National Poetry.”  He deprecates our patriotic poems as inadequate and superfluous, thinks none of them are well done, that they have no national, nor native notes.  He accounts for our want of patriotic inspiration


partly because we have a varied and mingled population.  Miss Cloud defended our national lyrics as poetry, and as patriotism.  She spoke of having seen a collection containing eight hundred of these songs.  She spoke of the favorites of our fathers, of the verses of Holmes and Lowell, and the songs of the Civil War.  We were reminded that the inspiration of patriotic song was not confined to any race, nation, or time; it is the same impulse that moved Joan of Arc to action, or Milton to words.

Miss Lizette Reese spoke of having read the editorial mentioned, in the January “Atlantic Monthly,” and she showed a fellow-feeling with Miss Cloud in resenting the editor’s deprecation of our National Poetry.

The next article was by Miss Ellen Duvall; and was an “Essay in Browning’s Idea of Growth and Enlightenment.”  In Miss Duvall’s absence it was read by Miss Mullin.  Miss Duvall spoke of the clear vision given to the true poet who rises to the sublimity of God, of man and the human soul.  She reminded us of the ancient greeting to a monarch, “O, King, live forever!”  But still more may we say: “O, Poet, live forever!”  and show us the great realities.  Browning has the true per-


ception of the vision and comprehension, it is only in the construction and formulation of his message that he fails.  He reminded her of Bassanio before the three caskets.  We are, she said, all suitors to life.  Many choose the golden casket of wealth, and find its contents cold and dead.  Some choose the silver one of ambition and fame and find in it “a shadow’s bliss;” but in the leaden casket is life itself to him who chooses wisely.  Browning, she said, seemed to have had no period of “storm and stress” in his life, he turned naturally to God, to humanity and to the soul for growth and enlightenment.  Miss Duvall quoted the fine expression of one who said: “I am a soul, I have a body.”  To all of us may or may not come our own vision of thought, our own choice for victory, to refuse it is failure.  She quoted much to show that the choice of the soul and the victory of love are the motives of Browning’s writings.

The next article was by Mrs. Sidney Turner, and was called “A Drama from Real Life.”  Mrs. Turner said this Life Drama had been acted before her own observation.  It began with the son of a millionaire of fine family and influential


position bringing home a bride to live near his parents.  But gossips are busy in his town and his friends and neighbors conclude that he has married an adventuress, and that she is not to be admitted into society.  A son is born, but the young wife tires of monotony, escapes when she can, and finally leaves the home to get a divorce.  A widow is engaged to take care of the boy; but the mother still comes to see him, till, one dark night the child is kidnapped by his own mother.  After in a search he is found in a children’s asylum, where he recognizes and calls out to his father, and is kidnapped in turn by his father.  The strange mother marries a rich Hebrew, afterward making a third marriage to a Polish gentleman, and going to Europe.  The next scene is the father packing a steamer trunk at night and going away before dawn.  Then comes a very handsome woman enquiring for him, and being told he is out of town.  Then comes the newspaper announcement of the marriage of the man to the woman who had called to enquire for him.  The couple return to the old home, bringing the daughter of the new wife who proves unexceptionable and afterwards marries well.  But the new wife also


finds gossips against her; and for six years no lady calls on her except the boy’s grandmother.  Then follows the work of an Evangelist in the town, the conversion under his preaching of the wife, and her Christian life and death.  Good women, at the request of the minister, had gone to see her without being at all shocked by her.  The son now has grown to be a man, and is found to have kept in touch and correspondence with his own mother in Paris.  He invites her to come back to America and takes his father to see her.  A remarriage of the first couple follows, and a return to the old home.  The woman had studied art, and a studio is added to the house.  The father dies, and wife retires to New York, and from our knowledge.  The son marries a young girl who is a singer, and has one child, who dies young.  The young people are improvident and soon exhaust what the grandfather has left them.  Then follows a sad sequence of debt, the death of the young husband; and the closing [scene?] of the sole survivor, his young widow going off the Paris to study for the stage.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was of


“Spring Songs.”  They told of the young year, and of young lovers, of Spring sounds, and of Spring flowers returning to bless the old earth.

The next article was by Mrs. Robert B. Bowie, and was called, “A Rose by Any Other Name,” a comedy in one act.  It begins with the scene of a pretty young girl at her desk receiving the visit of a girl friend to whom she relates vivaciously the things her superfluous energy has pressed her to engage in.  First: Settlement work in the slums, involving adventures which quite shocked her Aunt Inlia.  Of course she did not do all that the year she came out.  Now she is trying Literature, writing stories, but the principal objection to them is their want of local color, which they must have.  Besides she cannot write up working girls unless she knows something about them.  So she is going to pretend to go to Palm Beach, and is really going to live in a hall room in a boarding house, “as working girls always do,” and to work in a store.  She carries out her plans, calls herself Miss Brown, and engages in mechandising chocolate.  Soon she is made acquainted with “Mr. Brown,” who is, she is told, engaged in the same business; and


finds him very agreeable.  But she discovers that “Mr. Brown” has another family name, and is the son of the head of the firm which controls the business that employs her.  She indignantly reproaches him with false pretenses, and with taking her name.  Just as he explains that Brown is his middle name, they suddenly meet some of her old and intimate friends who accost her with her own real name, which gives him the opportunity to claim that he is much more Brown than she is.  It turns out that they are both invited to the same dinner party that afternoon, and they conclude amicably to go to it together confident that a rose by any other name is still a Rose.

The President thanked Miss Cloud and her Committee for their programme and the meeting was adjourned.


The 642nd Meeting.

The 642nd meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held Tuesday February 23rd, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This meeting was the February Salon, and was under the direction of Miss Annie Hollins,


Chairman of the Committee on Music.  It was devoted to the commemoration of the centennial of Fleix Mendelssohn Bartoldy [Bartholdy], who was born in 1809, and died in 1847.  The programme gave only Mendelssohn’s music, and the only written article was an account of the musician himself, by the Chairman.  The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of February 16th.  The President read then the programmes for the meetings in March.  On the second, Foreign Languages, by the Committee of which Mrs. Tyson is Chairman; on the 9th, Essays, Mrs. Turner Chairman, on the 16th, Unfamiliar Records, Mrs. E. Stabler Chairman, on the 23rd, Foreign Travel, Mrs. Atwater, Chairman. On the 30th, The Salon, Mrs. J. Stabler, A Travelogue.

The President read a letter from Miss Susie Wilts of Croone [Croom], making an appeal in behalf of a circulating library in that place.  The country [women?] there, in southern Maryland, have few opportunities for general reading and the culture it brings, and agricultural life is sometimes depressing.  They for two years have had a library, but have read and re-read all the books, and it sadly needs replenishing.  Books can


be bought cheaply now, and many of our Club members may possess good, entertaining books we would be willing to spare in such a good cause.

The President also read the announcement of the lecture of Professor Hülsen on Roman Archaeology in McCoy Hall, Johns Hopkins University.  She also repeated the notices of the entertainment for the benefit of the Poe Memorial Fund by the Bard Avon Dramatic Club, at the Bard Avon school, and the lecture of Mr. Thomas Mackenzie before the Club on February 25th.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Annie Hollins and was on Felix Mendelssohn Bartoldy [Bartholdy].  Miss Hollins spoke of the life of Mendelssohn as a poem in itself, dwelling on his genius culture, and refinement of nature.  His grandfather Moses Mendel or Mendelssohn was a Jewish pedlar [peddler] who came from Dessau to Berlin, and after a struggle with poverty, by his learning, philosophic intellect and character, became one of the members of that famous literary society of which Lessing [Gotthold Ephraim] was the representative, and was the prototype of that author’s Nathan the Wise.  The father of the musician, Abraham Mendelssohn, was a convert to Christianity,


and had all his children baptized into the Lutheran faith.  Of these the first was Fanny, and the second Felix, the two who were devoted to each other.  Abraham was a banker, and his wife’s name was Bartholdy [Bartholdy]; she was a woman of culture and fortune.  We were told of the happy home life, and the liberal education given to their children.  Felix showed a drawing to music at five years old; and at twelve he played in public.  After being taught by Zeltner and Berger he went to Paris, to Switzerland, and later to Italy, England and Scotland, afterward returning to Berlin.  He visited and became the friend of Goethe and the intellectually distinguished men of his time.  Miss Hollins described Mendelssohn’s great success in the pursuit he loved, and reviewed his musical compositions with great interest and appreciation.  She spoke of his happy marriage and home life.  She told of the admiration he won from Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria, and described the friendly, informal visit he paid to this royal pair, when in England in 1842.  On this occasion the Queen and the Prince Consort both played for him, and he gave them his own musical improvisations.  She told of his


death on November 4th, 1847, closely following that of his loved and congenial sister Fanny.  Miss Hollins spoke of the fashion of to-day to neglect Mendelssohn for the sake of newer artists and composers.  But she said, among the novelties and juggleries of more modern, the true musical spirits will not cease to love and revere the genius and art of this great composer.

The next article of the programme was a piano duet, given by Miss Hollins and Miss Bash.  They gave us first the “Scherzo: Mid-Summer Night’s Dream.”  Miss Hollins said that Mendelssohn had told in somewhat whimsical music the meanings that Shakespeare had seemed to indicate.  The same players gave us also the “Andante: Symphony in A Minor.”  We were next favored with songs for mezzo soprano.  Mendelssohn’s “Wings of Song,” and “Gondolied,” sung by Miss Lydia Kirk, with Miss Laura Elliott as accompanist.  The next number was a piano solo by Miss Hollins; first a “Prelude in E Minor;” followed by the “Spring Song,” always appreciated by the lovers of Mendelssohn.  Miss Kirk was prevailed upon to sing again, and gave us the bright little English ballad, “What


Pity is Akin to,” for which the President gave our thanks.  The last number was a piano duet by Miss Hollins and Miss Bash.  It was the “Overture: The Hebrides,” a wonderful composition that seemed to take us for the time to the old wave-beaten island shores.  The President thanked Miss Hollins and her able assistants for the enjoyment they had given us, and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 643rd Meeting.

The 643rd meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 2nd, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  The programme was under the direction of the Committee on Foreign Languages, and, in the absence of the Chairman, Mrs. Frederic Tyson, the acting Chairman was Miss Marie Perkins.  The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of February 23rd.  The President spoke of the entertainment given on the previous evening at the Bard Avon school for the benefit of the Poe Memorial Fund, as having been one of much interest and enjoyment.


The first article of the programme was given by Miss Elizabeth Lester Mullin, and was her translation from the French of Jean Duclusean, his story: “The Phantom of the Valley.”  It told of a dinner party of young men at which the guest of honor was Lord Douglas McGregor, an officer in the English Army, who had seen service in India, and was visiting America.  Moreover, he was the son of Lady McGregor, well known, even in America, as a popular leader in English society.  The young lord is described as a great blue-eyed, fine fellow, but by no means loquacious.  The conversation turned toward Psychical Research, and different explanations were suggested for supposed spiritual phenomena.  The guest did not seem disposed to accept any of the solutions proposed for such problems; but incidentally spoke of a strange experience of his own, and at last agreed to relate it.  He told of being at a garrison port in India, where life had been rather dull and monotonous; and suddenly receiving orders to take his battalion to Fort St. George, a more lonesome outpost, with the intimation that a native uprising was feared.  He described the hurried departure, the long march, and the sullen looks of the natives whom they met.  The route was difficult, and be-


came uncertain.  Then a half-breed Hindoo [Hindu], professing friendship, offered to be his guide.  After going, he thought a long distance, he felt growing distrust of being guided in the right direction, which however, did not seem to be shared by his companions.  It was growing late when in a gloomy valley, he heard his own name called in a strange voice, but saw nothing.  Then a hand seized his bridle, and the voice said, “You are betrayed, death lies before you!”  Then he saw the beautiful face and figure of a young girl, whose eyes and mouth seemed made for laughing only.  But her imperative command to halt, and to turn in an entirely different direction carried obedience with it, and soon brought the walls of Fort St. George before him.  There was safety for his own command combined with the garrison they reinforced.  Years afterwards, on his arrival in England, his mother had a house party, and told him of a lovely girl who had long been a favorite of her own, and a frequent guest.  Before the promised introduction he met the fair girl accidently, and her eyes and mouth looked as if made for laughing only.  Both instinctively claimed acquaintance.  The girl said, she in visiting his home, had seen his picture, and had been given the room formerly


his own; where one night she had even dreamed of him, the dream of halting him in the valley and telling him of the ambuscade just before him.  He said, “You saved my life,” and it did not take long for his mother’s choice for her son to be even more his own.

The next article was given by Miss Octavia Williams Bates, and was from the French of Guy de Maupassant, “The Prisoner.”  Miss Bates said that, unlike most of [de] Maupassant’s stories, this one showed a sense of humor; and also there was the German accent in speaking French, both elements hard to translate into English.  The story took us back to the French and German War.  On the border of a forest covered with snow, before a little house, there is a stout, bare-armed French girl chopping wood.  The young men of that part of the country have gone to fight for France and the old men and boys have in the nearest town formed a soldier company, very brave in its talk against the Prussians.  The father of the young girl, Bettina, Nicholas the long[-]legged, has gone to buy provisions, and her mother sits spinning, and foreboding evil from the enemy and the wolves, who are a real danger also.  But Bettina goes


on with her household work unmoved.  There come six German soldiers; and threaten to break down the door if it is not unlocked, and Bettina unlocks it.  They say they are lost and hungry, and Bettina agrees to make them some soup.  While she does so, the whole six sit like good little children waiting for it.  Afterwards there is an alarm that French soldiers are coming; and Bettina induces the Prussians to go down into the cellar, immediately locking them into it.  Then the citizen soldiery are brought in, and the besieged Prussians make vain attempts to escape.  They refuse to surrender; but though they soon became perfectly quiet, Bettina warns the French citizens not to go past a hole in the wall.  One man, unheeding the warning is promptly shot at, and wounded, but not seriously.  Then all the ramspouts at hand are brought into play, and water is poured into the cellar.  At last the half-drowned and half-frozen prisoners surrender, are brought out and marched off to the town.  There the authorities take care of the wounded man; and give great commendations to their brave citizens, but not a word to Bettina.

The next article of the programme was given by Miss Marie Perkins, and was her translation from the French of Ernest


Depre, “The Amorous Earth Worm.”  Miss Perkins said this little monologue was written for Coquelin, and was given by him some years ago.  It began with a little Earth Worm who had lost all his parents and had only a tutor to be his mother.  His father had been cut in two by a spade, and his mother had been swallowed by a bird.  He was a blonde with black eyes.  He was eighteen days old.  He had been through college, and on coming out he met the fairest of blonde worms, who, he felt sure was not married.  He had loved a glow worm, and again the worm had found its star.  He did not tell his love, but put it off for another meeting on the morrow.  Meanwhile, a horrid man with a tin box approached; and cruel Fate ordained that the tender little worm should be seized and shut up in the dark to be used for bait.  But the man dropped the box, a crack appeared, and the thought of the lovely glow worm gave hope and strength to the little prisoner.  He struggled and freed his head and the length of his body, and then came a sudden stop.  The poor little worm, in his anxiety not to forget his rendezvous, had tied a knot in his tail.

The President thanked Miss Perkins and her assistants, and declared the meeting adjourned.



The 644th Meeting.

The 644th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 9th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This meeting was under the direction of the Committee on Essays, Mrs. Sidney Turner, Chairman.  There was a delay in beginning the exercise, owing to the failure of the electric lights; but the substitution of tall candles-the majority of them in substitutes for candlesticks-caused good[-]natured amusement.  The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 2nd.  The President announced the Chairman of the Committee on Essays.  Mrs. Turner was not with us this afternoon.  She spoke of our sympathy with our valued fellow member, and excellent Chairman and great regret for her absence, even though she has sent us so good a representative as Mrs. Uhler.

On the programme was a quotation from Robert Louis Stevenson:

“O, wind, a-blowing all day long
“O, wind that sings so loud a song!”

Mrs. Uhler explained that Mrs. Turner had suggested to her Committee that they should take up the subject of “The Way the


Wind Blows;” that each should write an Essay on that topic without communication with each other; and without criticism; and that each should give her own result to the Club just as she wrote.  Six of the short essays were then read.

The programme called first for that of Mrs. P.R. Uhler.  She spoke of the varying winds; of the soft breezes and those that bring April Showers in contrast with the whirlwinds and tornados.  She alluded to what is known as raising the wind; and recalled to us the effect upon ourselves of the winds that blow upon us.

The next article was by Mrs. George K. McGaw, and was a poetical apologue recalling the classic personifications of the Four Winds and their king.  Eolus, the wind king calls for his subjects to come to  him.  First comes Boreas, with his fierce breathing, bringing waste and desolation; then the gently influences of the South Wind; then the East Wind with his disturbing power; then Zephyrus, with his mild western breathings.  After each has shown his ability, King Eolus bids them remember that they are brothers; that what one seems to destroy another can restore; that each can do his part and fulfil[l] his own mission.


The next article was by Miss E.C. Nicholas. She spoke of the winds that bring the products of other lands across the seas.  Just now, she said, they are bringing us the brown men of Japan; but having already black and red and yellow men among us, we are not willing to enlarge the color scheme of our population.  Miss Nicholas spoke of the ideas and intellectual movements that are coming to us.  She referred to the opinions on Woman Suffrage, now claiming attention, and their advocacy by the English Mrs. Arnold and others.  She spoke of the interest now awakened among us in the study of the older religions of the world, those of the East, from which our own came also.  She went on to the present attitude of the Eastern people toward Christianity; and spoke of the aroused feeling that among those outside of our own Christian faith are still God’s children.

The next article was by Miss H. F. Cooper.  She reminded us of the drifting and shifting of opinions in this present time of high winds and agitations.  She told of an old man, who, on the morning of an election, asked his wife: “Betsy, what am I?” “A Democrat,” she answered. “Go on, and vote!”  Some people feel the winds from one quarter, some from another, and


some, like the many[-]sided Benjamin Franklin, seem to take what they bring from all quarters at once.  Miss Cooper recalled to us that Mr. Jarndyce found the wind generally in the East; but those of us who do not like the East wind can, like him, keep it from blowing into our hearts.

The next article was by Mrs. Rinehart.  She told of the events that occurred in 1889 at the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean.  Three great nations were striving to secure coaling stations from the good harbors of those islands.  But while England, Germany and the United States--the great Naval Powers—were antagonizing each other almost to the point of war, a Power not taken into consideration just then, interfered.  The storm winds arose in destruction and devastation.  Our sailors could only strive to save lives of others and their own, while four of our battleships sank into the sea.  And when Nature grew calm again, the great naval powers arbitrated their differences,--and the island of Pago-Pago came to our country, not the largest island, but apparently the best port.  Mrs. Rinehart described vividly the scenes occurring.  The American Admiral was entertained by the Samoan ruler, a


friendly meeting of civilized and uncivilized people; of strange customs, costumes and manners.  These untutored people acted out, for the entertainment of their guests, the Seven Ages of Man, line by line, with unmistakable fidelity.  They showed the human nature which we are apt to find, no matter where the wind may carry us.

The last article was by Mrs. Sidney Turner, and was read for her by Mrs. Uhler.  Mrs. Turner spoke of the signs of the times in this age.  She referred to the feeling of unrest that seems to prevail in our own and in other lands.  She recalled to mind our old comfortable stage coaches, now replaced by electric cars and automobiles.  There is progress with us, but men and women fall by the wayside, and there is apparently less regard for human life.  There is the correlation of forces, and life full of great subjects.  We cannot be left out, we are caught in the general progress.  But the winds are blowing us together.  In religion she thought we can hope for the coming of one Church in the worship of our one God.  She spoke too of the education and position before the law of woman.  She quoted the sentiment that if woman did help to drive man out of Paradise, man has never yet


driven Paradise out of woman.  Mrs. Turner gave details of the advancement of good in the world, and reminded us of Browning’s lines that we trust in a God all love and all law.

The President congratulated our members on the enjoyment of our programme.  She reminded us that Robert Louis Stevenson lived, died, and is buried in the Island of Samoa; and she quoted from his poem on “The Wind,” and also his “Epitaph” written by himself.

The meeting was adjourned.


The 645th Meeting.

The 645th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, March 16th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  The programme was under the charge of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records, Mrs. Edward Stabler, Chairman.  The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 9th.  The President read a note she had received from our member, Mrs. Downs, who has been ill, and who gave her thanks and apprecia-


tion for the beautiful flowers sent to her as an expression of the remembrance and sympathy of the Club.  The President also spoke of the concert to be given before the Club on the 18th by Mr. Harry Patterson Hopkins, and announced that she had tickets for those who wished them for their friends.  She also announced that we again had our First Vice-President, Mrs. Jordan Stabler with us, and can hope for her presence during the coming meetings of the season.  The Club received this announcement with cordial applause.

The first article of the programme was given by Mrs. Jordan Stabler, and was called: “From Carracas [Caracas] to Nassau.”  Mrs. Stabler reminded us that she had some time ago given us the first part of her southern cruise, from New York to Carracas [Caracas].  She said that before reading she would show us some of the products of the West Indies, collected on this cruise.  She brought to our notice the coffee berries and cocoa pods; the gourds which are made into bowls, dishes and dippers, pieces of the mahogany tree; specimens of coral, etc.; followed by beautiful photographs taken by her husband on their journey.  She left Carracas [Caracas] for La Guira [Guaira], and went on to Puerto Cabello, and described the


beautiful tropical seas through which she sailed.  A German baron, her fellow passenger, sent over by the Kaiser to take an observation,--as Captain Cuttle would say,--of the South American lands that the Vaterland would like to colonize, compared the changing outlooks to a magnificent kaleidescope  [kaleidoscope] of brilliant colors.  She went on to Colon, best known to us as the Atlantic end of the Panama Canal.  She told of the luxurious vegetation of the Isthmus, giving its examples of the survival of the fittest.  She told of the Canal Zone, of the comfortable cars and hotel, the good houses of the laborers, the excellent sanitary conditions, the pure water and the free schools.  Our country has begun at the foundation for the country under our control, and the progress of the work may be somewhat slow, but sure.  She told of the Panama Cathedral; the blue mountains seen in the distance on the Isthmus, and the dangerous coral reefs.  Mrs. Stabler went on to Jamaica, and told of the fine harbor of Kingston, the city founded in 1693, after its predecessor, the lost city of Port Royal had sunk in the sea.  As we know on the 14th of January, 1907, this locality had a second great misfortune in the great earthquake which nearly destroyed Kingston, and in which one thous-


and were killed, many more made penniless.  When she was there thousands of people were still living in the Parks and in tents.  She spoke of the tower of the Church whose clock stopped at half-past three; and the statue of Queen Victoria which turned on its pedestal, as if to look upon and sympathize with those who had been her island people.  Her black coachman informed her that the people were more religious before the earthquake than now, they went to church more and they began to think the end of the world had come.  Mrs. Stabler went on to describe the harbor of Santiago, which like Havana, has its Moro castle, the castle built after the fashion of the Moors.  At Guantanamo she saw forty of our American ships together.  Going on to Havana she described the great Cathedral where the wandering bones of Columbus are said to have long rested, before they were returned to Spain.  She saw the forlorn wreck of the Maine, and wondered what is to be the future of the land long Spain’s most beautiful isle.  She described Nassau with its fine harbor, its silk, cotton, trees, coral, conch pearls, and sea gardens.  Also the wonderful Banyan tree under which the pirate Black Beard was accustomed to hold consultations with his partners after his banish-


ment from the Virgin Islands.  She spoke of walking out in the evening when all Nature in land and water seemed to make life lovely with the moonlight shining over the molten sea like a pathway to the gardens of the blest.

The next article was by Mrs. Edward Stabler, and was on “Superstition in the Midst of Civilization.”  Mrs. Stabler spoke of the superstitions that still linger amongst us in our twentieth century;--the belief or half fear regarding prophetic signs, and good and bad omens, and secret magic powers.  The dread of the evil eye, so old and wide spread, has not gone yet.  We hear the assertion, “He put his or her eye upon me.”  She gave some very interesting instances of these delusive faiths, which may suggest psychological problems or simply cause astonishment.  She said that so fine a character and so wise a lawyer as the late William Pickney Whyte was strangely influenced by the unlucky number 13, and the unlucky day Friday, not choosing to begin anything on the thirteenth day of the month or the sixth day of the week.  And his experience seemed to confirm his apprehensions.  Mrs. Stabler spoke of good omens as well as of bad ones.  I believe Mr. Thackery says that of all the presentiments


and omens we hear it would be strange if some of them did not come true.

 The next article was by Mrs. Aaron I. Vanderpoel, and was on “Major Noah’s Experiment.”  It was a piece of history or an effort to make history preserved by Mrs. Vanderpoel’s father in an account given before the Historical Society of New York.  Major Noah was, we were told, an Old Testament Jew of New York who advanced the idea of making a city of refuge for his scattered and often persecuted people in free America, a settlement of their own, which would lead on to their future occupation of Palestine.  He bought in 1825 a large portion of Grand Island, which had not long before been accorded to the state of New York after a contest whether it belonged to this country or to Canada.  He proclaimed himself a Judge in Israel; and appointed a day for the laying of the corner-stone of the temple he wished to erect.  He invited his co-religionists, and his friends; many of them came; among them the Seneca Indians with the celebrated chief Red Jacket.  The Indians he thought, as have others to be descendants of the lost tribes of Israel.  But though they came, they showed no interest in the exercises, having little care for the schemes of the pale face.  On the appointed day early in 1826, it was found

[124 repeated (due to a misprint in the notebook, page numbers 124 and 125 are included twice)]

necessary to postpone the laying of the corner stone with its Hebrew inscription, and the silver cups of corn, wine and oil were all ready.  The inscription was dated according to the Jewish Calendar, and also as in the fiftieth year of the Independence of the United States.  There was a short service in the little Episcopal Church the only one in the neighborhood, and the new Judge in his elegant robe of office held such services as he could.  He invited the Jews of Europe and Asia to join him but they failed to respond, and the Jewish bankers who, he had expected, would furnish the funds for the undertaking, declined to do so.  The stone and silver cups remain where he placed them, and his sincere and well[-]meant endeavor to gather his people together, failed entirely.  Mrs. Vanderpoel spoke of the effort of a similar line, made long afterwards by Lawrence Oliphant, and reminded us of later and apparently greater efforts made for the object of Major Noah’s experiment.

The last article was by Miss Nellie Williams, and was called “Among the Germans in Pennsylvania.”  Miss Williams reminded us that the so-called Pennsylvania Dutch are not the Dutch of whom we sometimes hear as having taken Holland but Germans of the Platinate and surround-

[125 repeated]

ing regions of the Vaterland.  The first colony came in 1680 in pursuit of religious liberty, and William Penn admitted them into his colony.  There they have lived and prospered, keeping the characteristics of the old German race, among them thrift, economy and sturdy virtues.  The men are good farmers and traders, the women clean and orderly housekeepers, all trades seeming to flourish except those of the gentleman idler and the tramp.  There are, she said, about three hundred thousand Pennsylvania Dutch.  Their language has somewhat mingled with English, and she quoted some of their distinctive, queer English phrases.  They fought for the independence of the United States even against their foreign countrymen, the Hessians of the English Army.  In one grave yard there are Hessian graves and local superstition makes them rise on Christmas night for a wild spectre dance, which is broken up by the forces of General Washington from whom they flee again defeated.  There are women among them, Healers, who especially attend sick children.  Their treatment seems chiefly laying on of hands and measuring and what is called powering.  If the child recovers the credit is given to the healer, if it dies the event is ascribed to the inscrutable will of Providence.  Miss


Williams read some of the poetry of the Pennsylvania Dutch dialect.  The German language, she said, is a stately steed, but Pennsylvania Dutch is a wild colt careering over the plains.  Her last reading was a translation of Poe’s “Raven” into their dialect, which we could not fail to appreciate as an entirely unique version.

The President thanked Mrs. Stabler, the Chairman, and her Committee for the entertaining programme, and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 646th Meeting.

The 646th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 23rd, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This meeting was under the direction of the Committee on Foreign Travel, Mrs. A.P. Atwater, Chairman.  The President called the meeting to order and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 15th [16th].   The first article of the programme was by Miss Lucy T. Latané and was called "One of Our Winchester Days."  Miss Latane seemed to take us with her in her leisurely appreciative sightseeing in Winchester, and the surrounding


country.  She told of the traditions and historical souvenirs of King Alfred the Great in his ancient capital.  She spoke of his recently erected monument around which she saw and heard a band of the Salvation Army who were singing their twentieth century hymns.  She told of the wonders of the great Cathedral and its environment.  She described what was formerly supposed to be the original round table of the greatest legendary knights of the olden times.  She told of St. Swithin, Bishop of Winchester in 824, whose name is familiar to us as connected with forty days of rain.  She went on to tell of Salisbury and Salisbury Plain.  She described her visit to the hospital of St. Cross; and related the ancient custom of giving the dole of bread and ale at its gate.  She and her party received the dole and were informed that they had drunk from the cup from which King Edward himself had taken that part of the dole a short time before.  She told of the old tombs of the Saxon kings, and the relics of later monarchs and reverend prelates.  She described the old tomb of William of Wykeham, who died early in the fourteenth century; and the not far off grave of Jane Austen, the novelist, who lived in the nineteenth one,


and whose name has its own interest for literary women.

The next article was by Mrs. A. P. Atwater, and was called: "Quaint Legends of Olden Time."  Mrs. Atwater gave us legends relating to Great Britain, France[,] Switzerland and Germany.  One was about Harwarden, or Harden, as its people call it, near Chester and the Dee.  We were told of a wonderful statue of the Virgin Mary which was treated rather irreverently.  We were given the story of Mt. Pilatus near the Rhone, which related something of Palestine, and Old Europe, as well as the regions of ghosts and spirits.  We were told of dragons, and of the real mediaeval superstitions, which have their attractions, even in our very modern times.  The last legend was that of the so called "Maus" Tower in the Rhine, but with a defense of Bishop Hatto from the crime attributed to him, he having, it was said, lived some two hundred years before the date of the retribution of the rodents, and having left the reputation of a good and pious bishop.  Mrs. Atwater gave us an interesting reading from Southey's poem on the Mouse Tower.

The last article was by Miss Octavia Williams Bates, and was called: "Some Pictures


I Saw in England Last Summer."  Miss Bates spoke extempore, which added to the up[-]to[-]date quality, so to speak, of her account of her seeing and re-seeing pictures, and of their assuming a perspective in the eyes of the seer.  She spoke of recognizing in Raphael's "Holy Family" that Jesus is a real little boy.  She told of "The Descent from the Cross" by Rubens, in the Antwerp Cathedral; and of the one hundred thousand people going to see it in one year.  She described the impression it makes on the beholder, also of the wonderful color of Raphael's paintings.  She seemed to speak with less admiration of the "Elevation of the Cross."  She went on to tell of the pictures of Rembrandt and of Hals, and of other Dutch and Flemish painters.  She spoke of "The Night Watch" by Rembrandt, saying it is wrongly named, as the light in the painting is sunlight and not that of the lamps.  Miss Bates spoke of Rembrandt's portraits and of the people whom he painted.  She went on to tell that at Dresden she had an undisturbed view of the greatest of all the Madonnas, and was more than ever before impressed by its wonderful color, which is, of course, lost in its reproductions.  She spoke


of the ignorant comments she heard from some of our own countrymen on works of art abroad, and told ridiculous mistakes made even by those who have learned foreign languages.

The President spoke of our birthday, the 19th of March, and reminded us that we have entered our twentieth year.  She then spoke of the literary success of our valued member, Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud.  Her works are already well[-]known in England, and requests have come to allow the publication of her stories in Germany, and from France a request for her photograph and her autograph to be placed in the archen [archives?] of the Bibliolich [Bibliotheque?] National.

The President thanked Mrs. Atwater and her Committee for our programme and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 647th Meeting.

The 647th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 30th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This meeting was the March Salon; and the programme contained only one article,--given by Mrs. Jordan Stabler.  The President called the


meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 23rd.

The President gave notice of the subjects of the programme for the meetings in the month of April.  On April 6th, Autographs and Letters,--Mrs. Charles Carroll Marden Chairman: on April 13th Poetry, Miss Lizette Reese, Chairman: on the 20th the programme on Archaeology being deferred—a Miscellaneous Programme, under the arrangement of the President—to admit of papers from absent members.  On the 27th, the Salon, when it is expected that our honorary member, Miss Alice C. Fletcher of Washington, will tell us of her visit in Russia to Count Tolstoi.  Miss Flectcher is the only woman who has received a Fellowship from Harvard University, and she is an authority on the subjects connected with the American Indians.  She conducts her work in the National Museum in Washington, and has made valuable contributions to the National Ethnological Bureau.  Miss Fletcher is travelling at present; and may possibly be delayed over April 27th; but if she is obliged to defer her talk to us; there will be some other entertainment for that meeting.


The programme called for the account of "A Mediterranean Cruise," by Mrs. Jordan Stabler.  Mrs. Stabler said that the whole of her ten months' cruise would be too long for one article; and she would tell only the first part, ending with her visit to Cairo, Egypt.  She began by showing us some rare and beautiful "curios" and new photographs to illustrate her account.  We saw scarabs from Egypt,--one an amulet for protection from the "evil eye," embroideries from Smyrna, a tile from the Alhambra, souvenirs from Algiers, Jerusalem, and elsewhere in the mysterious East.  Mrs. Stabler told of her arrival at Funchal, Madeira, of its wonderful plant life and bright colored flowers, and its delightful climate, where heat is moderated by the presence of snow-capped hills, and to be cool one can ascend, to be warm one can descend.  She told of travelling in the Island on Bullock sleds, and also on a funicular railway.  She told of the heavy loads carried by human beasts of burden,--men and women.  A survival of Old European times is seen in the fact that the barbers are the dentists; and the dentists are the barbers.  She described a charming visit to a friend's villa, where her hostess


was English, the room was of English style, the English language was spoken and English customs followed.  When she was in Madeira the news had come of the assassination of the king and crown prince of Portugal, and was the chief thing of importance and discussion.  In Madeira all is picturesque, and the spell of the Latin Race falls and rests on the visitor.  Mrs. Stabler told of going to Cadiz, and on to Seville.  She described the great Cathedral, and the monument to Columbus with its inscription ascribing to him the glory and honor so inadequately accorded in his later life.  She spoke of seeing Murillo's beggar boys in living representation, and other subjects of the old Spanish painters.  She went on to Granada but said she would not speak of the Alhambra by moonlight, as Washington Irving has done full justice to its beauty.  She described the still present influence of the Moorish occupation for centuries; and the echoes and reflections of the old days of Spanish chivalry and romance that still appeal to the traveller [traveler] there.  She told of Gibraltar with the mighty rocks and defensive additions where the work of God and the work of man are seen to-


gether in the impregnable fortress.  She told of Algiers, which she found rather unattractive: and of Malta with its heroic and knightly memories.  She went to Constantinople, where she saw pilgrims to Mecca and the mosque where the Sultan goes to say his prayers.  She told of the great Mosque of St. Sophia, of Pera [area of Constantinople] and its European inhabitants, and described the many homeless dogs of the city.  She went on to Jaffa, and on the way to Jerusalem she saw the Rose of Sharon growing, and the camel at the plough in the fields.  She told of Jerusalem and the Garden of Gethsemane.  Also of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and the services held there by five great divisions ofe the Christian Churches.  She took much interest in the forms of the ancient Coptic worship.  In Jerusalem also she was invited to several afternoon teas, and had a call from Miss Ridgely of Baltimore.  In telling of interesting characters whos acquaintance she made she spoke of one Mohammedan gentleman she met, with a pedigree claimed to be thirteen hundred years old, who expressed a great desire for an American wife who could be his companion and friend, and seemed to think the American lady


could help him to find the wife he wanted.  Mrs. Stabler went on to Alexandria and Cairo.  At Shepherd's Hotel you can see about all of Cairo, and, she said, could wish you did not smell all, too.  She saw the Kedive [Khedive] and other great characters.  She went up the Nile, saw the Pyramids, the Sphynx, and the beautiful temple of Denderah [Dendur], from which the Signs of te Zodiac have been taken to Paris.  She went on to the temple buildings of Philae, saw the relics of Rameses the first, and a picture of the same on a temple wall, and other wonderful creations of the Egyptian past,--a past, she said, whose hold on us endures, and of which we are willing captives.

The President thanked Mrs. Stabler for taking us with her on her delightful Mediterranean cruise,--and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 648th Meeting.

The 648th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 6th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  The programme was under the direction of the Committee on Autographs and Letters: Mrs. Charles Carroll Mar-


den, Chairman.  The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 30th.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Lilie [Lillie] Schnauffer and was on "A. von Ende."  Miss Schnauffer had previously read to us an able review by this German-American lady, and now told of having written to and received letters from her.  Amalia von Ende, she said, was born of German parents in Warsaw, Poland, in 1856.  At an early age she came with her parents to America, and lived in Milwaukee, where she was a student in English and German, and also in music.  She married Heinrich von Ende, a German patriot, scholar and educator, whom she assisted in his work.  He died leaving her with two children.  She afterwards moved to New York where she became the correspondent of German novels, wrote literary articles in German and English, German poems; and gave lectures on German Literature.  Miss Schnauffer described the intellectual and artistic qualities of Madam von Ende's writings, especially of her poems, and particularly of her sonnets.  We were told of her theories with regard to the sonnet; and of her introduction into


German of the unrhymed sonnet.  Miss Schnauffer read to us translations of some of Madam von Ende's poems: "A Slumber Song;" "A Spring Mood" and "A Day of Dreams," which justified the appreciation given to Madam von Ende's poetic ability, even in translations.

The next article was by Miss Lucy T. Latane, and was on "Governor Spottswood" of Virginia.  In Miss Latane's absence, it was read by Mrs. Marden.  Miss Latane told of this Royal Governor of the colony of Virginia, early in the seventeenth century, and the people over whom he ruled, Cavaliers, Adventurers, Huguenots, Germans, Indians, and others.  He was the leader of an expedition into an untraveled region, and the founder of a new chivalrous order, The Knights of the Golden Horse Shoe.  Alexander Spottswood was born in Tangier, North Africa in 1676, of Scotch parents.  He was a soldier, and became aid[e]-de-camp to the Duke of Marlborough.  He was made Governor of the colony in 1710.  There he had much controversy with Commis[s]ary Blair, representative of the Bishop of London, and President of William and Mary College.  Miss Latane went on to tell of the settlement of Germana, where an emigration of Germans had come to be welcomed and protected on Governor Spotts-


wood's great estate.  It was from Germana the Governor started on his celebrated expedition of the Blue Ridge into the Shenandoah Valley, and further into unknown regions, with the men whom he made his Knights of the Golden Horse Shoe.  Miss Latane gave an interesting account of this exploration; which brought back the settlement of many geographical questions and other much needed information.  She described the badge of these knights--a golden horseshoe, with precious stones for nails.  She much regretted that there are now—so far as known—none of these badges to be found, though [except?] of much later than the expedition.  It would seem natural that there should some be found in the possession of some of the descendants of these representatives of American chivalry and romance.

The next article was by Mrs. A.P. Atwater, and was on Andrew D. White.  Mrs. Atwater reminded us that Mr. White had been not only a college president, but an Ambassador, writer, lecturer, &c.  He was born in 1832 in a small village in the state of New York, and lived in an old colonial mansion.  It is recorded that he could read at four years old.


He went early to Hobart College at Geneva.  There, Mrs. Atwater said, he became well known to her father and mother, and made her acquaintance by rocking her cradle.  She went on to tell of Mr. White's career as a student at Yale, as a Senator, and as United States Minister to Russia; and also to Germany.  She referred to his autobiography, which had been reviewed in our Club.  She spoke of his letters, and gave extracts from some of them, written to herself.  In one of these he asked her to send back to him some of his verses written in her mother's album, which he wished to see again.  Mrs. Atwater read to us this little "poem" of Mr. White's, which was a graceful and humorous tribute to his old friend's "golden gingerbread."

The last article was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was on Edmund Clarence Stedman.  She told of his birth in Hartford, Connecticut in 1833.  His family afterwards moved to Norwich in the same state,--the place he always loved.  He thought one need not go about who could live in Norwich.  Miss Reese told of his later life in the city of New York, as a man of business; as a man of letters; poet, editor, critic, etc.  She described his books, especially his "Victorian


Anthology" and his "American Anthology."  She recalled his lectures in Baltimore in 1891 at the Johns Hopkins University on the "Nature and Elements of Poetry," the first course given on the Turnbull Memorial Foundation.  Those of us who heard Mr. Stedman and met him there are glad to be reminded of that time.  Miss Reese read some selections from his poems, and went on to speak of his pleasant manner and personal charm; and also of the generous appreciation of other writers,--all of which she told us made him the best loved writer of the nineteenth century.  She spoke of his sudden death when pleasant words had just left his lips.  She quoted from Mr. Stedman's letter to herself with regard to the Poe Memorial Association,--which was of special interest to our Club.  Miss Reese's acquaintance and friendship with Mr. Stedman made her tribute to him particularly interesting to her fellow members.

The President thanked Mrs. Marden and the members of her Committee for the programme of the afternoon and for all the good work they have done for us,--and declared the meeting adjourned.



The 649th Meeting. (Written by Mrs. Marden)

The 649th regular meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building, April 13th, 1909.  The President, Mrs. John C. Wrenshall called the meeting to order.

In the absence of Miss Crane, Mrs. Marden acted as Recording Secretary, but the minutes of the last meeting were omitted.

Mrs. Wrenshall announced that the fifth open meeting of the Club for the season would be held Thursday evening, April 22nd.  Mr. Allen S. Will, City Editor of the Baltimore "Sun," will give a lecture on "Some Suggestions for the Development of Authorship in Maryland."

Following this announcement the programme of the afternoon was given by the Committee on Poetry, Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman.

The first paper was on "Edmund Gosse as a Poet," by Miss Lucy Temple Latane. Miss Latane recalled a course of lectures by Edmund Gosse, given by the Johns Hopkins University years ago before the University had an assembly hall in the auditorium of the Peabody.  She said the subject of her paper was suggested to her by reading Gosse's book "Father and Son."  She con-


sidered his poetry of good form and often beautiful, but lacking in earnestness of spirit, and in the quality that touches the heart.  In closing she read some verses on the death of Cardinal Newman, which Miss Latane considered Gosse's best poem.

The second number consisted of two poems by Mrs. Wrenshall, "Compensation" and "Night at Sea."  Before reading the second poem Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of her love of the sea, and of her fancies that the Sun and the Sea were lovers.  It was, however, of the beauty and mystery of "Night at Sea" that she had written.

The next article was by Mrs. Charles Carroll Marden on "The Spanish Ballad," after which Miss Cloud presented in her inimitable way a paper,--"The Deathless Rose."  Miss Cloud regretted the wholesale condemnation of modern fiction and modern poetry by the pessimistic, and claimed that much of the poetry being produced at the present time possessed the essential qualities of true poetry.  She concluded her paper by reading a number of short poems worthy of a permanent place in literature including one by Miss Reese entitled "Tears."


Miss Cloud called attention to the fact that a new edition of Miss Reese's little volume of poems,--"A Branch of May," had just appeared.

Miss Reese conclude[d] the programme by reading several poems from "A Branch of May," including "Anne," "Sweet Weather," "Betrayed," "Mid-March," and "Sunset."

Mrs. Wrenshall thanked Miss Reese and the ladies of her Committee and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 650th Meeting.

The 650th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 20th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  There was a Miscellaneous Programme arranged by the President Mrs. Wrenshall. On account of unfor[e]seen delay the minutes of the previous meeting were omitted.  In calling the meeting to order the President again announced the lecture to be given on Thursday, April 22nd before the Club by Mrs. Allen S. Will of the Baltimore "Sun," on the "Development of Authorship in Maryland.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs. W.C.A. Hammel of Greensboro, North Carolina, a former active member


of the Club, but now a non-resident member.  In her absence her article was read for her by Mrs. Uhler, Corresponding Secretary.  Mrs. Hammel's subject was "The Inspiration of Clay."  She told of the uses of clay, especially in the making of Pottery.  She spoke of the old Greeks in their Keramos work, and of their wonderful grace and beauty in their plastic art.  She reminded us of Omar K[h]ayyam's Potter working in clay once of human mould, which calls to him, "Gently, Brother, gently!" with more than poetic truth in the claim of kinship.  She spoke of the prophet Jeremiah's being sent to the potter's house where "he wrought a work on the wheels.  And the vessel that he made of clay was marred in the hand of the potter; so he made it again another vessel as seemed good to the potter."  She thought there is no division of art into which man puts more of himself; in which there are more possibilities; more joy over the perfect vessel after it has stood the test of tempering; the chance of being marred in the [work?]; and the test of the fire.  The use of clay is almost universal,--even our own American Indians and other untaught races seem to have discovered pottery


as well as basket work for themselves.  Mrs. Hammel went on to tell of the ancient Egyptian and Assyrian work in clay of the scarabasi, tiles, cylinders, etc., that have been preserved for us.  She spoke of the beautiful porcelain, fine china, and delicate art work of Asia, Europe, and our own country.  She described the methods by which this work is done, and the admirable results of the inspiration of clay.

The next article was by Miss Elizabeth Lester Mullin, and was on "Benjamin Banneker," the colored mathematician and astronomer.  Miss Mullin said we have had here in Maryland an instance of the darker brother in his individual aptitude for improvement.  She told that in 1789, the Commissioners to run the boundaries of the District of Columbia invited a colored man to assist in the work of defining these limits.  The chief information about this American of African descent, Benjamin Banneker is derived [from] two articles read before the Maryland Historical Society; the first by Mr. John H.B. Latrobe, father of our former mayor,--and the second written by someone who was afterwards found to be Mrs. Martha Ellicott Tyson.  Mr. Latrobe thought Banneker was a pure negro;


but Mrs. Tyson, who probably gained her information from members of her own family, to whom Banneker owed invaluable favors, says that his maternal grandmother was a white woman.  She was, it was said, an indentured servant; who, after serving her time, married a negro, said to be the son of an African king.  Her only daughter married a negro also, and Benjamin was an only son.  He seems to have been a landed proprietor, as a deed is recorded conveying land from one of the Gist family to Richard Banneker and his son Benjamin.  In youth Benjamin made a clock which kept excellent time, having borrowed a watch, and studied its works.  His employer, Mr. Ellicott, found out his capability; and lent him books, among them Fergusson's Astronomy, intending to explain its difficulties.  But he found that Banneker mastered the work without explanations, and it is even said that he afterwards discovered a minor error in Fergusson's work.  He never married, and in his quiet life was accustomed to sleep in the day, and make observations of the stars at night,--which caused his own people to give him credit for drinking.  He


was employed to compile an almanac, and did so successfully.  He even ventured to send one of his almanacs to Thomas Jefferson, afterwards President of the United States, who replied in a kind and encouraging answer to Mr. Benjamin Banneker, Baltimore County.  He had pleasant relations with District of Columbia Commissioners, also whom he assisted in their work.  At the age of sixty Banneker made an agreement with the Ellicott Brothers to convey to them his land, reserving an annuity from it of £12 a year for fifteen years, as he expected to live for that length of time.  He lived eight years longer than that, and asserted that the annuity was not to continue.  But the Ellicott gentlemen made the point that the land had so increased in value that they owned him decidedly more than the amount paid him in fifteen years, and he agreed to their decision.  Banneker made a will disposing of small properties, and especially of his much[-]valued letter from Mr. Jefferson.  He was a man of dignity himself, but never forgot the due deference that marked the manners of the old régime.  Miss Mullin thought that one of his almanacs is possessed by the Historical Society.


The next article was given by Miss Annie Hollins; and was a translation of "The Nouveau Riche," a comedy from the Italian of Alberta Nota.  It begins with a certain Gepido and his son Ludovico, who after being a blacksmith, had by the death of a cousin become very rich.  This cousin had been no friend of theirs; but no will being found, they seem to be the next of kin. Gepido is ignorantly trying to fit his son for the position he wishes him to assume, and for a marriage with a noble young lady who is dependent on her aunt, the latter being tired of supporting her.  The noble young Isabella has an aristocratic lover whom she naturally prefers greatly to the ex-blacksmith,--but says he will have to let her do as she pleases; and she is not the first woman willing to marry for jewels and fine clothes.  Gepido's son Ludovico—formerly Titta objects to the fencing and dancing lessons, declaring his poor back, accustomed only to bending over the anvil, is almost broken.  Besides he is in love with Agnes, a village girl who comes to claim his promised troth.  Isabella's lover also comes upon the scene.  The good Judge of the place, and with Bernardo, a cousin


of Gepido's and an uncle of the village girl Agnes,--make strong efforts to bring the wandering stars into their proper orbits, in vain.  But soon the news comes that a well attested will of the deceased relation has been found.  In this document he has left Agnes 4000 ducats when she marries Titta; the same amount to his friend and executor Bernardo, and all the rest of his property to the hospital of his native village, with the proviso that the executor is to give food and clothing to Tonio, who, of course has now to give up his assumed name of Gepido.  The Lady Isabella and her lover declare they are satisfied, and go off happy even without much worldly prosperity.  Gepido has to listen to his son and future daughter-in-law; and Bernardo invites all three to come and live with him as one family.

The next article was a story by Mrs. Percy M. Reese called "A Miracle."  She described two friends journeying to Georgia, one to be married, and the other to be best man for his companion.  The young son of an obscure clergyman is to marry the daughter of an old wealthy Southern family, and it is a love match.  The friends come through the beauti-


ful country to the village near the old Harrison mansion.  At the station the lover announce[s] that he must see his Vesta immediately, and leaving his friend to make other arrangements he hurries to her home.  On his return his friend finds him preoccupied and sad, and insists on learning the cause.  It is a dream of the night before.  He thought that Vesta and himself were in Egypt with the monuments and temples of ages ago around them, when a strange presence appears akin to the ancient sculptured forms of the scene.  It draws near saying, "She was mine centuries ago;" and drags her away before he awakes.  And after meeting Vesta, she clinging to him tells of her having the same dream at the same time.  That night there was a storm that broke down all the roses around the old mansion leaving only alive waterlilies and flags.  When Vesta came down to be married she wore the flower of the Nile, and emeralds instead of the diamonds he had looked for, her hair was dressed in a strange fashion, and she seemed to belong to long ages ago, and the land of the Sphynx.  They crossed the sea for their bridal trip, and


after a time news came that they were going to Egypt.  Then came further news that the wife had determined to remain in the East.  At the end of the letter the husband wrote, "I lost her before we were married,--I am coming home alone."

The President thanked Mrs. Uhler for writing to Mrs. Hammel and for obtaining her interesting article.  She thanked Miss Mullin for her account of individual talent and success by the "darker brother." She thanked Mrs. Reese for making our hair stand on end figuratively,--and declared the meeting adjourned.


The 651st Meeting.

The 651st meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 27th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This was the April Salon, and the programme contained only one article, which was given by our honorary member, Miss Alice C. Fletcher of Washington.  The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, called the meeting to order, and introduced Miss Fletcher as the only woman who holds a fellowship in Harvard University; Vice-President of the


American Anthropological Society, and who is officially engaged in the work of the Bureau of Ethnology in Washington.  She is an authority on the American Indians, and has introduced into the work of the American Archaeological Society the new department of American Archaeology.

 Miss Fletcher then gave us her account of "A Visit to Count Leo Tolstoi" during her European tour a year and a half ago.  She told us that it is impossible to judge Tolstoi rightly without knowing the setting in which he is placed, and the past and present conditions where the rich and poor are striving to dominate; with no real middle class between them; no meeting ground nor common sympathy.  Miss Fletcher described her railway journey from Moscow to Toula [Tula] with her American travelling companions,--a distinguished College Professor and his wife; and told of the people she met on the way.  She spoke of the long drive to the Count's villa, and the unattractive Russian village nearby.  At the villa they were shown into a room, and a tall gentleman soon appeared, who explained in excellent English, that his father had not finished his mid-day nap,--


which nothing was allowed to interrupt.  But soon the Countess Tolstoi appeared, gave them welcome, and bad[e] them to dinner.  The dining room was out of doors under the trees, with a beautiful table on which the silver and glass gleamed brightly.  Tolstoi himself came to greet them dressed exactly like a peasant, a fashion, which was not followed by the rest of the family, for the dainty Countess lifted her lace flounces as she walked.  The Count is not handsome, she said, his features look as if thrown together; but the expression of his countenance redeems what would otherwise be actual ugliness.  At the table every one waited until his dinner—that of the vegitarian [vegetarian]--was prepared for him; then they partook of the good things suitable to such occasions.  Afterwards some little children came to the Count,--who is accustomed to instruct them from the Gospels; but he patted their heads and explained that some friends from far away were there, and he could not teach them then.  He said he liked to tell them of the good things of God.  He walked with his guests over his grounds; and while he was in advance with the others, Miss Fletcher enjoyed the conversation of the Countess.


She said it was impossible to keep the place in good order on account of the peasants around them.  They had little or no appreciation of the Count's self-denial and efforts for their good and advancement; they seemed only to see that he had an estate, and they had none; and when they came to beg and were given copecks [kopeks], they threw them back and said they wanted roubles [rubles].  The Countess went on to say she was not sure that their home might not yet be destroyed by these neighbors.  Miss Fletcher said that since then it had been attacked, though not destroyed.  Miss Fletcher also said she thought that gratitude is of slow growth and development among primitive people.  They seem to live in the time before Galieo [Galileo]; they think the world is flat; and that Russia is the centre [center] and by far the great part of it.  The Countess Tolstoi also told Miss Fletcher of a neighboring landed proprietor who said to her that he counted his children every morning for fear that one or two might have been taken away in the night.  He also said his wife told him he ought to accustom


himself to cold weather, as he did not know how soon he might be sent to Siberia.  Countess Tolstoi also said her husband had at one time endeavored to give up his estate to the peasants around him; but that she had insisted that he was only a steward of his property, having received it from his own ancestors, and being in duty bound to transmit it to their nineteen grandchildren.  Miss Fletcher described the beautiful home of the Tolstois,--the library, the two grand pianos, etc., and the unaffected hospitable pleasure they took in showing their guests over it.  She told Count Tolstoi that she belonged to a literary society in Washington, and she would be glad to carry to it a message from him.  Before she left he brought her a little book of his own, saying: "It is about Shakespeare,--it will make them mad."  She said, "It did," as he had no real comprehension of Shakespeare's point of view.  She described Mr. Spofford, formerly Congressional Librarian defending his beloved Shakespeare against Tolstoi's book.  She said Shakespeare's humor does not exist for Tolstoi.  Indeed in Russia she thought there seems no development of the sense of hu-


mor,--perhaps there is nothing humorous there to awaken it, and no place for it.  Miss Fletcher described the informal tea they enjoyed with white strawberries and cream, the pleasant farewells that followed.  Miss Fletcher quoted Tolstoi's eloquent denunciation of a world that has given up not only the Gospels but the ten Commandments, also.  She also spoke of the tendency of primitive people to dramatize their ideals,--of which there is much in Tolstoi's writings.  But she read to us one of his latest publications, in which he speaks of his life as having had three phases.  For his first thirty years he lived for himself to make himself happy.  In the second phase he tried to live for others; for the good of humanity, for brotherhood of man.  Then came a sort of indifference when the enthusiasm for his life work grew dull.  Then in the third phase came the new found interest in the service of God, the religious impulse to bring man to attain God.  As Miss Fletcher read of this latest phase of the man of eighty years old there was the suggestion of the life inspiration of the early Christian Saints.  Miss Fletcher told of her return


from Russia, and spoke of the trouble some systems of passports encounter there.  She said her friend Mrs. Barrows had applied for and received a passport before her husband the Professor obtained one for her and himself together.  As this was sufficient the extra one was not presented in Russia, but the owner kept it with her.  When they were near the German border the passports were demanded for inspection, and when they were returned Miss Fletcher's was missing.  Her friends said it would be returned to her, but at the boundary it was still missing and she was told she would have to go back to Russia.  The Professor's wife said, "You want the other passport?" And produced her own which made up the required number without question.  And Miss Fletcher said she went out of Russia described as having blue eyes and white hair, which she does not possess.  She could only suppose that her passport had been taken for some woman who felt obliged to leave Russia without the publicity of applying for a passport.  "And I hope," she added, "that Miss Fletcher is not recorded in Russia as having killed anybody."


The President recalled to us the Russian Folk Songs sung for us last November by Mr. Paulsen.  She said that she and her party on her last European journey, met a Russian who was very interesting, and had heard from him since.  She had wished to send to him the programme of our Russian Recital, but remembering the disturbed conditions of his country she had concluded not to do so, as even a slight thing might compromise a Russian with his government.

An invitation to attend a lecture on "Child Training," by Miss Laura Garrett was read to the Club.

As this was the last meeting in April, the notice was given of the three annual business meetings of the Club on the first three Tuesdays in May.  May 4th, Reports of the Chairmen of Committees, May 11th, Nominations. May 18th, Elections.  May 25th Closing Salon.  The notice of the last open evening of the Club on May 25th was given also, a musical entertainment by Miss Blackhead and Miss Albert.

The meeting was adjourned.



The 652nd Meeting.

The 652nd meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 4th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This was an annual Business Meeting, which the Constitution provides, "shall be held on the first Tuesday in May, at which the Chairmen of the Standing Committees shall read reports of their work."

The President announced that the last open evening meeting of the Club for the season of 1908-1909 would be held on May [2]5th, to which guests could be invited.  There would be music by Miss Balckhead and Miss Albert of the Peabody Annex.

The programme called first for "A Few Words from the President."

Mrs. Wrenshall said this meeting was a sort of family party; and an appropriate occasion to look back on the past year.  She spoke of our progress and development; and for which she thought no methods so good as those which have


their beginning in the work of our Committees.  The consultations and the comparisons of the Committee meetings bring the members close together; give the true perspective, and help the Chairmen to pass judgment on, and to direct the work submitted.  She made suggestions for broadening the Committee work.  She closed with high hopes for the year to come.

The first report called for was from the Committee on Archaeology, Mrs. Philip R. Uhler, Chairman.  Mrs. Uhler said that this Committee really possessed only two members,--the President and herself.  It had given one meeting on January 26, 1909, at which our President had given an article on "The Villa Adriana," Tivoli, Italy.  We were reminded of our President's picturesque and vivid description of the ruins of this wonderful summer palace of the Emperor Hadrian, as she had seen it for us.  Both Mrs. Uhler and the President spoke of the interest and advantage of the study of Archaeology,--with their wish that more of our members would engage in it.

The next report called for was that of the Committee on Art, Mrs. R. M.


Wylie, Chairman.  Mrs. Wylie was unable to be present, but we could recall her meeting of November 10th, 1908, when the "Art of Poetry" was the subject and the especial theme "The Poetry of Sidney Lanier."  We remembered two of our Presidents had been true and trusted friends of Sidney Lanier; and the two articles of this meeting were by these two Presidents, Mrs. Wrenshall and Mrs. Turnbull, and both were beautiful tributes to his memory, and true and inspiring appreciations of his art and his genius.

The next Committee on the list was "The Authors and Artists of Maryland," Mrs. C. W. Lord, Chairman, but Mrs. Lord has gone to Europe, and there had been no meeting to report.

The next Committee was "Colonial and Revolutionary History," Mrs. Thomas Hill, Chairman.  Mrs. Hill was not present, but her one meeting had taken place on November 24th, 1908, when we were given a recitation, by Miss Fox, of the poem "Tench Tilghman's Ride," an incident particularly interesting to Marylanders, as the Maryland Tilghman carried the first news of the surrender of Cornwallis from Yorktown to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia.  There also articles on Colonial History by Mrs. E.E. Fayerweather


and Miss Mary Forman Day.

The next report was from the Chairman of the Committee on "Current Criticism," Miss Lucy Temple Latané.  She reported two meetings.  At the first, November 17th, 1908, there were three reviews: one on Mrs. Ward's "Testing of Diana Mallory" by Miss Latané; one on Maurice Hewlett's "Halfway House," by Miss Emily Paret Atwater; and the third on Hamlin Garland's "Shadow World" by Mrs. William M. Smith.  At Miss Latané's second meeting on February 2nd, 1909, there were reviewed: by the Chairman, "The Life of Alice Freeman Palmer;" "Some Pleasant Books on Italy," by Mrs. Wrenshall Markland; and Miss Johnson's "Lewis Rand," by Mrs. William M. Smith, and the meeting closed with a critical article by Miss Virginia W. Cloud.

Mrs. Frederic Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on "Current Topics" was not in Baltimore, and there was no report given of her meeting of October 20th, 1908.

The next report was from the Committee on "The Drama," Miss Virginia Cloud, Chairman.  Miss Cloud sent her report which was read in its turn.  It said: "The Committee on the Drama gave one meeting on October 16th, 1908." It consisted of an essay by Miss Ellen Duvall on 'Browning.'  Browning


the thinker, rather than Browning the man.  Several Spring Poems, exquisite lyrics, by Miss Reese; "A Drama from Real life," by Mrs. Sidney Turner.  A paper concerning "Our National Poetry" by Miss Cloud, and a short, bright play by Mrs. Robert Bowie.

The next report was of the Committee on Education, Miss Anne Cullington, Chairman.  Miss Cullington reported her meeting on January 12th, 1909, when we had an article showing the wise and liberal methods of "Education in Munich," by Miss Nellie C. Williams; followed by an article on the "Hull School of Navigation," in which Miss Cullington described the excellent training given by the English Government to the young seamen of its Navy.  We also had, from Mrs. Wrenshall Markland, an account of "The Government School for Girls in Florence."  She reviewed the educational methods in Italy now; and from them augured well for the rising generation of Italian women.  This meeting closed with an impartial and lively article on the "Kindergarten the Public Schools by Mrs. Robert Bowie.

The next report was that of Mrs. Sidney Turner, Chairman of the Committee on "Essays."  She had given two programmes.


At her meeting of December 8th, 1908, there was an article on “Purpose” by Miss H. Frances Cooper; one on “Great Things” by Mrs. McGaw, and one on “Individuality” by Mrs. Uhler.  This was followed by the discussion of the “Distinctions between Individuality and Personality.”  This was interesting and suggestive and was carried on by Mrs. Wrenshall; Miss Nicholas; Miss Reese; Mrs. Taneyhill; Miss Cullington, and Mrs. William M. Smith.  In Mrs. Turner’s second programme, March 9th, 1909, was treated the subject “The Way the Wind Blows.” These were varied and thoughtful articles—from different points of view—by Mrs. Uhler; Mrs. McGaw; Miss Nicholas; Mrs. Rinehart, and Mrs. Sidney Turner.

The next Chairman to report was Mrs. Percy M. Reese of the Committee on Fiction.  Mrs. Reese spoke of the good work of her Committee, and reported her two meetings.  On October 27th, 1908, we had two original stories; the first by Mrs. William M. Smith, called “The Promise,” and the second called the “Fragonard,” by Mrs. Robert Bowie.  These were followed by an “Essay on Present Day Fiction” by Miss Lizette W.


Reese.  Mrs. Percy M. Reese’s second programme on February 9th, 1909, contained three stories, “The Matchmaker,” by Mrs. William M. Smith; “Tiger Lily House,” by Mis E.P. Atwater; and “Shipmates,” by Mrs. Wrenshall-Markland.

The next report on the list was that of Mrs. Frederic Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Languages, but Mrs. Tyson’s absence prevented its presentation.  Her Committee had given two programmes.  At her meeting of December lst, 1908, there were three translations: one from the German of Madam von Ende, by Miss Lillie Schnauffer; one from the Italian, by Miss Annie Hollins; and one from the French by Miss Nellie C. Williams.  At the second meeting, on March 2nd, 1909, the programme was under the direction of Miss Mary Perkins, Acting Chairman in the absence of Mrs. Tyson, and there were three lively translations, all from the French; by Miss Mullin, Miss Bates, and Miss Perkins.

The next Chairman called for was Mrs. A.P. Atwater of the Committee on Foreign Travel.  Mrs. Atwater reported two meetings.  At the one on November 3rd, 1908, we had articles by Mrs. Wrenshall-Mark-


land and Miss Williams, and a thrilling personal experience told by Mrs. Taneyhill, called “How We Entered Pekin [Beijing].”  At Mrs. Atwater’s second meeting, on March 23rd, 1909, there were articles by Miss Latané; Miss Bates, and the Chairman herself, Mrs. Atwater.

The Committee on Historical Studies had no report, on account of the absence, from long illness, of its Chairman, Mrs. T. A. Hill.

The Chairman of the Committee on “Letters and Autographs,” Mrs. Charles Carroll Marden, was absent, but the minutes of her meeting of April 6, 1909, had been just read by the Club.  Her programme contained articles by Miss Latané; Mrs. Atwater; Miss Schnauffer; and Miss Lizette Reese.

The Chairman of the Committee on Modern Poetry, presented a report which was read by Mrs. Atwater.  It told of Miss Reese’s two programmes at the meetings of October 13th, 1908, and April 13th, 1909.  At the first there were reviews by Miss Reese and Miss Cullington; a poem by Miss Cloud; and five of the poems of Miss Reese, beautifully read by Mrs. Wrenshall.  At Miss Reese’s second meeting, on April 13th, there was an article on “Edmond Gosse,” by Miss Latané; Original


Poems by Mrs. Wrenshall; an article on “The Spanish Ballad,” by Mrs. Marden; an article by Miss Cloud and poems by Miss Reese.

The next report was that of Mrs. Alan P. Smith, Chairman of the Committee on The Literature of the Bible.  Mrs. Smith spoke of the opportunities for good work, and of the inspiration of the subject in studying the literature of the Bible.  She reported her meeting of December 15th, 1908, at which there were articles by Miss Ellen Duvall, and Miss Cullington, and one by Mrs. Smith herself on “St. Paul’s Address at [Athens?]”

Mrs. Edward Stabler, Chairman of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records, reported her meeting of March 16th, 1909, when Mrs. Jordan Stabler gave her trip “From Carracas [Caracas] to Nassau;” Miss Williams described “The Germans in Pennsylvania;” Mrs. Edward Stabler told of “Superstition in the Midst of Civilization;” and Mrs. Aaron J. Vanderpoel told of “The Experiment of Major Noah;” the unfamiliar record of an unsuccessful attempt, in 1826, to found a Hebrew Community on an island in the St. Lawrence river.

Miss Hollins, Chairman of the Committee on The Literature of Music; and also of the Committee on Music of the Sa-


lons, presented her double report.  She told of our first meeting of the season, on October 6th, 1908, when we enjoyed a Piano Recital by Miss Hollins, assisted by Miss Bash.  At her meeting of February 23rd, 1909, she gave us a programme commemorating the centennial of the birth of Felix Mendelsshon [Mendelssohn]  Bartholdy.  She illustrated the Literature of Music, in an account of the life and works of the distinguished musician; followed by beautiful selections from his compositions, given by herself,--assisted by Miss Lydia Kirk and Miss Laura Elliott.  She also reported the evening meeting of Monday, November 23rd, 1908, when we were highly favored by Mr. Paulsen, a Russian living in Baltimore, who sang finely the Folk Songs of his native land,--accompanied by Miss Stiebler.  Miss Hollins also reported the fine musical programme of the evening meeting of Thursday, March 18th, 1909, given by Mr. Harry Patterson Hopkins, assisted by Mrs. Powers.  Another beautiful musical programme was afterwards, as announced, given us on the evening of May 5th, a Song Recital, by Miss Elizabeth Albert, and Miss Virginia Blackhead of the Peabody Annex.  The President spoke of our obligations to Miss Hollins,


who was given a rising note of Thanks from the Club.

The President called on Miss Cooper, who has charge of our Book Lists, to tell of the work in her department.  Miss Cooper spoke of the new books and magazine articles whose names she had recorded on our Bulletin Board.

Mrs. Percy Reese was called on to tell of our Library; and she spoke of its present condition, and of the care of keeping the books in good order.  The President made suggestions for the good preservation of pamphlets, magazines, etc.

The President spoke of Miss Haughton, our former Chairman of Entertainments, who last year resigned that position on account of ill health.  She was glad to tell us that Miss Haughton was feeling now so much better that she was willing to resume the position for the coming season.

In addition to our Committee programmes, we had at our meeting of April 20th an interesting Miscellaneous progrmme, arranged by our President, to which were contributed articles on “The Inspiration of Clay,” by Mrs. W.C.A. Hammel; “Benjamin Banneker,” by Miss E.L. Mullin;


a Translation, by Miss Hollins, and a Story by Mrs. P. M. Reese.

Two of our monthly Salons were devoted to single literary articles; on that of March 30th, we had “A Mediterranean Cruise,” by Mrs. Jordan Stabler; and on April 27th we had “A Visit to Count Tolstoi,” by Miss Alice C. Fletcher of Washington, D.C.  The latter was a unique and forceful account of this erratic genius and philanthropist, which seemed to make him more comprehensible and responsive than other descriptions have done.

Our evening meetings to which visitors,--gentlemen and ladies were admitted,--were much enjoyed.  They included the New Year and Twelfth Night celebration on January 5th, 1909; the musical meetings already mentioned, and two lectures.  On February 25th, Mr. Thomas Mackenzie of the Baltimore Bar, gave us “The Legal Status of Woman in Maryland;” and on April 22nd, Mr. Allen S. Will, of the Baltimore “Sun,” gave us “Some Suggestions for the Development of Authorship in Maryland,”--both discourses being full of information and interest.

After the adjournment of the Business meeting, the Chairman of Committees


consulted with the President on the meeting of the coming Club year.


The 653rd Meeting.

The 653rd meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 11th, 1909, in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This was the annual Business meeting devoted to nominations for all the six officers and for three directors of the Club, for the coming year.  The President called the meeting to order and announced the business in hand.  She then appointed the Election Committee: which according to our Club Constitution must consist of two members of the Board of Management and three from other members of the Club.  The five names were: Mrs. Uhler, Chairman and Judge of Election, and Mrs. Powell, the two of the Board of Management, and Mrs. Percy M. Reese, Mrs. R. B. Bowie and Miss Nichols from the other members.  The President read from the Club Constitution that a quorum for business meetings was one-third of the active members of the Club,--though for Constituion-


al amendments a majority was required.  The Judge of Election called the Roll, and the members present answered to their names.  A quorum was declared present.  A little interlude occurred when the question of absentees was discussed, and the name of Mrs. Atwater was mentioned.  Mrs. Stabler explained that she had seen Mrs. Atwater, who was suffering much pain[,] an inconvenience, in consequence of a fire at her home, which had burned her hands and almost completely destroyed her wardrobe.  The President suspended business to propose a message of regret and sympathy to be sent to Mrs. Atwater—which was passed by rising vote.

Mrs. Uhler explained our vote for our Board of Management, which consists of twelve members.  Our six officers are elected to serve for two years; but three of the six directors go out of office at each annual election.  The three directors holding over this year are Mrs. Powell; Mrs. McGaw, and Mrs. Turner; those retiring are: Mrs. Frederic Tyson, Miss Lizette W. Reese and Miss Virginia W. Cloud.  The retiring directors are, of course, eligible to re-election;


but Miss Reese has sent word that she positively declines to be a candidate for re-election this year.

The ballots were distributed, and the members filled them out, immediately.  The ballots were collected, and the Committee retired to count them in the library adjoining.  While waiting the President said she liked to share her pleasures with her fellow members, and proposed to do so now by reading to us a letter she had received from our member, Mrs. C. W. Lord, now in England.  Mrs. Lord spoke of being at Salisbury, and staying in a very satisfactory lodging, recommended to her by our President.  She told of her first view of Stonehenge—in seeing the great pillars against heavy, dark thunder clouds, and soon, the storm being over, seeing them light up with bright sunlight.  She spoke of her delight in visiting the great Cathedrals, but related on adventure not delightful.  She and a “nice” Philadelphia girl were in Winchester Cathedral one afternoon, and found themselves locked in, till a verger coming back on an errand, released them, and scolded them roundly,--but they were too glad to free to mind that much.


The Election Committee returned and reported the result of the nominating votes.  There were twenty-two votes cast:

For President; Mrs. John C. Wrenshall, 21

First Vice President; Mrs. Jordan Stabler, 21

Second Vice President; Mrs. Alan P. Smith, 21

Mrs. Sidney Turner, 1

Recording Secretary; Miss Lydia Crane, 21

Mrs. Wrenshall-Markland, 1

Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. Philip R. Uhler, 21

Mrs. C. C. Marden, 1

Treasurer.                       Miss E. L. Mullin, 22


Miss Virginia W. Cloud: 22.

Miss Annie Hollins: 19.

Miss H. F. Cooper: 16.

Miss L. W. Reese: 1.

Mrs. R.B. Bowie: 1.

Mrs. Percy M. Reese: 2.

Miss Latané: 2.

Mrs. Marden: 2.

Miss Nicholas: 1.

Miss L. W. Reese had declined to be a candidate, and several others withdrew their names from nomination.

The meeting was adjourned.


The 654th Meeting.

The 654th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 18th, 1909, in the assembly room


Academy of Sciences Building.  This was a business meeting for the annual election of the six officers and three directors.  The President called the meeting to order.  The reading of the minutes was omitted.  The President announced that the Election Committee of five members, which had at the last meeting, counted the nominating votes, had been reduced to three,--two of those originally appointed having been called out of the city.  She, therefore, appointed Mrs. Thomas Hill to serve in place of Miss Hollins; and Mrs. William M. Smith in place of Miss Nicholas.  It was also announced that our Treasured [Treasurer], Miss Mullin, had been also called away from home; but that she had sent us her account books, and her annual report.  The President appointed Mrs. Pope and Mrs. McGaw as Auditors of Miss Mullin’s account books; and requested that Mrs. McGaw would—later—read Miss Mullin’s report.  The President also gave notice of a meeting of the Board of Management, at her home, on Saturday morning, at eleven o’clock.

The President also read a letter from Mrs. A.P. Atwater, thanking the Club for the flowers sent to her, and for its message of sympathy, after the fire at her


house, and expressing her regret for her temporary absence from among us, on account of the burning up of her wardrobe.

Mrs. Uhler, Judge of Election, then requested all members then present to sign their names in the Club book.  A quorum was declared, and the ballots were distributed.  Mrs. Uhler spoke of the withdrawal of some of the names voted for at the nominating meeting.  But she read a letter from Miss Cloud, who said that she appreciated the unanimous nominating vote she received, and would be glad to stand for election as a Director, adding that she loved the Club, and would like to continue on its Board of Management, if able to do so.

The ballots having been filled up, were now collected, and the Committee retired to the library to count the votes.

While waiting for its return, Mrs. Edward Stabler read an account of the fiftieth anniversary meeting of what is said to be the first Woman’s Club in America; and which was founded in 1857, at Sandy Spring, Mont[g]omery County, Maryland.  It has continued on its original lines of seeking the literary and general advancement, and also the domestic comfort of its members, and their neighbors.


Mrs. Stabler mentioned some well[-]known names among the founders and supporters of the “Association,” and told of its history, progress and good works.  It has had six hundred and twenty-five members, and it is supposed several times as many visitors to its hospitable meetings.

The Election Committee returned and reported that the election had been entirely unanimous.  The candidates receiving all the votes cast, were:

For President: Mrs. John C. Wrenshall,

First Vice President: Mrs. Jordan Stabler,

Second Vice President: Mrs. Alan P. Smith,

Recording Secretary: Miss Lydia Crane,

Treasurer: Miss Elizabeth L. Mullin,

Directors: Miss Virginia W. Cloud,

Miss Annie Hollins,

Miss H. F. Cooper.

Miss Mullin’s (Treasurer’s) Report was then read by Mrs. McGaw.  Its account books were certified as perfectly exact and correct by the Auditors: Mrs. Hannah M. Pope, and Mrs. Margaret A. McGaw.  Miss Mullin’s Report, as condensed was:


May 19, 1908.       

Balance on deposit in

      National Mechanics Bank              228.65

Receipts: Including

Annual Dues; Dividend

From former Bankers, etc.                                               594.67


Expenditures, during

The Season                                                                       422.72                                          

May 18th, 1909                    Balance in Bank                   400.60      

A vote of thanks was given to Miss Mullin for her excellent management of our financial affairs.  Thanks were given to Mrs. Powell, Chairman of the House Committee, for her housekeeping ability; and also to the Auditors of the report.

After congratulations on our successful election the meeting was adjourned.                                 

The 655th Meeting.

The 655th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 25th, 1909 in the Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building.  This was the May Salon, and the closing meeting of the season of 1908-1909.  The President called the meeting to order, and announced that we would have the


reading of deferred minutes of the April Salon,--the three intervening meetings having been for business of the Club.

The Recording Secretary then read the minutes of April 27th, containing the notes of an article by Miss Alice Fletcher of Washington, an hon[or]ary member.  In this she gave us an account of a visit she made while in Russia to the home of Count Leo Tolstoi.

The President announced that Mrs. Charles Carroll Marden, our Chairman of the Committee of Autographs and Letters had felt obliged, from pressure of other duties to resign that position: and Miss Octavia W. Bates has consented to accept this chairmanship.  The President also announced a beautiful gift to the Club from Mrs. Francis P. Stevens—a fine, rare engraving of [James] Faed’s picture of “Shakespeare and His Friends” and a very appropriate adornment for the walls of the meeting place of a Literary Club. Thanks were given to Mrs. Stevens for her present.

The programme next called for the President’s Address.  Mrs. Wrenshall began by a graceful acknowledgement of the honor of her late unanimous election to the office of President, which she


has held for eleven years, consecutively.  She recalled the past, the memories we keep green, and augured well for our future.  She spoke of the chord of purpose that has bound us together in the inspiration of our work.  She told of the influence and value of our Standing Committees; and gave suggestions for advancing and broadening their continued activity.  She spoke of the advantages that may be found in summer work also.  She mentioned a member,--gone abroad,--who expects to spend some time in a German town, where she hopes to find some things worthy to bring back to her Club.  Mrs. Wrenshall suggested that the inspiration of June might be formulated in July; revised in August; and in September compared by the members of the Committee, for mutual advantage, and later given to the Club, for the pleasure and profit of all of us.  The President went on to speak of our Maryland authors; and of the importance of our knowing and appreciating their works.  She thought that many or all of those who are our contemporaries would be willing to contribute their books to our library.  And, that if any of our members have


works of former or late Maryland authors that they would be willing to give to our collection, we would be very glad to have them.  Mrs. Wrenshall congratulated her fellow members on the congenial and successful work of the past year, and on all it has made possible for the coming one.

The programme next called for a Piano Recital by Miss Elizabeth Coulsen.  Miss Coulsen’s selections were from the works of Scarlatti, Tansig; Gluck; Brahms; Chopin; Arensky; Schuman, Schubert and Liszt. They were beautifully rendered, with artistic finish, and command of her instrument.  At the close of the musical programme, the President thanked Miss Coulsen for her masterful rendition of her fine selections,--speaking, Mrs. Wrenshall said, she was sure for all who had listened to them, and perfectly enjoyed them.

Miss Crane, Recording Secretary, asked the President’s permission to say a few words to her fellow members.  The Recording Secretary recalled that fourteen years before she had asked for a rising vote of Thanks to our President,--Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull.  She then spoke of the eleven years during which our present


President has won our gratitude for the past and our trust for the future.  The Recording Secretary said she wished now for the second time to ask for a rising vote from her fellow members.  She then offered a Resolution which had been passed by the Board of Management, and endorsed by that body for presentation to the Club.  The Resolution gave to our President, Mrs. John C. Wrenshall, after her twelfth consecutive election, the expression of our loyalty, confidence and affection; and our grateful appreciation of her executive ability, impartiality, and generous, untiring devotion to the progress, welfare and advancement of the Club, and her fellow members.

The resolution was passed by a rising vote of the members.

The President in a few, appropriate words Thanked the Board of Management, her fellow members of the Club, and the Recording Secretary, for their expression of approval and confidence.  After pleasant anticipations of our meeting together in the coming season, the President adjourned the Club until October 5th, 1909.

A social hour was spent with con-


versation and refreshments.  Before its close we were favored by Mrs. Jordan Stabler with another short reading.  Knowing our interest in the young authors of our own state and city, she spoke of a poem by her son, which has been lately published in the “New York Independent,” a journal which has accepted more of his work.  The poem was on “Chesapeake Bay,” and was appreciated by Mrs. Stabler’s audience.

Farewells followed, and the season of 1908-1909 was over.