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1905-1906 Meeting Minutes

OCT. 3, 1905- NOV. 13, 1906

MS 988 Box 4, Book 3



Book lost contained Minutes from Oct. 18, 1904.


Minutes of the Woman’s Literary Club




[Oct. 3, 1905]

526th Meeting. The 526th Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 3rd, 1905, in their assembly room in the Academy of Sciences Building. This was the opening meeting of the season of 1905 and 1906.

On assembling again, the members were very much pleased to find the rooms renovated and improved, with electrical lights and other additions to its beauty and comfort. A musical programme had been prepared for this occasion under the direction of Miss Louise Chamberlaine Stahn, Chairman of the Committee on Music of the Salon. She welcomed visitors and also old and new members, including our first President Mrs. Turnbull. Mrs. Alan P. Smith, Mrs Paret and others.

The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, after calling the meeting to order, gave


a short address on “The Coming Year.” She told us she had never been happier in greeting our re-assembling than on this occasion. Our Club has become a part of ourselves, each and all giving to each other of the best we have to give. We have felt that it is an honor to share in past and future efforts to develop high standards of excellence in Literature and Knowledge, with steadfast allegiance to what money cannot buy. and full appreciation of our golden opportunities.

Our past year has been one of progress and good results. The development of our Committee work has added to the value of individual efforts. We know the ground on which we stand and the foundations that were laid for us. These we owe,” said Mrs Wrenshall, “to our first and always President, Mrs. Turnbull. This was her work,” and, turning to Mrs. Turnbull, she gave expression to our continued loyalty


to our earliest ideals, our striving for self-criticism, and our generous appreciation of our fellow members. Our President continued, “Let us not be afraid of our ambitions. A young girl,” she said, had spoken of her intention to write both a novel and a play, and she herself hoped to read both before the spring flowers bloom again. She looked to the coming year to be a more brilliant one than any in the past--one to be proud of, one of success to each and all.

At the close of the President’s address, the musical programme began with two songs, given by Miss Edith Stowe. “Connais tu le Pays,” by Thomas, and “Le mes vers avaient des ailes,” by Hahn. The[y] were received with the pleasure we always feel in hearing Miss Stowe. She was accompanied by Mrs Henry Franklin.

The next number of the programme was by Herold, the “Overture from Zamba,” played as a duet by Miss Louise Stahn and Miss Adaline Stahn, and were well appreciated by their hearers.


We then had the pleasure of again hearing Miss Stowe sing two songs: Foster’s “My Dreams” and Edwin Green’s “Sing me to sleep.”

The Misses Stahn again favored us with a duet, Rossini’s “Overture from Tancred.”

In a short intermission the President made the announcements for the present month--the topics of the meetings and other items of interest to the members.

The last number of the programme was given by Mr. Malcolm Westcott Hill, who sang for us four songs--all received with grateful applause. They were: “Still wie die Nacht [?],” by Karl Boehm; “Since we parted,” by Allitsen [?], the “Landsman’s Song,” by De Koven [?], and “Absent,” by Metcalf.

The President gave the thanks of the Club to the friends who had entertained us with their fine music. She then announced that the Club was adjourned, to enable


us to exchange the greetings of the new season. Refreshments were served and some time was passed by the members and their guests in congenial conversation.

[527th Meeting, Oct. 10, 1905]

(527th Meeting)--The 527th Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 10th, 1905, in their assembly room in the Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was arranged by the President as a tribute to our late member, Mrs. Maud G. Early.

The President called the meeting to order. She told us that we had met to commemorate a much loved member, no longer with us; but that all we know and feel with regard to her makes anything that we can say entirely inadequate to express our affection and our sense of her worth. During the last year, she was only a few times with us. On a sad day in September, we sent our tribute of flowers--white roses and palms to rest upon her


unconscious form. This was followed by a letter expressing our sympathy, written by our Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Uhler, to Miss Evaline Early. The reply of Miss Early was then read to us by the President. It expressed the grateful appreciation of herself and family, of our beautiful emblem of love and remembrance, and our sympathy with them; and recalled the joy that the Club had given to her mother’s life.

The next article of the programme was: “In Memoriam,” written by Mrs. Daniel Pope, a near friend of Mrs. Early; and read by Mrs Uhler. Mrs Pope spoke of the emptiness of words to do fitting honor to her friend--or to tell the love and reverence she gave to one who has been called to come up higher. On the 19th of September she went from the lovely mountain scenery of her country home to her home in heaven. She had been above all things a Christian--with the entire devotion of her life.


And if the earthly life was useful and benignant here, we cannot believe the celestial life to be any less useful or gracious now. She is not lost to those near to her--not lost to those with whom she shared their sorrows, and rejoined in their hope. The next article was by our President, Mrs. Wrenshall, and was on: “Mrs John D. Early. Her work in the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, with a few extracts from her writings.” Mrs. Wrenshall reminded us that it is often good to turn away from our pressing onward, and to review the life and work of a comrade no longer with us. Even when weak and weary she planned more work to do. She was one of the very early and well known members of the Woman’s Literary Club--then, as always, fond of study and research. She did not try to convince others of her own conclusions, but she had great power of suggestion, from her own point of view, and of giving us original ideas. She sought the best in all things. She was an idealist, but not a dreamer.


Of her work in this Club, her first paper was given on December 2nd, 1890s, her last in April 1902. “I have,” said Mrs. Wrenshall, “the record of twenty-four studies--but these were not all.” She went on to enumerate some of the articles given us by Mrs. Early, taking a wide and varied range of subjects. “She strove,” said the President, “to give the heart of the thing she wrote upon; her tendency was toward inquiry and investigation; but she loved the spiritual meaning in all things.” In the Committee on Archaeology she was a valuable member, especially when the investigations turned to Egyptian antiquities, “to bring the far off past into the light of living realities.” On April 15th, 1895, Mrs. Early read us her paper on “Three Queens of Ancient Egypt,” which was afterwards published in the “Southern Literary Messenger.” Mrs. Wrenshall then read some extracts from this very fine article. “It made,” she said, “these queens interesting as


the eternal womanly” nature always is. We must try to look at them from their own point of view--very different from ours. For the first of these queens, Nefert-ari, Mrs Early took us back to the 18th dynasty, to about 1700 before Christ. Nefert-ari was, she said, loved and honored by her people, and, long after her death, her image was placed among their divinities. Her great grand-daughter, Hatasu, was the second of the queens. She loved architecture, and was the first person known to have had trees transplanted. Hatasu sent out her ships to other lands, not to conquer and destroy, but to spread the arts of peace. It is supposed she caused to be made that ancient canal--which modern science has re-constructed successfully in our time. The third queen was The[?][Tiye?], a Mesopotamian, who introduced the worship of the Sun into Egypt. She converted her husband, and his successor, her own son, to her faith, about 1400 before Christ. It was suggested that this change of religion in Egypt--for two


reigns--was a return to an earlier and purer form of faith than the one immediately preceding it. Mrs. Early considered these three queens, three types of woman as we see her today. Nefert-ari was given as the old-fashioned motherly woman, always loved and remembered. The second, Hatasu, was the heroine, with courage and executive ability, love of art and beauty, and love of peace. The third queen, Thi[?], was the loving and religious woman, whose influence is eternal. She reminded us that, “thousands of years ago, women lived as great and wise and good as women can be, before having felt the influence of Christ.”

The President next spoke of Mrs. Early’s work as Chairman of the Committee on Autographs; and recalled her sketch of Walter Besant, given at the time she presented his autograph to the Club. We were reminded of Mrs. Early’s gifts to the Club, among them, the


autograph frame, the image of the “[? blank] of Lincoln Cathedral, the picture of Baby Stuart, afterwards James the Second, the bust of Tennyson, and the bas relief of Poe--one of only two that were made. The President then spoke of Mrs. Early’s work in other Clubs, especially in the “Folk Lore Club.” We were told of a paper she wrote on the Folk Lore of the Zodiac and of her hope to collect the Folk Lore of the stars. She called attention to the tendency of humanity to imagine human life as connected with the heavenly bodies. She spoke of the ancient recognition of the Zodiac as the majestic symbol of the passage of time. Spoke of the reference in the book of Job to Mazzarath; and of the representation of the Zodiac, in the Egyptian temple of Denderak [?].

Mrs. Early always declined to become an officer of the Club, though she consented to be for less than two years, a member of the Board of Management.

She loved the work of the Audubon


Society. Not quite two years ago she made an offer to the Board of Education of this city to put boxes for wren’s nests in the yards of the public schools, at her own expense. Another trait of her nature was her love for little children. Her stories for her own children, and, later, given to others were published in the Mount Washington Advocate. Mrs Wrenshall then read to us Mrs Early’s graceful and tender little poem: “Home and Little Children.”

We were reminded that our Club Twelfth Night Festival in 1902 was a great delight to her. She said: “I have always wanted to hear the ‘Waits’ and now I have heard them.’

Her last article was given us in April, 1902, and was called, “When Cortez came to Mexico.” She was in Italy in 1903. After her return home, she was with us only at long intervals.

We well remember that her hospitality to men and women of letters gave her friends many


delightful hours. “Did I not say truly,” continued our President, “that we should step into the light? Did not this life ever grow into the light? To know her as our friend and fellow member, was to be drawn into the light of her generous soul; and it is inspiring to us to contemplate such a life as hers.”

Mrs. Percy Reese then read to us Mrs. Early’s poem: “The Ideal Club Woman.” It was an address to the “ideal woman,” as the wife, mother, friend--and the earnest student also.

Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese next read Mrs. Early’s article “The Wrens.” The story of her bird friends-- of friendly creatures, wild and tame, was very pleasant to hear.

Mrs. Uhler then read to us another of Mrs. Early’s articles. “The Ancestress”--a story of real family history. It told of the beautiful love and sympathy between a grandmother and granddaughter. They seemed to inherit the abiding memory of an


historical tragedy affecting their family in the Colonial days. But they were of the Celtic race, nearer to the unseen than others. These two kindred spirits looked on this world, and on the world which was to come, not alone with faith and hope, but with joy. When her grandmother died, the child through tit only ignorance that could find reason for mourning and sorrow in her loved one’s translation. When she became a wife and mother and grandmother herself, she may not have been the most devoted housekeeper of her circle, but she truly dispensed the bread of life to those around her. And in the end--true to the faith of her inheritance--she could not find sorrow in the last parting, when the only word she knew how to speak, then, was “Rejoice.”

Miss Reese next read to us a poem by James Whitcomb Riley, addressed to Mrs. Early, in grateful acknowledgement of flowers she had sent him.


The President said that at the close of the hour spent with the memory of our comrade and friend, she wished to ask if the Club had any proposition to make with regard to the disposition of the minutes of this meeting.

Miss Cooper made the motion that a copy of the minutes recording our memorial tributes to our dear fellow member be sent to her family. Miss Reese seconded the motion--and it was passed, by a rising vote. The President instructed Mrs. Uhler, Corresponding Secretary, and Miss Crane, acting Recording Secretary, to see that the action of the Club was carried out. The President announced the close of the first part of the programme.

For the second part, we were given: “The Summer in Reminiscence,” by Mrs. Sidney Turner. In beginning, Mrs Turner suggested that the pleasant reminiscences of summer time were not incongruous with the memory of our comrade and friend.


"Life," she said, "is what we put into it"--and she put into it pleasant thoughts which we can recall for her sake. Mrs. Turner then gave us a very entertaining account of a charming summer journey through places of great interest.

The President announced that the new book, containing the Constitution and Pledge of our Club, was here ready to receive the names of all the members. By request she read the Club Pledge, and invited the members present to inscribe their names in the book.

The meeting adjourned; and the "Signing" continues for sometime afterwards.


[528th Meeting, Oct. 17, 1905]


(528th Meeting)--The 528th meeting of the Woman’s Literary club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 17th, 1905, in the assembly room, in the Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Percy M. Reese, Chairman of the Committee on Current Criticism.

The President called the


meeting to order; and the minutes of the meeting of October 10th were read by the Acting Recording Secretary--and approved.

The President announced the gift to the Club of "Trixsey Travels" from the author, our fellow member, Miss Atwater. Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of its beautiful stories and illustrations--and of the charm they possess for children and grown people also.

The President then announced the names of seven new members of the Club, elected on October 9th.

The first article of the programme was given by Mrs. Charles Carroll Marden, and was a review of "The Sign of the Fox." Mrs. Marden spoke of the former works of the author, who calls herself Barbara--her other, or additional name being unknown,--especially of "The Woman Errant" which was she said versus the "Woman Domestic." We were told of "The Sign of the Fox," which was a Fox’s head painted on a bread board. It was


the work of a girl of New York who has planned to study art in Paris, and has waited for the awakening of her faculties, until a financial collapse forces her to return to her old New England home, and open a house of entertainment with her sign of the fox. Then the awakening comes, and soon a lover comes too. She is conscious of her power to transmit, not to create, and is able to transmit well. The passing portraits are among the choicest portions of the work.

The next article was given by Mrs. John R. Hooper and reviewed Dr. Weir Mitchell’s "Constance Trescott." This book deals with conditions prevailing in this country soon after the close of the Civil War. Constance and George come from the north to take charge of land occupied by unauthorized settlers--and the subject of a law-suit. We have pictures of the ex-confederates, some brave and true knights, some wild and reckless spirits--of these


last Grayhurst, the opposing lawyer to George, is a type. There are the gentle aristocratic old people and the strange mountaineer who considers the rifle the embodiment of law, as well as of penalty. George is a sincere Christian--and loves Constance even though the first of all things to him is nothing to her. Constance loves with the strength of soul and temper, a love due to primal instincts--not asking why, but knowing she had drawn a prize. Like Hinda[?] in the Fire Worshippers, we were told she believed in a life--

"Together kneeling day by day,

Thou for my sake, at Allah’s shrine,

And I at any of God’s, for thine."

They both strive to do justice to every-body, but for some fancied offence, Grayhurst shoots George dead in her presence. A mountaineer makes the offer to Constance to finish Grayhurst for her, but she says she wishes him to live. She devotes her life to vengeance. Hearing that Grayhurst is to marry a lady who has waited long for the death


of his divorced wife, Constance writes to the prospective bride, asking if the man who could murder one who was unarmed, helpless, and on a mission of peace, can make a good husband? In the end Grayhurst shoots himself, having told his doctor that the face of George constantly haunts him. Mrs. Hooper suggested that no one in the North or South would willingly call Constance or Grayhurst types of any section of our country. The question was asked: What would have come into the married life of George and Constance if such love as theirs had turned to jealousy? But, we were reminded, there is a lesson here against the failure to impress upon the minds of little children, the sense of a great guiding power as a protection against life shipwreck.

The next article was by Miss Emily Paret Atwater, and was on the book of Andrew D. White, "An Autobiography." Miss Atwater spoke of this book as of [?serious] reminiscenc-


ces--not gossip. It is in five parts. In the first, Mr. White tells of his boyhood in the village of Homer, in central New York, and his college life in America and Europe. He goes on to speak of his political life, and his experience as Professor in the University of Michigan, and as first President of Cornell University, and of College methods, etc. The last part tells of his life as Minister to Russia, to Germany, and of being a member of the Peace Conference at The Hague. The letters he received were remarkable. One correspondent thinks he may be the heir to a large suppositious fortune--and wants the evidence thereof "looked up." One wants help for "a fair" in his Church; and asks to have the autograph of great people--such as the Emperor and his wife, Bismarck and others--written on squares of cotton cloth for a quilt, and wishes them written as near to the centre of the squares as possible, so as not to interfere with the sewing together. Mr. White tells about Bismarck, Wilhelm


Second, and the great ones in St. Petersburg. Bismarck, "the man of stone and iron" seems to have been a delightful person in his family relations. He tells of the Russian Count Tolsto [Tolstoy]i, who in any other country might have been a great reformer, but in Russia his voice is like--

"--the bubbling cry

Of some strong swimmer in his agony."

Miss Atwater’s review closed with the suggestion that in Professor White’s treatment of religious affairs, there is a vagueness in what he seems to consider his broadmindedness towards religious questions.

The next article was given by Mrs. Frederick Tyson, and was a review of two books: "Pam" by the Baroness Von Hutton, being the first of these. The Baroness who wrote "Pam" was, she told us. originally a Philadelphia girl, living on one of those streets which recall our early forests, by birth a gentlewoman, bright and charming, full of life,


and with a beautiful voice, singing like a lark. She had, too, a fairy godmother, the wife of a President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, who could give her all the best advantages of wealth and society. She was a belle, of course, and had lovers enough, at home and abroad. Mrs. Tyson said the German lover is the loveliest lover in the world. There may be two opinions about the German husband, but the lover is full of ideal sentiment, or sentimental ideality. So the Philadelphia girl married a German Baron, who took her to live on his estate in the country. Now we all know or can imagine the dullness of life in the country, all the time even here in America. "I have sometimes thought," said Mrs. Tyson, "that the advent of the ‘new woman’ of today, was a protest against the monotonous life of her grandmother." But that kind of life was gay compared with the German woman’s life in the country. The Baron was ‘land poor’ and living in the house with his young bride


were her mother-in-law and two sisters-in-law. They cared for housekeeping and despised music,--her gift of song was an annoyance to them. The climate was impossible. She had two sons, but time hung heavy on her hands. It was necessary to have a fad, and some one suggested writing. So the Baroness wrote, and published, with success--it is supposed with some benefit to the Baron’s poor estate. Mrs. Tyson spoke of her early books as crude, but of the conversations in them as delicious. Still, there is something strange in all these books, there are no morals in them at all. When the Baroness Bettina Von Hutton came to this country with her last book, three of the publishing houses fought for the right of bringing it out. "Pam," we were told, has great lightness of touch, but there is a charm in the descriptions. The only object of the book is amusement--Pam seems to know nothing right and


nothing wrong--but there is one old servant who is faithful and loyal. The author follows Horace, and plunges into the midst of things. She describes Pam holding up her pet monkey close to her face, while the eyes of both are wonderfully alike--even in expression. She has an old nurse until her grandfather sends for her to stay with him. Though she does not know what right means, she has some notions about a Divinity, who was born in a stable and died on a cross. Her mother remembers her, and sends for her, and she tries--with some success--to make her parents more respectable than they were before. She has a lover, and is in love with a man she cannot have--and at last concludes to try coming to America. There is no end to the book. Novels with no end have come to be a "fad" now--and the people in them talk about themselves. Mrs. Tyson said that you never know what is coming in "Pam," but the doubtful morality would prevent its being given to a very young girl.

The second book Ms. Tyson reviewed


was she said, the perfect antithesis of the other. "The Garden of Allah" takes us to the Desert of Sahara. It is hard to believe that Robert Hitchens, the author, has never been in Africa. Mrs Tyson said the writing in this book is very much like that of Pierre Loti--it is full of atmosphere. The heroine, whose mother was a Roman Catholic and her father an Atheist, holds to her mother’s religion. After the death of both parents, she tires of London, finds English life repressive, and decides to go to the East. She goes to Africa with her maid. There is then, we were told, a series of pictures very like the musical Dramas, miscalled operas, of Richard Wagner. She meets a man of mystery, who is of Russian and English parentage--living in Africa--who gets in her way [?rude] to her--and she falls in love with him. The man had, at fourteen years of age, become a monk, knowing nothing of life, and he had made a wonderful liqueur which was a source


of profit to the convent. On account of his great devotion, he was trusted to bring to repentance some poor erring souls. Then he thinks of running away, and goes to a brother who gives him money. Before meeting the heroine, he had never talked to a woman, but we were told, the man is called out as a man, and the woman called too, and they conclude to get married in the garden by the Desert of Sahara. There is no such description outside of Pierre Loti, one feels the pulsing of the earth. There is a refrain which goes through the book, "No one but God and myself knows what is in my heart"--all sing it. There is a brilliant French officer who comes on the scene, and after the marriage in drinking liqueur, he recognizes the maker of it. When the confession is made to the woman, she tells her husband he must go back; and in reading this, you feel as if the world were done for you as well as for them. The woman buys the garden, and lives remembering that there is always a man kneeling in prayer for her outside of


its walls.

The President thanked Mrs. Reese and her Committee for the afternoon’s entertainment--and the meeting adjourned.


[529th Meeting, October 24, 1905]

(529th Meeting.) The 529th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 24th, 1905, in their assembly room in the Academy of Sciences building. The Programme of this meeting had been arranged by the President as: "An Hour with Absent Members."

The President announced the names of three new members of the Club. She also announced that she had on her desk some copies of the "Programme of Topics" containing the lists of the Committees of the Club and other information of interest to our members, which she would be glad to give to those wishing to have them. She spoke, too, of an interesting letter she had received from our absent Recording Secretary, Mrs. Jordan Stabler, expressing her


hope to be soon with us again. The first article on the programme was "Lines by Mrs. J. H. Wilson Marriott of Washington D. C.--read by the President, Mrs. Wrenshall. They were given as "Three Words," and were on the kindred subjects of "Mother"--"Home"--and "Heaven"--telling of the pure, tender mother love that makes the sacredness of home, and rising in perfect accord to the holy heaven of our hopes and aspirations.

The next article was "A Letter from the Mountains of North Caroline," by Mrs. Charles H. Beebe, of [?Spies,] Moor Co.[County], N. C. Mrs. Beebe said she could only give a glimpse of the beautiful country and strange people surrounding her now. "It takes," she said, "actual contact to realize the lack of civilization in some parts of our country." In the centre of North Carolina, a stone’s throw from fashionable winter resorts, we find a people absolutely uncultured--devoid of "futile fopperies" She arrives at a


railway station where the ticket-agent greets her with "Howdy"--and says, "Thar’s your coach, the engine will be here presently." A poor woman with eight children, from twelve years downward, is waiting too. One child asks her: "Say Mistress, is you the missionaire woman?" adding, "You looks like her." The engine starts, at last, and takes six weary hours to go seventeen miles--stopping for a pitcher of water or to take on lumber for transportation. She succeeds in hiring a vehicle, which may have been a family carriage in colonial days, with a horse and mule attached, and a ragged little negro as guide and driver. She is driven through woods of balm and beauty, under an Italian sky, to a log cabin over a hundred years old. It contains two rooms, and one enormous fire-place. On the porch sat the man of the house, with his wife, his father and his grandfather--and behind them his


daughter with her baby. There were more than sixteen persons living in those two rooms. These people speak of tame flowers, in contradistinction to wild flowers. A rod of correction is called "a hickory"--a bad child is quieted with the threat: "Git me a hickory." A whip is called a "persuader." Schools are few, the sessions short, and some teachers cannot pronounce the words in the spelling-book. One of these began a geography lesson with "This book says the world is round and I’m paid to teach you that, but you know and I know, it ain’t--it’s flat." What chance in life have children set to work as soon as they can walk, and taught in this way? She says she saw a three year old baby broil a bird for her supper, which one of her brothers had shot for her--a thing not at all surprising to her elders. But these are a sturdy, self-reliant, independent people; they feel that all men are their equals but acknowledge no superiors. They are kindly, and could be made a power for good. "Can not,"


she continued, "these children be educated, and given the chance to become useful citizens?"

The President spoke of having been through the beautiful mountain country described to us, and among its strange people. They were hospitable and trustful--two "moonshiners" having even shown her their stills for making whiskey.

Several members spoke of the good work being done among these people by real, self-sacrificing Home Missionaries. Mrs. Hooper said any well-deserved woman was liable to be taken for a "missionaire woman." It was suggested that many of these people were descendants of fugitives from justice, or exiles who had been shut off from the rest of the world.

The next article of the programme was "The Religious Era in American Literature," by Mrs. William C. A. Hammel, of Greensboro, N.C.--and was read by Mrs. Uhler. Mrs. Uhler spoke of the literary work of Mrs. Hammel in our Club, of her continued


interest in our work, and of her being President of a literary Club in Greensboro. Mrs. Hammel’s article told of the Literature of America, which began in religious writings--going on to political writings, and becoming afterwards literature proper. The old Puritans, we were reminded, came to America to make a place to live in, free to work and pray according to their own strict convictions--but they had among them some of the best education of the time. They did not write letters home like those of Captain John Smith, but they believed in good learning as well as in good morals. They were Separatists, and piety and prejudice went hand in hand with them. She quoted Mrs. Holmes as calling them "the Brahman Caste of Christianity." They did not live by bread alone--bread was sometimes none too plentiful--and they were often moved to ask for help from above. They listened willingly to long sermons--of which we could have hardly endured the forty-[ninthlies?]. Mrs. Hammel went on to


speak of early books written in America, all religious and many controversial. She told of the writings of John Cotton, perhaps the most learned author of all of the New England scholars, and of his opponent, Roger Williams, best remembered for his championship of religious liberty. She spoke of Eliot, and his Indian Bible, of Thomas Hooker, pioneer, author, and theologian--and quoted from his epitaph, written by his friend John Cotton. She told of "the Bay Psalm Book," printed on the first printing press in North America. This edition is worth its weight in gold, one of the Vanderbilts is said to have paid twelve hundred dollars for a copy. We were given some extracts from the Psalms, which seemed almost impossible to sing. We were told of the New England Primer, the first edition of which was probably sent to England to be printed. Mrs. Hammel told of the founding of Harvard college, and of its influ-


ence on Education in America--down to our times.

At the close of Mrs. Hammel’s paper, Mrs. Hill thanked our President for bringing our absent members in touch with us again. The President said it is well to remember each other, and to feel that every member of our Club is able to contribute to its work.

She then spoke of one of the annual commemorations of our Club--the decorating of the graves of the Authors and Artists of Maryland on November 2nd, All Soul’s Day. This custom was instituted by our late loved member, and former President, Miss Emma Brent. Mrs. Hill and Miss Reese are among the earnest workers in this kind office, and volunteers were asked for to help them in it.


[530th Meeting, Oct. 31, 1905]


(530th Meeting.) The 530th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, October 31st, 1905, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Ellen Duvall, Chair-


man of the Committee on Fiction. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, called the meeting to order, and the acting Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 24th. The President gave notice that the Committee on Decoration of the Graves of Maryland Authors and Artists would meet on Thursday, November 2nd, at 3 P.M., preliminary to their commemorative work. The President also announced that Miss Cooper, who has charge of our department of Book Notes, has instituted the placing of a Bulletin Board in our assembly room, for names of new books. She asked that the names of any new books which have pleased or greatly interested any of our members, or even any interesting magazine article, or published item should be sent to Miss Cooper to be placed on the board--so marking a sort of book exchange for our Club.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Duvall, and


was called "The Request." Miss Duvall said she had at first intended to call her story, "The Bishop and the Benefactor." Her Bishop was a survival of ante-bellum days in the South. He had been a daring, reckless rider, card-player, a fine shot, &c. Then he had seen his dearest friend fall dead in a duel, and this event had risen before him like a great standing rock which had turned and changed the whole current of his life. The Benefactor was one of the poor whites who developed the contemporary American talent for making money first in a small store at home and afterwards in the great West. After years he comes home again, with a son who is a helpless cripple. He bestows a large part of his wealth on his native place, in a water-system, pavements and a park, but with an avowed antagonism to the clergy and the doctors, who he declares shall never have any of his money. The mayor and other officials of Barnstead are grate-


ful, and appreciate his benefactions, but the old families are averse to giving him social recognition, and, in revenge, he professes contempt for them. When the Bishop of the diocese sends in his card, the Benefactor concludes that this is a begging visit; but the son, who knows more than his father, having had tutors to instruct him, desires to see the visitor, and gains his admission. The fine courtesy, and frank kindliness of the Bishop, soon win the heart of the son, and the respectful attention of the father to the request--not for personal or professional favors, but for a more excellent way of benefaction, of helping people to help themselves. The Bishop’s efforts result, not only in new interest in life for the cripple, but in better and wiser benevolence by the Benefactor, who even begins to think kindly of gifts to religion.

The next article of the programme, was by Miss Emily Paret Atwater, and was called "Mollie, the Sexton."


In the absence of Miss Atwater, it was read by Mrs. Atwater, her mother. It told of an old Southern burial ground, with a broken fence and a half-ruined wooden chapel, containing a rusty bell. A visitor finds only two family names on the old stones, and reads, one after another, the quaint or queer epitaphs. When reading one which described the deep sorrow of a bereaved widow, she is surprised to hear from a voice behind her, "The fear wa’n’t out before she had a second." The owner of the voice, a little sun-bonnetted old woman, explains that the dead around them are no kin of hers; they belonged to the great family who once owned the island; but, since they have departed, she has done what she could to take care of the graves, for which she is called Mollie the Sexton. She goes on, in her vernacular, to talk of the old stones and of those they commemorated, remarking of one inscription that referred to a broken lyre, "Somebody," had told her, "a lyre was a music thing, something like a banjo." She told of the long past


days, when "the Major" would arrange to have service held in the chapel, and send invitations to his neighbors to attend it, giving them a grand dinner after it. Mollie showed where Miss Jessica, the Major’s daughter, and Mr. Gordon, from Jacksonville, a young minister, used to sit and talk under the trees. The young lady, whose mother died long before, had always lived at home, and knew nothing of the world; one governess after another had refused to stay in such a lonesome place--and all she learned from them was to play a little on the piano and to read novels. So when Mr. Gordon came for a visit, she lost her heart. But he went away without asking her to marry him; and, later, she received his wedding cards--and then she began to fade away. Her father died, and Mollie and Jim, her husband, came to live in the great house. One night, in the midst of a terrible storm, Miss Jessica could not be found, and then the old bells in the chapel were suddenly heard


to ring. Perhaps that was because of the great wind blowing, but Mollie remembered that Mr. Gordon used to have a way of ringing that bell when he wanted Miss Jessica to know he was there. They went to the Chapel, and there Miss Jessica lay dead, with a smile on her face which it had not worn for many days long gone. A week afterwards came the news that Mr. Gordon had been out in a boat, and had been drowned in the same storm. Miss Jessica had been buried with her kin,--and Mollie the Lexton hope to find at last a corner near her.

The next article was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was called "The Pessimistic Note." Miss Reese told us of "Cousin Augustina," which acquaintance she had given us the privilege of making before. Now, we were told, she announces her intention of opening a store for the selling of cakes and ale. This is not for lucre but for the benefit of the community in general, and the story-teller in particular. We have had in-


digestible food ever since the revival of the Cult of the Pessimists. We have had the novels of the misunderstood, and the put upon--those of the smelling-salts period, and of the women who swooned. We are reminded of Jane Eyre, and of Ellen Montgomery in the "Wide, Wide, World." We think of Clarissa and Pamela and Isobel—with an o-- and of the maternal ancestor of an anemic brood. We have since had the athletic period, and Becky Sharp, and many others. Why should we hark back to Byron, with "the day of his destiny over," or to the processions of martyrs, walking two by two, of the gloomy-eyed, with the expression "What is Life without a tenor singer?" We have those who, in the reaction from poverty, and the Shorter Catechism, reach the point of "What is life without the footlights, and the applause of the multitude?" We have the people out of place, with their near and dear ones far away from them. But the best of us go straight ahead, and


do the best we can, even if the public never greets us, as the ships go by. Life is a great deal more than all this. "Therefore," said Cousin Augustina, "I want to open a shop for cakes and ale. I shall put up a notice: "No martyrs admitted, no trailing gray habits, no gloomy eyes allowed on the premises." When I have all my own stock in hand, I shall turn them loose on the cakes and ale."

With thanks to the Chairman, and members of the Committee who had entertained us, the meeting adjourned.


[531st Meeting, November 7, 1905]

(531st Meeting.) The 531st meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club was held on Tuesday, November 7th, 1905, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The President called the meeting to order; and the Acting Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 31st.

The report of the Committee on "Decoration of the Graves of Maryland Authors and Artists" was called for, and was given by Mrs. Thomas Hill. She told of the memorial service given by herself and her


Committee in placing flowers upon the graves--on November 2nd--of men and women of Maryland, distinguished in Art and Literature--including those of our deceased members, Mrs. Tiernan, Mrs. Easter, Miss Brent, and Mrs. Early. The President said we all would thank Mrs. Hill and her Committee for the beautiful tribute rendered for us to those whom we desire to honor. Letters of thanks were read by her from the daughters of Professor Rabillon and Colonel Richard Malcolm Johnson.

The President explained that the programme prepared for this meeting could not be given, on account of the illness of Mrs. Tyson, Chairman of the Committee in charge of it; but with the valuable aid of Miss Lizette Reese, another had been hastily arranged—which would now be given.

The first article of this programme was by Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, and was on "Southern Poetry." Miss Reese said the first poet--perhaps she should say, the first verse-


maker--in our Southern States, was George Alsop, who was born in England and came to Maryland about 1658. He wrote on "The Character of the Province of Maryland," published in London in 1666. He hated the Puritans and loved the Cavaliers. His accounts of the "native Indians," and of the Colonists of Maryland in those early days have much interest still. Miss Reese quoted an epitaph on Nathaniel Bacon, of Virginia, the so-called "Rebel" of 1676. It is written by an admirer, and compares Bacon to Caesar, and other heroes. But the colonists of that early time had houses to build and Indians to fight, and not much time for poetry. They had not the Northern colonists’ taste for sermons, nor for such poems as "The Day of Doom" by Michael Wigglesworth, a contemporary of Alsop--they liked not the shudder in literature. We know of no hymns written in the South of that early time. A Sunday in Virginia, in 1773 was not like a Sunday in the North. It was gay and cheerful for all--including the negroes. Virginia clergy-


men would preach politics, but poetry seemed out of touch with the people then. But even in the 17th century, Godfrey and Evans wrote verses with some flavor of charm. In 1812, Francis Scott Key gave--here--a flash of patriotism in "The Star Spangled Banner." Miss Reese said that Edgar A. Poe--who died here in 1849--is difficult to estimate correctly, he is so high in some respects, and so much less so in others. Lowell said that Poe was "three fifths of him genius, and two fifths sheer fudge." But Miss Reese went on to say that Poe did for the mysterious element in literature what Wordsworth did for nature; he gave it a voice, and put in its place--for our times. And he knew well the strange power of sweet sounds, and the melody of words. She then quoted from "Ulalume"—"The Bells"—"Helen," etc. He is wierd [weird] in prose ass well as poetry. The French give him the highest place among our poets, he answers to their


Keltic nature. To Northern Europeans, he recalls their Scandanavian [Scandinavian] origin. As children we all love mystery--and the glamour remains with us. There seems no service done to us, no moral in his verse. We confound the man and the verse together. There is always the haunting melancholy--the personal note of solitude and self. Miss Reese went on to speak of Henry Timrod, who died young, soon after the close of the Civil War, and left only one small volume of poems. She spoke with appreciation of his Lyrics, and of his description of "Early Spring in South Carolina." At last she spoke of Sidney Lanier, especially known in our city. She spoke of his power of witch music, of his love for nature, of his high level--which few can reach, and fewer keep. He had a message, and he delivered it well. You rise from reading him, and grow stronger than before, you "rest," as he says, "in the greatness of God,"--you read and take courage, with firmer faith in the Right. And, from him,


there is more in our twentieth century lives of sheer music. Miss Reese closed her article with Sidney Lanier’s well-known and admired "Ballad of the Trees and the Master."

The next article of the programme was: "Selections from the Writings of Sidney Lanier," read by Mrs. Wrenshall. Mrs. Wrenshall said that Miss Reese had asked her to give some account of those last eight years of life that Sidney Lanier gave to literature and music, when he was doing almost incredible work for one in perfect health, while he was stricken with disease, and hampered by the necessity of making a living for his family. Mr. Lanier came to Baltimore in 1873. He had given up the profession of the Law for the pursuit of Music and Literature. He died in 1881. Mrs. Wrenshall said her personal acquaintance with Mr. Lanier began in 1873. He had been engaged to a friend of hers, whom he afterwards married, and she had been permitted to hear some-


thing of the beautiful letters received from him. When he came here Music was his passion--more than literature. He took the first Flute in the Peabody Orchestra, and, soon after, because busy with his boys’ books--as the "Boy’s Froissart"--the "[?Malruogiou,]" etc. Mrs. Wrenshall quoted Lanier’s beautiful description of Orchestral Music closing with the line--

"Music is Love in search of a Word."

He wrote the "Song of the West" in 1875, and the seven Sonnets that he read to the Class which met at the house of Mrs. Edgeworth Bird. There, too, he taught the young ladies to sing Shakespeare’s songs as they were sung in Shakespeare’s time--with rhythmic peculiarities. Mrs. Wrenshall read extracts from the "Song of the West" and the "Song of the Future." Lastly, she read a few lines from, she said, "not a poem but a thought for a poem"--found after his death like a beautiful message from a higher life.

The last article of the programme was by Miss Lizette W. Reese, and was called


"Orchards." Miss Reese spoke of the orchards of old England, and of orchards in literature. Shakespeare has some five or six allusions to orchards. That choir of larks, the poets of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries have much to say of the beautiful flowers of the earth, but scarce an orchard bough among them all. Cowley praises not the orchard but the garden. There are single trees and fruit but not the orchard as a whole. The orchard, she said, has the first prescience of the spring. We wait through February and March till in April the boughs break forth again. Little by little its youth possesses it again. There are two moods, the sad and the cheerful, they bid us to remember and to look forward. An apple tree has an antique look--memory goes back to beyond memory. The trees prove their kinship to us, to the changes of time and people.

Mrs. Wrenshall then read, by request of Miss Reese, Sidney Lanier’s comic poem "Dinah." It brought be-


fore us the brother Christian, with his unaffected extremes of terror, religious faith, affection, station, and self-sufficiency, with humorous unexpectedness. Thanks to Miss Reese and our President were appropriately expressed by Mrs. Hill; and the meeting adjourned.


[532nd Meeting, November 14, 1905]

(532nd Meeting.) The 532nd meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, November 14th, 1905, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Thomas Hill, Chairman of the Committee on Colonial and Revolutionary History. Miss Duvall, first Vice President, called the meeting to order. She announced that our President Mrs. Wrenshall was detained this afternoon by business in Washington, and she felt sure we would all much regret her unavoidable absence.

Mrs. Hill announced that she was glad to have on this occasion the assistance of some junior members of


the Daughters of the Revolution; who would give us several of our national airs. These hymns of our Country were, she said, too little remembered or regarded now by our people, and she felt it would be an act of patriotism to have them sung at this meeting.

We were then given two of these airs sung by fresh young voices, accompanied by the piano and the mandolin. They were "My Country, ‘tis of Thee" and "Columbia the Gem of the Ocean."

The next article of the programme was by Mrs. Albert Richardson, and was on "Resistance to Tyranny." Mrs. Richardson went back to the years closely preceding the American Declaration of Independence, when there was, as yet, no concerted plan of resistance to English tyranny--though no lack of patriotism. She spoke particularly of our own colony of Maryland, of the well-known "Peggy Stewart" incident, of the putting the tax-collector to flight,


and of the departure of the last royal Governor--Eden--from the province. She told of the freeman [freemen] of Maryland who met in Convention, and with "perfect agreement," passed resolutions indignantly denouncing the acts "of Tyranny and of War" against the "freemen of Massachusetts Bay," at Lexington and Concord; and declaring that we of Maryland would unite with the other American Colonies in one band against anarchy, and to preserve the Civil Power." She said that Maryland called for the first Continental Congress, proposed that Philadelphia should be the place of assembling--and also the day it should meet. There was, she said, a Maryland Declaration of Independence, drawn up by some of those patriots who afterwards signed the more important one in Philadelphia--including William Paca and Thomas Stone. The great Charter of our liberty--of July 4th, 1776, which for Maryland bore the four signatures of Carrol[l], Paca, Chase and Stone, ought, she said, also to have shown the name of


Matthew Tilghman, who voted for it but who seems to have failed to receive recognition as a signer.

The next article was by Mrs. Thomas Hill, and was on "Historical Memorials in Boston and its Vicinity." Mrs. Hill told of her visit to Boston, last summer with the Convention of the Daughters of the Revolution. She spoke of a reception in Faneuil Hall—the cradle of American Liberty, where John Hancock and his compeers inspired by their eloquence much of the living patriotism of those heroic days. She was presented with a mallet from the woodwork of Faneuil Hall. The old wooden rafters have been replaced by steel ones, but the original wood has been preserved and made into Revolutionary relics. She spoke too, of a visit to Christ Church, the oldest church in Boston--modelled, it is said, after an English church, designed by Sir Christopher Wren. It was too small to hold all who came to attend the service, con-


ducted by the Episcopal Rector--during the Daughters’ Convention. There is in it a chime of bells made in England in 1744, with the "A. R." of Queen Anne inscribed on them. It was formerly called the Old North Church, and there is a tablet on one of its walls to Paul Revere, recalling Longfellow’s poem on his famous ride, and when--

"But most he watched with eager search

The belfry-tower of the Old North Church."

Mrs. Hill went on to speak of Concord Bridge, Lexington and Bunker Hill, and described the monuments erected to keep them in memory unfadingly. She reminded us of the laying of the corner-stone of Bunker Hill Monument by General LaFayette on his last visit to America--on June 17th, 1825, the fiftieth anniversary of the battle, when Daniel Webster delivered the oration. Mrs. Hill closed her article with the poem: "The Battle of Bunker Hill."

We then enjoyed hearing a solo, Kipling’s "Recessional," sung by Miss Carolyn Munroe. Another solo was "You and


I" sung by Miss John Etta Moore, accompanied by Mrs. Sidney Turner.

This was followed by the "Star Spangled Banner," sung in chorus by the junior Daughters of the Revolution—with the Club standing to hear it.

The same young ladies closed the exercises by singing "Home Sweet Home."

Miss Duvall, the presiding officer, thanked Mrs. Hill, and those who had assisted her, for recalling to us the beauty and joy of patriotism, and declared the meeting adjourned.


[533rd Meeting, November 21, 1905]

(533d Meeting.) The 533d meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, took place on Tuesday, November 21st, 1905, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman of the Committee on Poetry. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, called the meeting to order, and Miss Crane read the minutes of the meeting of November 14th.


The President welcomed the return of our Recording Secretary Mrs. Jordan Stabler, after her visit to Europe, and said we would all rejoice to have her with us again. She announced that Miss Stabler, the Chairman of the Music of the Salons, had removed to Dublin, Pulaski County, Virginia, to teach in an Academy, but would retain her membership as a non-resident. In accepting the resignation of her Chairmanship, it was a great pleasure to announce that Miss Hollins, Chairman of the Literature of Music, had consented to take both musical chairmanships under her direction. The President then read an appreciative review of the late work of Miss Atwater, Trixey’s Travels, from the literary page of The Sun, which was very gratifying to Miss Atwater’s fellow members.

The programme began with a paper by Miss Anne Cullington on “Stratford-on-Avon,” read by Miss Reese. Miss Cullington gave notes from the visit to Stratford-on-Avon, beginning August 8th, 1903. She spoke of the influence of Shakspeare’s [Shakespeare’s] individuality still


pervading the old town; of the picture cards with his well-known characters upon them; of Shakspeare’s house, of the profusion of the flowers mentioned by him; of meeting children in the streets waving these and calling out--“This way to the cottage”-- Anne Hathaway’s cottage of course. She told of the blackberry vines and the general survival of the atmosphere, and sights and sounds of more than three hundred years ago, recalling the great writer of that time--one of the greatest of all times. She spoke of tourists who had visited Stratford, evidently because it was the thing to do, but who were amusing in their way.

The next article was by Miss Lizette Reese and was on “One of Shakspeare’s Rogues.” Miss Reese reminded us that all the world loves a lover, and also, she thought all the world loves a rogue. —at least, such a delightful rogues as Shakspeare gives us. And we good church members, as we are, are not without


something of this affection. Autolycus, in The Winter’s Tale, was the rogue she dwelt upon--“the snapper up of unconsidered trifles,” who said, “What a fool Honesty is”--who prided himself on having been “born under Mercury”--a thief himself also.” “He certainly,” she said, “had always the virtue of consistency.” She compared his lies with the higher and broader ones of Falstaff. She read us the songs and many of the jokes, conceits and deceits of Autolycus, which were certainly very entertaining. Miss Reese followed her article by reading two of her poems—“Today,” and “A Springtime Ghost”--which we enjoyed as we always enjoy Miss Reese’s poems.

The next article was by Mrs. Wrenshall and was called “At Windsor.” Our President, whom we are always delighted to hear, gave us a charming account of her visit to Windsor Castle. She spoke of it as in the beautiful garden of England. She spoke of the towers, and heights, of the art and splendor that have made it an epitome of the glory


of England. She spoke of the wonderful view of the surrounding country, and of the town where you almost expect to see Sweet June Page[?] or Mrs. Ford or the ponderous Falstaff looking out at you. There are traditions regarding the castle before the time of Edward the Confessor, and the Norman Kings, but historical accounts point to Henry the third, who built the Round Tower, where the then new order of the Garter was to meet. It is full of remembrance of the great characters of history, of our motherland.

After depicting the glories of Windsor Caslte, Mrs. Wrenshall told of being invited to see the kitchen, and finding the opportunity to see a King’s kitchen irresistible. It proved well worth seeing, with its enormous iron spits, turned by chains, on which great pieces of beef were being roasted on one end, and birds on the other, bright brass pans said to have been used in the reign of George


the third; and with all ancient and modern appliances of the culinary art, including a gas range from America. She went on to speak of Herne’s [?] oak, made famous by Shakspeare [Shakespeare], which was blown down in 1863 and on whose site Queen Victoria had another oak planted, and the old one, commemorated.

Mrs Wrenshall closed with a beautiful sonnet, written by herself at Windsor three years ago, which seemed to bring its romance and grandeur before us.

The next article was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was on Shakspeare’s [Shakespeare’s] sonnets. Miss Duvall gave a very interesting account of the many questions which have arisen regarding Shakspeare’s Sonnets, and the many theories which have been advanced as to their purpose and meaning; comparing them and drawing well-considered conclusions of grate interest. She drew parallels with the sonnets of Wyatt and other writers of the same day, when many sonnets were written. Miss


Duvall thought that Shakspeare probably had very little to do with the publication of his sonnets. Francise Merese[?], a contemporary, wrote in 1598 that “Shakspeare wrote sugared sonnets to his friends.[“] which was evidently true.

The next article on the programme was a poem by Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud, called “A Petition.” In her much regretted absence it was read for her by Miss Duvall.  

The President then presented certificates of membership to some of our members who had not before received them.

Our President then announced that this would be her last interview with the Club, as such, for three or four months—as she was obliged to go to Europe for that time. She had endeavored to have her Club work in good order for the rest of the year. The programmes for all the meetings had been arranged, The New


Year’s anniversary Salon, she felt sure, would be successful under the able direction of Miss Louise Haughton, Chairman of the House Committee. A course of Lectures had been arranged to be given last year. Mrs. Wrenshall then said that as she will be absent probably nearly all the rest of our Club year,  she had offered the Board of Management her resignation as President, but the Board had unanimously refused to accept it. The first Vice President, Miss Duvall, had announced that circumstances entirely prevented her from assuming the duties of President, and as it was known that the second Vice President, Miss Whitney, was out of town and did not expect to return for sometime it was necessary to appoint a President pro tempore--and Mrs Jordan Stabler, Recording Secretary, was nominated and unanimously elected to that


place--who will meet the same loyal support the Club has given to its President. Miss Crane was expected to act as recording Secretary. Mrs. Wrenshall went on to say:

“Ten years ago, you made me your first vice-President, and eight years ago, you chose me your president. Through those years we have worked in perfect accord. For all our happy hours together, I thank you, my good friends, and I offer heartiest and truest hope for continued success and advancement. Mrs. Stabler in a few graceful words accepted the position of President pro tempore. She told of a German Baroness whom she met last summer, and who said to her with his foreign accent, “I can do vat I must.” After a tribute to the President about to leave us, she spoke of her voyage home, the week before, on the [?] Prinz[?] Wilhelm, and of the customary Captain’s dinner, given to the passengers before­


coming into port. There were colored lights, flags and transparencies and conspicuous among them, all shone out the words of “Auf Wiedersehen” and “Au Revoir” and “Not Goodbye.” So, she continued we say to our President in three languages—“Auf Wiedersehen,” —“Au Revoir”—and—“Not Goodbye.”

The President said that in the progress of her journey she would always expect news of the Club and never cease to remember it. Mrs Bullock spoke of the pleaser we have found in the last eight years’ work.

The meeting adjourned and the members gathered around the President to express their grateful remembrances and good wishes for her journey.


[534th Meeting, November 28, 1905]

(534th Meeting) The 534th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, November 28th, 1905, in the Assembly room in the building of the Maryland Academy of Sciences. The meeting was under the direction of Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud, chairman of


the Committee on the Drama.

Mrs. Jordan Stabler, the President pro. Tem. Called the meeting to order, and announced that our beloved Miss Crane, who was acting as Recording Secretary, had met with a severe accident, which would prevent her being with us for one or two weeks. Mrs. Stabler spoke of the perfection attained through suffering, and that Miss Crane, with her usual heroism, had dictated the minutes to her sister, and they would be read by the Corresponding Secretary, who would take the notes for the day, Miss Duvall having kindly consented to do so next week. It was unanimously voted by the members present that the Corresponding Secretary send a note to Miss Crane, expressing their love and sympathy, coupled with the wish that she might soon again be with us. 

Mrs Stabler read an invitation extended from Miss Keller [?], to a private view of her paintings, to be held at the studio, 5 W. Frank-


lin Street.

The President pro. Tem. Then announced the programme for the ensuing month—Dec. 5th, Committee on Foreign Languages, Mrs. Tyson, Chairman.

Dec. 12th, Committee on Essays and Essayists, Mrs. Sidney Turner, Chairman.

Dec. 19th, Committee on Unfamiliar Records—Mrs Edward Stabler, Chairman.

The meeting of Dec. 26th to be omitted owing to its nearness to Christmas. Mrs. Stabler urged the Chairman to send the arrangements of programmes as early in the week as possible in order that any mistakes in printing might be corrected before the date of meeting.

Miss Cloud, the Chairman for the afternoon, expressed the wish that the printed order of the programme might be changed to enable Miss Perkins to present her paper first, owing to an engagement elsewhere. Miss Cloud said that the continuiny would not be disturbed, the papers having been arranged chronologically. Miss Cloud


spoke of her recent visit to Mrs Cautley, our member and former vice-president, who spoke of how greatly she missed the Club meetings, and making Miss Cloud the bearer of her latest photograph with love and best wishes. Mrs. Stabler accepted the photograph on behalf of the Club, and said it could be passed around at the close of the meeting.

Before taking up the order of the programme—Mrs. Stabler feelingly referred to the fact that this was the first Club meeting without the inspiring personality of our beloved President, who will always be eager for news of the welfare of the Club. Mrs Stabler urged that the members carry out Mrs Wrenshall’s wishes by an attendance at meetings wherever possible, and b an increase in membership of those whose aim is the advancement of literature, the building up of our mental fabric, and the keeping of the Club what she had made it—


a centre of interest in this community.

The first paper presented was that entitled, “The Rescue of the Little King—1795,” by Miss Marie E. Perkins.

Miss Perkins opened her paper, by speaking of a visit to Touraine, the garden-spot of France, and the numerous beauties and charm of this old place, to which many noble families have retired, keeping up old traditions and memories. Miss Perkins said that to her always the story of the Dauphin—Son of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had possessed peculiar fascination, and when opportunity offered to hear from descendants of of those who had loved him, the story of his life, the opportunity was eagerly seized [seized]. A dinner being given among the guests was the Countess Detaille who appeared in full court dress, and when the hostess expressed her appreciation of the honor conferred, the Countess replied, “It is my King whom I honor, and his friends.”

After dinner, the story was told, and


Miss Perkins graphically sketched the probably life of the Dauphin—the frail child of nine years, held as a hostage in the Temple, the frequent change of guards, the lack of inspection of ingoing parcels, the positive knowledge of two children being introduced into the prison—one the son of a Royalist, loaned for a time, the other a dying child--the bringing out of the supposed dead body of the child, and later, the discovery of the remains of a child’s body destroyed by quicklime—the escape into Holland—the long life there, deprived of name and shield, and the final return to France, where he never succeeded in making progress in securing audience with those able to further his claim to the Crown. 

The next paper was read by Miss Cloud and was called “The Jester[?]--1604.”

The subject of Miss Cloud’s sketch was one Archibald Armstrong, about whom little is known. So


Involved in mystery is his life, that Miss Cloud said it possessed for her the same charm as does the bone of an extinct animal for the scientist who upon that single bone constructs an entire animal. The story is presumably told by a lady of the Court, who has been attracted to Archibald Armstrong, by his strong lovable personality, and the scene portrayed is at the Court of James VI. Armstrong having been convicted of sheep-stealing, the sentence was suspended for one year, that he might furnish amusement for James. Now at the instance of Buckingham once more the question of execution is brought up but by ready wit and manly demeanor, Armstrong turns the tide in his own favor. A charming song with the refrain—“Lest thou tread upon favor not only with the lady to whom it was addressed, but those who had the pleasure of hearing it[.”] The concluding paper was that of Miss Du-


vall, and was called “Behind the Arras of History—1793.”

Miss Duvall selected the dramatic form as the suitable one for the telling of her very attractive story, which contained one act—the place being a prison in Paris and the time Nov. 5th, 1793.

The prisoner is the Duke of Orleans, who, pacing his cell, gives various hints as to his frame of mind. The guard is changed, the newcomer proving to be a friend and follower of Orleans, and he announces that a plot is being arranged for his escape. Orleans warns him of the danger and futility of such an attempt, and the great necessity for the guard to exercise care on his own behalf. In a few moments, a visitor with covered visage, and dressed in forbidden style is ushered into the cell. With a start, the Duke recognizes the uninvited guest who explains that it is wise to allow his identity to remain hidden.


He tells the prisoner that he is conversant with the plot for rescue, and says that tomorrow Orleans will be tried, condemned and led to execution. On the way, he may be rescued and hurried to England, thereby saving himself, and saving France, if he will consent to a certain proposition. The visitor further explains that by the Alliance of the daughter of the aristocrat to himself, who would be appointed a Constitutional King, all parties would be satisfied, and the Reign of Terror cease. And Orleans asks, “Whose daughter is to make this sacrifice?” When Orleans hears the answer, “Yours”—the climax of the scene is reached in the scornful spurning of the offer of life and the liberty, at such a price—the marriage of his daughter to the Head of Terror, Robespierre.

Mrs Stabler thanked Miss Cloud and the members of her Committee for the charming afternoon and regretted that the heavy rain had


prevented so many members from being present.

After a social half hour over the tea-cups, the meeting adjourned.


[535th Meeting, December 5, 1905] 

(535th Meeting) The 535th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, was held in the Assembly Room of the Club, Academy of Sciences Building, on Tuesday, December 5, 1905. Mrs Jordan Stabler, the President pro. Tem, presided. After calling the meeting to order, the President said that the members would be glad to hear good news of our dearly loved absent member, Miss Crane, who was recovering from her accident. Miss Crane sent her love to the Club and said she expected to resume her duties as Recording Secretary on the 12th.

The minutes of the preceding meeting, which had been taken by Mrs. Uhler, were then read by her. Mrs Stabler spoke of the interest and excellence of the programme for Nov. 29th, and regretted that inclement weather had kept many


away. The photograph of Mrs Cautly [Cautley], presented to the Club by the dear original, was again spoken of and shown, and the President proposed, unanimously seconded, that a note of thanks be written Mrs. Cautly from the Club.

The President also proposed that the Chairmen of the Committees, and any others who so desired, should write to the absent President letters of Christmas greeting. It was announced that the Chairman of the House Committee, Miss L. C. Osbourne-Haughton, desired that those who wished for invitations for friends to our Twelfth Night Celebration should send such lists of friends to Mrs Uhler not later than December 15th, as on December 18th the invitations will be sent out.

Announcement was made of the lecture on Archaeology by the Rev. John P. Peters, to be given on Friday, December 8th at 5  P. M., McCoy Hall.

The programme for the afternoon was then taken up; this programme was given by the Committee on Translation, Mrs. Frederick Tyson, Chairman. The


first article on the programme was by Mrs. C. R[?] Spilker [?], and was a translation from the German of R. Zimmerman. . It was called “Uncle Sam; Travels and Character Sketches in America.” Mr. Zimmerman was of some note in Germany, Mrs. Spilker said, but was unknown here. He seemed to have rushed through the country, and had found much cavil at, and nothing to commend. As Mr. Zimmerman had spent but an hour in some cities and only half an hour in others, his judgment might well be considered partial. He seemed particularly to object to the Temperance Movement, and to the freedom of women.

American women, he thought, were variable in love, in character fickle, and without desire for home life. They were pleasant to meet as long as they were flattered, but were so essentially superficial that a foreigner in talking to them felt demeaned. Greediness for wealth had robbed men of all intellectual capacity. The national manners were stiff and formal, and so far


as entering a Public House and drinking innocent beer all concerned were sadly hypocritical. Both men and women read the newspapers but only for business and amusement.

The second article on the programme was by Miss Hollins, and was called “The Turn of the Wheel,” from the Italian of Mathilde Serao. Miss Hollins prefaced the story by a brief sketch of the author. Mathilde Serao was born of an Italian father and Greek mother in 1856. The family early removed back to Naples, from whence the father had been exiled. The daughter, Mathilde, was sent to France to be educated. She read everything, even French novels. Her first work, “Opal,” was published when she was 17. Returning to Italy she obtained newspaper work, and the better to do it she dressed as a man. She married early and she and her husband edited two newspapers. She is fond of studying children, is might in details, and nothing escapes her. Tragedy is her prevailing note. The story “The Turn of the Wheel” turns upon the celebrated


Neapolitan Lottery. Tomasina, the faithful maid of an impoverished Signora, and her only child Caterina, aged fourteen--find one morning while making the bed, a ticket with certain numbers. Thinking it a ticket of the Lottery, Tomasina who cannot read in the goodness of her heart tells all the neighbors, high and low, these supposedly lucky numbers. They all buy tickets bearing these numbers. That afternoon the numbers are declared and, by coincidence, the successful numbers are indeed those upon the ticket. Every body wins save Tomasina’s poor mistress, for the lady had had no money with which to buy a lottery ticket, as she had given her last lira to Caterina to purchase lead pencils while the mistaken Tomasina, running home to congratulate her mistress, is knocked down by a wagon and taken to a hospital.

At the close of Miss Hollins’ paper, Mrs Tyson, Chairman of the Committee, congratulated Miss Hollins on the excellence of her translation.


The third number on the programme was by Mrs Tyson, and was called, “A talk on Russian Literature.” Mrs Tyson said that Russian literature may be divided into two great classes, the oral and the written. The first comprises Russian Mythology, folk-lore and heroes. The literature may also be divided into 5 cycles, centering about either persons or places, as the older heroes and knights—Vladimir Novgorod[?], Moscow, the Cossacks. She spoke of Churik [?] the Scandanavian [Scandinavian] Prince of the 9th Century, founder of the Russian Empire, and of the military oligarchy which succeeded him. Vladimir, great-grandson of Murik[?] felt a desire for religion, and sent wise men to inquire concerning the best Roman Catholicism, Judaism, Mohamedanism were in turn examined, then the Greek church, which was the one chosen. Valdimir [Vladimir] ordered the inhabitants of Kief [Kiev], where he then was to be baptized en masse in the river Dnieper, they implicitly obeyed and thus Russia was Christianized. Vladamir [Vladimir] and his cycle of knights


hold in Russian folk-lore and mythology a place akin to that of the Arthorian [Arthurian] legends. Poems regarding him are still extant, and hundreds of them can be repeated by the peasants.

In the 13th Century came the invasions of the Tartars, the Mongols and for more than two hundred years Russia was enslaved. During this dreary time the Monks fled northward and preserved in their monasteries such literature as has survived. Mrs Tyson then touched upon the reigns of Ivan the Terrible, Peter the 1st and Catherine II. A “little play” of Catherine’s, Mrs Tyson said she hoped to read at some future time to the Club. Passing rapidly in review Germanic and French influences, Mrs. Tyson came to Alexander Poushkin [Pushkin] (1799-1807).

With Poushkin begins modern Russian Literature proper. Poushkin, tho’ alighted to the nobility, had negro blood in his veins. He belongs more to Byron than to the realists or he might be called an ideal realist.


By advocating reforms, he fell into disfavor, and was exiled to Southern Russia: he also spent some time in Bessarabia. Here the beauty of the country greatly impressed him, and he has given exquisite descriptions of it. As a lyrist Pushkin is unequalled, and he has filled his cup of poetry with a Russian liquid. He simplified language and gave it permanent value. Mrs. Tyson spoke of “Eugene Onigin [Onegin], one of Pushkin’s great works, and gave a specimen from it.

Then came Nicholos Gogot [Gogol?]--he, too, suffered exile. His short stories are among the best in the language, and nothing can exceed their beauty and charm. And his books are gay; full of life and jollity, wit and humor. [not sure of word/s--“Far as? “Taras?] Bulba,” the name of a Cossack warrior, gives a perfect picture of Cossack life. His “Ilead [?] Souls” perhaps his greatest work, is a splendid portrayal of Russian life; Gogot’s power of characterization is such as to make a study of him invaluable to the literary worker.

At the conclusion of Mrs. Tyson’s


paper, the President thanked the Committee and its Chairwoman, and the meeting adjourned.

[536th Meeting, Dec. 12, 1905]

(536th[?] Meeting) The 536th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, December 12th, 1905, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs Sidney Turner, Chairman of the Committee on Essays and Essayists.

The meeting was called to order by Mrs Jordan Stabler, President pro. tem. She announced the presentation to the Club of two volumes by their author, Miss Amy Ella Blanchard, a member of our Club. Miss Blanchard has published a number of books, and the Club was congratulated on her being a fellow member and the thanks expressed for the books, presented to our library. It was also announced that Miss Haughton, Chairman of our House Committee, in preparation for our Anniversary Salon of January 2nd, has sent us cards in envelopes, on each of which she


requests us to write some sentence, quoted or original; as our New Year’s greetings to our guests for that occasion. Three of these cards were to be given to each member of the Club, and they were to be returned to Miss Haughton, 713 North Howard Street, or given to the President, at the meeting of December 19th. The cards and envelopes were ready at the desk for distribution.

Mrs Stabler then announced the publication of Mrs Tyson’s book on Russia, and said we would share in the gratification of her success. She asked Mrs Tyson to come and tell us something about a book of so much interest to ther fellow members. Mrs Tyson, in a few well-chosen words, spoke of this child of her intellect, and of its being also supplemented by her translations from Théophile Gautier, Anatole France and others. The book treats much of the Eastern Question, as relating to the Far East and the Near East, in relation to Europe, and as affecting the nations of the world—infecting the twentieth century of Christianity.

The programme began


with an article of Miss May Henderson called “Desultory Thoughts Upon Canada.” Miss Henderson spoke of our next door neighbor on the north, whose domain extends across the continent of North America--a larger country than the states of our Union, with stands of great mineral and agricultural resources lying idle, with a population provincial not adventurous-- having no inclination to throw themselves into the retort of the United States. We are aggressive and successful, while the Canadian stands waiting without envy of him he calls “the cheeky American.” Canada has two peoples different in race and religion, not fond of each other, but they are all well-governed and contented. There is in Ontario a large representation of the descendants of the “Tories” of our own Colonies, who emigrated at the close of our War of Independence--and who are prosperous and well cultured citizens. Toronto is a rich and handsome city, and the people seem to love all men-- but Americans


An army of summer Americans has invaded Canada. The first comers appreciated their beautiful environment and the moderate outlay for many advantages, and for some years the little colony did well. But of late years, the new rich have descended upon the land, and the Canadians do not like the over-dressed and over-fed Americans, nor the higher living expenses they have introduced for everybody. There is too much of the Stars and Stripes on the Canadian side, and no Canadian flag on the American side. They pity our ignorance of Nature, and the Canadian woods and waters have not many rivals in Europe and America.

The next article of the programme was by Mrs Sidney Turner and was on “Versatility.” The motto on her program was “The world is full of a number of things.” Mrs Turner told us [that] in this day of many things we need to be many-sided. Feminine conversation goes from events to inventions, is alert to respond to the progress of the age, and leaves us ready for the next thing


that is worthy of notice. This is partly a cause of the arrival of the specialist among us, who offsets the apparent smatterer. The specialist in medicine takes the place of the good old family physician, who was supposed to be able to cure all our maladies except old age. But there are no old people now—though some may be full of [years?]. The trained nurse is a specialist too, and you must not go to the Professor of Latin with a question in Astronomy. But the minister is versatile, and sermons treat of many things. There are many things to think about, and when thoughts are corralled and made our own, they give us a fine [feeling?] of versatility. There is more reading of newspapers now than ever before, and we owe much of variety to the newspapers. Mrs Turner told of one person, who seemed to have no versatility in conversation, expect about the various conditions of her own health, and with whom she was obliged to change the greeting, “How do you do?” into “[?] morning,” or “Good Morning,” Another


one in a casual greeting in the street would give her hints of many pleasant subjects for thought. The woman who read Browning while she made cake for her boarders may not have given them the best cake in the world but her boarders made with herself, a cultured society. And as after a day in the country we are refreshed and strengthened, physically, she after a day in the kitchen would “never say die” intellectually. We may not wish a railray [railway] engineer to read Mrs Browning en route, but he may be a no worse engineer for knowing the flowers that are in life’s pathway. It is customary in testing a bell to sound the musical scale, and the bell will [?] to its own right note. It has been said that there is no need to change our very key-note; but the greater the number of stops in an organ, the greater are its possibilities. Open wide the door for doing some special work, but reserve room for doing other good things. The programme next called for “Three Minute Talks”


and the first of these was given by Mrs. Alan P. Smith. She reminded us that the number of talents is varied as the number of features. Some people have only one talent; Some have the need of education alone to bring out their versatility. But the many sided Benjamin Franklin, who began life as a working printer, became a writer of ability, founded the first college in Pennsylvania, made successful missions to France and England, was Postmaster General, and was a pioneer in science--having, as was said, chained the lightning from heaven. Another specimen of versatility was Professor Morse, the inventor of the electric telephone, who was a sculptor and no mean painter. Mrs Smith spoke of Morse’s portrait of her husband’s father, which is highly valued by her family. Some of us[,] she said, will remember that Professor Sylvester, formerly of the Johns Hopkins University, being a great mathematician, prided himself on his poetry.


The next “talk” was by Miss Octavia Williams Bates. She asked: “Is it desirable to have versatility or concentration?” It means what we are going to do. If we are to be great painters or poets, we must decide the question for ourselves. The President of a college fifty years ago was expected to be a great scholar, but now the versatile man is chosen for the college President—h must devote himself to the interest in general of the college, and do little or no teaching. Women now lead versatile lives, with parlor, kitchens, boards and clubs, with lectures, and books, and we make it evident to all that we are a versatile race.

The next “talk” was by Miss Mullin. She reminded us of the worth of versatility—with regard to things that are worthy. And also, “What is versatility? Not surely a primal attribute, but often a manifestation of mental agility or adaptability. She quoted some comments on the power of the mind to comprehend many interests at once, to concentrate quickly


and to change quickly, also the power to command one’s own mental processes, all of which make us versatility [versatile]. These qualities may not work wonders, but they can prepare the way for building the monuments we all adore.

The last article of the programme was by Mrs. T. A. [?] Hill, and was on “The Fairyland of the Great Mogul,” A Personal Reminiscence.” Mrs. Hill gave us vivid descriptions of the fairyland of India, of its temples, palaces and tombs, that seem to have been begun by Titans and finished by jewelers. She told us of the wonderful works of Akbar, the greatest of the Mogul emperors.

Akbar understood his people, he knew that they needed pomp and magnificence. He built on the bend of the river [Ju?? Illegible] a fortress, answering to the necessities of the 16th Century in India. She pictured the audience hall with marble like mother-of-pearl, and adorned with mirrors and jewels, the tiny mirrors reflecting enchanting scenes, not of our 20th


Century, but of indescribable beauty. The mosque faces towards Mecca, and has its sacred cloisters. It is all kept in perfect order by the British government. Here in Agra, Akbar sat with his men of learning and genius around him; nearby being a pavement of squares on which a game was played with men and women for pawns. Agra’s buildings are of wonderful beauty and harmony. Mrs. Hill went on to speak of the Taj Mahal, the most beautiful building in the world. She described the garden where the lady love for whom this wonderful tomb was built had been accustomed to walk. Twenty feet from the garden is the guard elevator and the marble platform on whose centre is the dome of the beloved princess, with jewels pressed into the stone. Mingled with texts from the Koran. And a heavenly echo is heard here intoning these revered words. The presence of the loved woman seems to linger round her tomb. The


President thanked Mrs Hill for her fine descriptions and also gave our thanks to Mrs Turner and her Committee for the entertainment—the meeting adjourned.


[537th Meeting, Dec. 19, 1905]

(537th Meeting) The 537th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, December 19th, 1905, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the direction of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records, Mrs Edward Stabler, Chairman.

The acting President, Mrs Jordan Stabler called the meeting to order, and the minutes of the meeting of December 12th were read by Miss Crane.

Mrs Stabler referred appropriately to the fact of our meeting for the last time in 1905—and gave Christmas greetings to her fellow members. She gave notice of our New Year and Twelfth Night Salon, to be held on the evening of January 2nd, 1905. She


announced the reception of a letter from our dear President, Mrs. Wrenshall, dated Munich—with all its treasures of Art and other interests) at Sea, December 15th, speaking of having enjoyed her voyage—then nearly over—of her abiding and warm interest in the welfare and progress of the Club, and of the pleasure given to her by the letters sent to her by the Board of Management—to be opened each day at sea.

Mrs. Stabler also read a letter written to her by our second Vice President, Miss Whitney, telling of improvement in her health, and her hope to be soon with us again.

The programme for our meetings in January were announced.

The first article of the programme was by Miss Maria H. Middleton, and was called “A Day in Bavaria.” Miss Middleton spoke of having had the choice presented to her of either spending three days in Munich—with all its treasures of Art and other interests—or of making a visit of one day


to a castle of the feudal times and seeing the home life of a German Baroness and her family. She chose to see the ancestral home. Part of the castle belonged to the 13th century, but its modern repairs and additions were not incongruous, but in good taste. She spoke of the garden, where a bed of flowers represented the family’s coat-of-arms; and of the fine clean stable, looking as if made for the aristocrats of horse life. She told of the dignified, unaffected hostess, and of the only child, ten years old, who offered the simple grace before the luncheon. It was an attractive glimpse into a well-ordered, distinguished German home.

The next article was by Miss Mary Dorsey Davis, and was on “Names in History.” Miss Davis reminded us that when the step back into the past for historical names, we need not go far from home, as those of our own state tell much of its history. When Lord Baltimore wrote the charter of his new colony, he left blank its name, not venturing to take that of King Charles—the name Carolina having been appropriated earlier—and the King himself named it for his Queen—the land of Mary. Certainly, we were reminded, the sailing into the Chesapeake of the Ark and Dove is as worthy of our remembrance as the arrival of the Mayflower at Plymouth, a little more than thirteen years later. Miss Davis quoted from the brief narrative of Father White, telling of the erecting of the cross on Annunciation Day of his visit to the Indian Chief; of the beautiful land bought from the Indians, and of the settlement of St. Mary’s. She went on to tell of the Chief Chitomacon—the first convert to Christianity, and of his baptism in the little chapel on Whitsunday, of the Conversion of others, of their simple faith; and of their living in peace with the Colonists. Miss Davis went on to speak of many Indian names of places, of the lands and the waters of Maryland, giving their meaning and derivation. She mentioned quaint and curious English names also—both kinds of names holding for us still what someone has called History in Solution. She spoke of their part in keeping up the early and even aboriginal days of


our history. Mrs Stabler spoke of the work of Miss Davis jn founding the Woman’s Club of Rockville, Montgomery Co., which is seeking to preserve Indian and other curiosities, and other objects of interest. Miss Davis said her part had been chiefly that of donor to the Rockville Club of a collection of rare and curious things which belonged to her father.

The next article was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was called “The Story of a Slave Ship.”

Miss Duvall reminded us of a former time when Slavery, and even Politics and religion were best let alone in a mixed company. There was a time when the mention of slavery tended to make people of one section of the country look virtuous or perhaps self-righteous, and those of the other section look indignant. But the historian of the present day puts his hand firmly on all of these subjects. Before there was any permanent English settlement on this continent, the Spanish and Portuguise made slaves


of the American Indians. But, she said, African slavery was introduced into our country in 1620—the years of the arrival of the pilgrims of the Mayflower in Massachusetts, when a Dutch ship landed twenty negroes at Jamestown in Virginia. This subject soon caused discussion in the House of Burgesses of Virginia, but legal action failed to be taken on it. In Massachusetts, there was the same difference of opinion finding expression in the pulpit at any rate. Early in the 19th century, the slave trade was forbidden by the governments of England and the United States, and by other powers also; but was continued clandestinely by adventurers for the profit it brought them.

In 1842, England and the United States provided Naval forces for the capture or driving off of slavers on the African coast. In 1845 the United States frigate Jamestown captured a slave-ship near the Cape Verde Islands, and two young officers from Maryland—afterwards well-known as Admiral Balch and Captain Rolando, were


placed in charge of the prize to be brought to this country. Miss Duvall received her account of this Slave Ship form the survivor of these two officers, who had with them a prize crew of about the same number as their prisoners, the slaver’s, crew.

The ship was called The Merchant,” the Captain Larkin, was a Connecticut man of polite manners, while the mate—Webster—was, in the words of Admiral Balch, “the most piratical scoundrel I ever knew.” The cargo, which was 550 kegs of gunpowder, and a large quantity of fiery rum, and intended to be exchanged for slaves, was left on board from Cape Verde Islands to America. The voyage was a stormy one; and the strictest watch was kept, which was very fatiguing. It was learned that the mate had previously had a grudge against the captain, and had threatened to blow up the ship with those upon it, but the naval officers trusted Webster’s love of his own life, and did not much fear his carrying out

[99] his threat; still they kept well-armed. There was an old saying extant, “If you want a slaver condemned, take her to a Southern port.” The captors tried to reach Norfolk, but did reach Charleston, South Carolina. A trial was held, and some irregularity in the ship’s papers might have made its result doubtful. But the mate turned state’s evidence, therefore assuring his own safety, and going free. The ship was condemned and sold, and the Captain sentenced to a fine of $5,000 and three years in the penitentiary.

The last article of the programme was by Mrs. Edward Stabler and was on Christmas Day. She spoke of the earliest English colonists of our own state who brought over with them the old-time commemoration of Christmas day, and told how they kept the sacred festival to the best of their ability. Mrs. Stabler went back to the earliest commemoration of Christmas, and told of the differences in the time of the year for celebrating the birth of our Saviour, in the early centuries of Christianity.


One reason given for the choice of the 25th of December was the connection which ancient nations believed between the winter solstice, and the beginning of the renewed life of the powers of Nature, personified as their gods, and the early Christians celebrated the Feast of Love and Joy at that time. But the eastern and western churches have kept different days. Since the time of Pope Julius, the first western Christians have recognized the 25th of December as our Christmas day.

The Germans gave dramatic representations of the birthday of Christ, among their symbols were the realistic manger, the tree, the yule-log, candles et cetera, and our English ancestors also had their waits, Christmas carols, and many curious and antique customs and accessories.

They copied King David in making dancing a part of religion, and made the Druid’s mistletoe a part of their festivity, and the old custom of bestowing gifts at the New Year, was revived


with the Christmas joy and gladness. Quarrels were made up, the holiday was for rich and poor alike, and kindness was the rule.

The presiding officer thanked Mrs. Stabler and the Committee for the afternoon’s entertainment and the meeting adjourned.


[538th Meeting, Jan. 2, 1906]

[538th Meeting.) The 538th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, on Tuesday, January 2d, 1906, was made the New Year’s and Twelfth Night Celebration, to which the Club has been accustomed annually to invite its friends. Miss Louisa Haughton Chairman of the House Committee and her willing helpers, had decorated the rooms in the Academy of Sciences Building, and had prepared a programme and entertainment uniting successfully the traditional antique and the modern styles of celebrating the Twelfth Night Festival.

A large member of guests, including men as well as women, was present. The ushers were Lienten[?] and Jacobs, U.S. Navy, and Messrs. Turnbull, Tyson, Wylie, Hill, Stabler, Walker, Forbes, and Mullin. A group of


young women; the Misses Turnbull, Atwater, Kirk, Stabler, McGaw and Hooper presented the programmes, and gave each guest an envelope, enclosing a written greeting, expressed by some appropriate sentiment—quoted or original—which had been prepared by the separate members of the Club, on this occasion.

Itzel’s[?] orchestra gave a musical greeting as the company assembled.

Mrs. Jordan Stabler, the acting President, made the anniversary address. She began by giving the welcome of the Club to its guests of the evening. She spoke of our regret of the absence of our dear President, Mrs. Wrenshall, “whose voice we would be truly glad to hear tonight, “and whom we hope to receive again among us with the coming spring. She spoke of the house in which we met more than half a century ago the “residence of a Governor of Maryland, who dispensed lavish hospitality to distinguished guests, including the Prince of Wales—now King Edward VII of England. Mrs Stabler said that the


hostess of this evening was the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, and, as a hostess worth knowing at all, worth knowing well, she would speak of this Club’s characteristics and its work. More than ten years ago, we decided to make literature distinctly the object of our association together. With all due regard to the claims of advanced education of social duties, of reforms, and of the higher claims of religion also on our lives and activities, we chose to have here the restful improvement and renovation given by the pursuit of literature. And time has strengthened our love and approval of our chosen work. Mrs Stabler called attention to the relations between literary achievement and literary work, taste and aspiration. She spoke of our members, a good part of them being authors well-known and well-approved. She went on to speak of our Chairmen of Committees, and of their qualifications and equipment for the positions they occupy among us. She spoke of that unity of aims and interests, which excludes gossip and unnecessary discussion, and called attention to the encouraging and yet restful atmosphere of our rooms—which however can be bright and lively on holiday occasions. She closed with a triple welcome to the guests of the Woman’s Literary Club.

Mrs Stabler then called on Miss Haughton to read the message sent us by cable from over the sea, by our President, Mrs Wrenshall. It was dated at Torquay, Devonshire, England, and said, “The Woman’s Literary Club is congratulated on the past year. Best wishes for 1906.” It was received with applause, and the presiding officer moved that Miss Haughton should send a suitable reply in greetings from the Club. The motion was seconded, and unanimously adopted.

We then enjoyed hearing “The Pastoral Symphony,” from Handel’s Messiah, given by the orchestra.

Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese then read us her “Christmas Legend.”


We then had the pleasure of hearing Leon Carallo’s[?] Prologue and Overture from “Pagliacci” given by Mr. J. Allan Haughton and the orchestra.

Then followed the “Masque” for which our platform had been arranged with stage accessories. The Masque had been written by Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud, and was of the style of ye olden time. The performers were not generally recognized until near the close of the evening’s entertainment. They were Mrs. Henry Franklin in the part of Madame as December, Miss Marie Perkins, her companion as Columbine, Mr. J. Alan Haughton as Pantalox[Pantalon?], a Mummer. Miss Duvall as Father Time, supposedly a Mummer, and two mummers who were given as a Spanish gentleman and a Spanish student.

Into Madame’s boudoir where she was with Columbine, the mummer’s songs penetrated, and the mummer’s themselves penetrated. Then Father Time came in, and seemed to steal away some of Madame’s jewels of youth and


beauty to the great distress of herself and Columbine—who had claimed to secure them safely—until Madame finds that the richer and more beautiful treasures are still truly her own, and that after all everything is right. The epilogue was written and spoken by Miss Duvall in her very good disguise of Father Time. Gray wig and long black cloak. But the voice which has so often and well entertained us, could not be disguised. She idealized Time, the friend of us all, making each and every period of life the best, for him who fits himself to it. We must not try to kill time; he is the great executioner, but he kills only what ought to be killed. She brought us good wishes for all time.

After the falling of the curtain, the mummers marched through the room, carrying the traditional peacock high upon its dish, and showering confetti and flowers around them. A supper was served in the Library, and the rest of the evening passed in informal


enjoyment and amusement.


[539th Meeting, Jan. 9, 1906]

(539th Meeting.) The 539th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 9th, 1906, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the direction of Mrs. Frederick Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on Current Topics.

The President pro tempore, Mrs Stabler, called the meeting to order, and the minutes of the two previous meetings were read by Miss Crane. A vote of thanks was voted upon, proposed by Mrs Turner, to our acting President for her graceful manner and success in presiding over our Twelfth Night celebration. It was seconded by Miss Duvall, and passed unanimously. A vote of thanks was also given to Miss Haughton for her skillful arrangements, and successful carrying out of the same entertainment. Mrs Stabler appropriately responded for herself and for all who had contributed to the agreeable results of our holiday anniversary. She gave us news


of our absent President, who was, when heard from, enjoying her stay at Torquay, England. Mrs Stabler also said we would all welcome the return of Miss Whitney, our Second Vice President, among us again. She then announced the return to membership, with us, of Mrs. H Marshall Elliott, a forever member and Vice President of the Club, and now the wife of a distinguished professor in the Johns Hopkins University.

The programme announced.

“An Afternoon in Russia,” by Mrs Frederick Tyson. Before beginning her article, Mrs Tyson presented to the Club her new book on Russia in two elegantly bound volumes—a well-timed and well appreciated addition to our Library. Mrs Tyson began with “Some Historical Figures.” She said that one definition of a Republic was “the triumph and power of the individual.” Our form of the Republic tends to the culture of the individual, to make each citizen


more important, and the apparently great man less important. The ancient republics were, as we know, oligarchies. In that of Rome, a few great men ruled until Julius Caesar attempted to make a strong government by the will of one man. There are a few great figures in Russian history, who made the history of their times; and the times following them. She went on to describe vividly some of these, like Rivik, the Scandanavian Sea-farer, the founder of the Russian Monarchy, his follower Oleg, his son Igor, who married Olga, a Christian of Jaraslav, the Solon of Russia, who first gave written laws to the country. Speaking of the bringing in of Christianity to Russia by a Greek princess, she reminded us of the part that royal women have taken in the conversion of nations as with Helen in Constantinople, Clotilda in France and Bertha in England. She spoke of Ivan the Terrible who among other things killed his own son, an example virtually followed by Peter the Great, long afterwards.


From the Greco-Roman marriage came the title of Caesar or Czar, and the great Catholic form of religion. She told of Peter the Great, who built St. Petersburg and so opened the window into Europe. She dwelt on Catherine, the Second a German and on her great power and personality. With the accession of the Romanoffs came serfdom, early in the 17th century, not existing in Russia during the rule of the line of Rurik[?].

Mrs Tyson explained the component parts of the empire, and their differences. She told of the Mir, a Russian form of the Commune, which has not a permanent ownership of land, and tends to the decay of agriculture, and the dire poverty of the peasantry.

She spoke of the Russo-Greek church of which the Czar is the head and described the degredation [degradation] of the secular clergy, and the narrowness and bigotry of the monastic orders. She gave an account of Siberia, speaking of the warn summers, with their beautiful


flowers and mosquitoes, and of the standards of morality and frightful lack of cleanliness among the Siberian people. She touched on the so-called Eastern Question and on Russia’s foreign policy, saying that the Russian diplomats are the best in Europe, as we are reminded in the diplomacy of M. Witte, here in our own country. She gave a sad picture of the present state of Russia, and seemed to think the best hope for improvement lay in the formation of a Constituent Assembly—or real Parliament, which would give the right of habeas corpus, free speech and a free press.

Mrs Stabler gave the Club’s thanks for Mrs Tyson’s interesting article.


[540th Meeting, Jan. 16, 1906]

(540th Meeting.) The 540th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, January 16, 1906, in their assembly room Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was given by the Committee on education, Mrs Bullock, Chairman. The acting president, Mrs Jordan Stabler, called


the meeting to order, and the minutes of the meeting of January 9th were read by Miss Crane. Mrs Stabler read an invitation for the Club to attend two lectures, given to Mr J [?] Noel Wyatt, at the Johns Hopkins University. She also gave notice of a change in the programme of the next meeting.

The first article of this meeting was given by Mrs Bullock, and was on “The Public Library, Its History, Literary Training; Its Function.” Mrs Bullock went back to the ancient library of brick and tile in Nineveh and Babylon, and passing from later libraries, she came down to those of our own times, and our own country, giving much interesting information of their foundation and progress, and of the good work done and still being done by them. She spoke of the public libraries of Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Brooklyn, of the Baltimore Library and its successor, the Mercantile Library, known to all of us, and also to our excellent Library of reference, the Peabody, and the younger and well-known Pratt Library.


She described the beginning and progress of the professional course of study for library-keepers, and told of the thoroughness and comprehensiveness of its years of preparation. She spoke of the calling of the trained librarian as opening a new profession to women, and a new road for the advancement of all womankind. She spoke also of improvement in methods. She told instances of the use of the public library in awaking individuality and responsiveness in minds un-improved and apparently slow--doing not only educational, but missionary work among the people.

The next article was by Mrs P. R. Uhler, and was on “The Cataloguing of a Library,” and also of the different methods of making a good catalogue, that shall be of real service to many men and many minds. Some book shelves are arranged according to size, some according to subjects, etc., and catalogues have been classified from different points of view also. She spoke of the old Baltimore Library and the


Mercantile which succeeded it, as showing that long ago Baltimoreans were a book-loving community. She had an old Catalogue of books, according to size from Joseph Robinson, Book Dealer, Market St, Baltimore. “I wonder how many of us are old enough to have said Market Street, and also to have been told to say Baltimore Street instead.” The change was “long befo’ de War,” as the darkies say. Mrs Uhler spoke of the catalogues made of the books in the British Museum, of one of 1819, not alphabetical, of one relating to authors, and of one of 1850 with the combination of authors and the subjects of their works. The index of the catalogue was a very important work also. She told of the success of card catalogues, taking the subject of one author at a time. After speaking of the special catalogue—musical, medical, legal &c, she went on to the one for the general lover of knowledge. She spoke of the Peabody Library Catalogue as one for seeking into the books themselves, and showing their content. She told of the Library of History—of the early work for it by Dr. Morris, by Mr Nathanial H. Morison, and by the present provost of the Peabody, Dr P. H. Uhler. Dr Uhler’s work for a catalogue began in 1881, and made five thick volumes of 5013 pages. It is used in England and has received the award of the British Museum as the model Library Catalogue of the present time.

The next article was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was on the mis-use of a Public Library. Miss Duvall said she might seem to have the part of the so-called Devil’s Advocate necessarily in the opposition. We were reminded that in mental as well as in bodily food, some things are taken as nourishment, and others as stimulant to prepare for the reception of more substantial fare. If <em>we</em> are to use a library, we know that there are many minds that go to it for pleasure alone, and with which the taste for nourishing food for the brain is forgotten. Their possessors keep to one line of reading—often third or fourth rate fiction. Access to a public library may be mis-


fortune. Some striking instances of this fact were given us—of irresponsible children choosing their own reading, and choosing it badly.

The next article was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was called “The Reading Room.” It was read by Miss Duvall. Miss Reese pictured the ideal reading-room of a library, where all things are made attractive and beautiful for young and old, for rich and poor.

Mrs Sara M. Grimes[?], representing the Pratt Free Library, told of the good work of that institution—and dwelt especially on its “Outside Delivery.” It was seven branches and five stations, and a contract with the express wagons to take the volumes from the stations to their readers. Dr. Steiner has made this work a special feature of the Pratt Library. Mrs Grimes, three years ago, went out to canvass the city, visiting poor neighborhoods, public schools, Sunday schools, and other institutions, also Fort McHenry. The first year there were fifty applications for books. There are now three hundred.

The parents and teachers make the lists of books to be sent which gives them control of the children’s reading. There are two hundred points of distribution.

Miss Elizabeth Harrison spoke of an English woman who had instituted the custom of supplying a library not only with books, but with pictures on the subjects of the books.

Miss Whitney told very interesting items about the courtesies shown by some public libraries to the patrons of libraries in other places.

After thanks to Mrs Bullock and the Committee, the meeting adjourned.


[541st Meeting, Jan. 23, 1906]

(541st Meeting.) The 541st meeting of the Woman’s literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 23rd, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. For this meeting, a miscellaneous programme had been prepared by the Acting President, Mrs Stabler. By request of the acting secretary, the minutes were deferred.

Mrs Stabler announced that our former


member, Mrs John T.[?] Graham, had been made an honorary member of this Club. Mrs Graham was one of the founders of the Club, has been the President of the Lend a Hand Club since its beginning, and we feel honored by her return among us. Mrs Stabler then read the list of our honorary members, including Mrs Sidney Lanier, Mrs Danilus[?] Dandridas, Mrs live Thorne Miller, Miss Kate Mason Rowland, Miss Emily V. [?] Mason, Mrs Florence Earle Coates, Mrs J.[T?] B. Herrick, Mrs Albert L. Richardson, Miss Katharine Pearson Woods, Miss Alice E. Fletcher, Miss Grace Denio Litchfield and Madame Blome[Blanc?] of Paris. The next announcement was of the election to membership of Mrs C. W. Lord, also one of the founders of the Club, whose literary work is well-known to us. The election was also announced of Mrs Charles Bingham Penrose, also a former member, whose Shakespearean writings are of more than local fame. Still another former member was announced as having returned to our membership. Mrs


Margaret Fareweather [Fayerweather?], who has returned from Boston to live among us again. The election to membership of Mrs Charles Morton was next announced. Mrs Stabler said that while the gift of speech is almost universal, comparatively few have the gift of song, and we congratulate ourselves that a new member has it in so fine a degree as Mrs Morton. the announced election was that of Mrs Eugene Pomeroy to non resident membership. She had been a visitor with us, would be welcomed as a new member. Mrs Stabler announced that at the next meeting the Club book would be open for the names of members not recorded in it.

The first article of the programme was by Miss Marion V. Dorsey [Mary Virginia Dorsey], and was called “A Down in Dorset Sketch; telling the Time at Controversie.” Miss Dorsey told of an estate in Dorchester Maryland, held ever since 1639, and having the queer old name of “Controversie”; though very peaceful and uncontroversial now. The bread-winners of the family owning “Controversie,” had


come up from our city across the Chesapeake, exchanging the “tickers” of the Stock Exchange and the variations of the grain-market for the fertile acres around the old homestead. The trusted time-piece of the home was an eight-day clock, which might consent to run two and a quarter days at a time, but was disposed to break off and leave the household in danger of deferring the breakfast time until it encroached on the lunch hour. After much inconvenience, the brain of one little woman evolved more than one remedy. The early bleating of a bereave cow was remembered to have occurred before at seven o’clock in the morning, and the clock was set accordingly. A machine agent from New York arriving on the scene, with the correct time, and doubting the household authority, was defeated by actual comparison. Another time, when the Weary Willie of a clock had stopped again, the hen, singing Polly, came out to announce that she had added to the riches of the world; and


her custom of doing the same at eleven o’clock being well-known, the faith of the little woman in the unerring instincts of animals, was confirmed and vindicated. But last of all, old Uncle Mose, who had watched the sun all his life, declared that when it shone straight down, and you could step into the middle of your shadow it must be twelve o’clock.

The next article was by Miss Amy E. Blanchard, and was “Selections from an unpublished book.” Miss Blanchard told of two girls who were travelling abroad with their godmother. The chapter read was “Chiefless Castles,” and took us to Heidelberg, and Cologne, and the region of the Rhine. On the way to Heidelberg, the girls recalled the well-known traditions of the students with their caps of different colors; but the chaperon reminded them of the vast old castle, in that region. After arriving the party took a walk, and did see the students with their significantly


colored caps; and also went to an open air concert, where there was beer to drink and very good music for twelve cents, but no disorder anywhere. After the ruins of the castle, came the sail down the Rhine, the visit to Magence[?] with its Roman ruins, where the people are said to believe that Constantine saw the vision of the cross. They were warned not to expect to find the Rhine as wide a river as the Mississippi, but in sailing past what Buron[?] called the “castled crags,” one of the party wished herself “wall-eyed,” that she might see both sides at once. At Rolandseck[?], the mystical suggestions of the river, seemed to bring the inspiration of Wagner’s musical dramas nearer than ever before to them.

We were told of their going to a garden concert, but arriving too early, they wandered down to a lonely spot, where they suddenly heard notes of such marvelous purity, and ecstasy, that the concert was forgotten, while they listened to the music of a nightingale. Miss Blanchard went on to speak


of the wonderful Cologne Cathedral begun in 1248, and finished within the memory of some of us still living. She told of other wonders of the same place, but in the great Cathedral in Silence[?], it would seem the cathedral was Cologne. The next article was by Mrs Wm [William] M. Powell, and was: “Some Reminiscences of Rome.” Mrs Powell reminded us that of all the cities of the world, the most wonderful, the one not to be left out, is Rome.

We may be familiar with pictures of the Coliseum and St. Peters, but their grandeur must be seen to be appreciated She spoke of entering St Peter’s before its splendid high altar, and then seeing the colossal Statue of the Saint, whose foot has been worn down by the lips of devout believers, next of meeting a singing procession, led by a young man called the “Pope’s ange.” She told of the ancient wonders of Rome, and spoke of the statue of Mareus [?] Agrippa, said to be the most kingly statue in the world. She went on to the ruins of the Capitol, and the temple of Jupiter, of


which Gibbon said: “While I sat musing there, the idea of writing the decline and fall of the city first started into my mind.” After describing the procession of the Santissimo bambino[?], said to have been the work of St. Luke, Mrs Powell spoke of the Appian Way, with its two trees looking like umbrellas, one closed and the other open; and reminded us that from the Appian Way, St. Paul first approached and saw Rome.

The last article was by Miss Elizabeth Harrison, and was on “Days along the Rivera [Riviera?].

Miss Harrison told of leaving in Paris the winter cold and yellow sky, for the beautiful warm Riviera. She spoke of Avignon, with its papal palace of thirty-nine towers; then of greeting the sun-rise and seeing the olive trees, which will die if their roots are not left partially uncovered. She told of Marseilles and the Church of Notre Dame de la Garde, a votive shrine where lame people come and leave their crutches which bore them thither. She saw the New Year festival of St.


John, with an ox walking in the procession covered with flowers. At Hyéres, the first town on the Riviera, she first found peaches and enjoyed them. She described a procession of the revered order of the Misericordia, carrying a patient to the Hospital. She went on to Cannes with its warm air in January. It was pleasant to sit at tea and look at the Royalties, and other great people going past. They are, however, like other people, with good manners.

At Church, she sat just behind the Prince of Wales with his two sons, and other members of the same family—and the children, of course, grew as restless as children do in church, anywhere. Cannes is full everywhere of flowers, and one tenth of the perfumery of the world is said to come from there.

One gentleman was heard to say that he would give money for the whiff from a tan-yard, to relieve the monotony of sweet odors. She heard that a single drop of attar of roses would cost twenty dollars. “—did not buy any,” she said. At Cannes,


girls can go up the mountain together without a chaperon; and if your passport is valid at Paris, you have the entrée to the Casino and other privileges. Nice is not so pleasant as Cannes, there is too much winter, Paris there; but you see the best dressed people in the world. Miss Harrison spoke of surrounding places and excursions to interesting points, and told some legends of the convents in that region.

Mrs Stabler thanked the members who had contributed their interesting articles to the programme of the afternoon, and the meeting adjourned.


[542nd Meeting, Jan. 30, 1906]

{542nd Meeting.) The 542nd meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, January 30th, in their Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme at this meeting was under the direction of Miss Annie Hollins, Chairman of the Committee on the Literature of Music. Miss Duvall, First Vice


President, called the meeting to order and announced that to our great regret, our acting President, Mrs Jordan Stabler was unable to be present on account of illness, but hoped to be with us soon again.

Miss Duvall also read an invitation to the Club to attend a lecture on Archaeology at the Johns Hopkins University. She then read the subjects for the meeting of the Club during the month of February.

The programme began with “Music in Italy,” a double article written by Miss Hollins. Part I, on “Early Development of Vocal Art,” was read by mrs W. C.[?] Edmonds for Miss Hollins. The paper told of the early religious music of Italy under the direction of the monks, following the Psalms brought from Palestine and showing their Hebrew origin. Miss Hollins also spoke of the Shepherd Songs, Sacred Masques, Pastoral Dramas and other forms of vocal musical expression. She went on to Palestrina in the 16th Century; told of his ap-


pointment in the Choir of the Pope’s chapel, and of the work given him to do in reforming and re-modelling religious music, and elevating that part of Church services far beyond anything that had gone before. Miss Hollins continued to the development of the Opera with the beginning of the 17th Century; and told of the great musical artists who have made it what it was and is now. She told of the rise of the Oratorio, and went on to speak of the different schools of vocal music in the 17th century.

After speaking of Galileo, the father of the Philosopher, of Monteverde and of Scarlatti, she referred to Zingarelli as being distinguished as the instructor of Bellini.

Miss Hollins then read the second part of her article. It was on: “Instrumental Music; Musical Form,” and “Operatic Composers of the 19th Century.” She spoke of the very early known musical instruments and of their introduction into Italy. She referred to the old ribeck[?], and its supposed modern


successor the violin. She told of the violins made at Cremona, those of the Amati, those of Stradivarius, of the Guarneri, and of the immense [sums? word missing] paid now for these 17th Century instruments. If genius, she reminded us, is as we have been told, the capacity of taking infinite pains, the makers of these old violins certainly possessed it—as have also some of those who have played on them, and of these she also spoke. She went on to tell of the Sonata, then the Symphony, of the evolution of the modern orchestra and the gradual formation of the overture. After referring to the great German composers and their works, Miss Hollins gave us an interesting account and appreciative criticism of the four eminent Italian operatic composers of the 19th century—Bellini, Donnizetti, Rossini, and Verdi. She told of of Bellini’s successful work, and of his early and lamented death in 1835 at the age of thirty-three. She spoke of Donnizetti’s more than sixty operas, each adding to his fame. But his brain failed before he was fifty,


and he spent the last three years of his life in an asylum, dying in 1848. Rossini, the son of a poor musician, partly self-taught, was brought before us in his many works and their special claims to the admiration accorded them. Verdi, born in 1814, was extremely poor, and was at one time an organist in a church, at eight dollars a year; but his struggle for fame and fortune was successful, and his melodious work extended over the greater part of the 19th century. It was in his old age that Verdi produced his great requiem Mass in memory of Manzoni [?]. He died in 1901, eighty-eight years of age.

Miss Hollins went on to speak of Mascaqui[?] and Leon Cavalli. She dwelt on the Italians’ enjoyment of music. Without music, she said life would be incomplete for them.

Part III of the programme was “Selections in Illustration.” They were eminently appropriate and much enjoyed.


The first was Scarlatti’s “Pastorale for the Piano,” played by Miss Hollins. The next was from Rossini: “Selections from William Tell.” An Aria for Soprano” sung by Mrs W. C. Edmunds; and the overture played by Miss Bask[?Bush?] and Miss Hollins. The next was from Verdi: “La Traviata.” Aria. “Ah! Fors’ edui,” sung by Mrs W. C. Edmunds. The fourth selection was from Muscogui[?]; “Ave Maria,” adapted to the Intermezzo from “Cao alleria Rusticaux [?].”

Miss Duvall then thanked Miss Hollins and her Committee for the fine programme given us.

She also announced the election of a new member in the Club—Miss Elizabeth Blacklock. The meeting adjourned.


[543rd Meeting, Feb. 6, 1906]

(543rd Meeting.) The 543rd meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, February 6, 1906, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme of this meeting was under the charge of the Committee on Modern Poetry, Miss


Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman. The President pro tempore, Mrs Jordan Stabler, called the meeting to order, and the minutes of the meeting of January 30th were read by Miss Cane. Mrs Stabler thanked the Club for the beautiful flowers sent to her on January 30th (were read by Miss Crane. Mrs Stabler thanked the Club) when she was detained from illness from being at the Club meeting. She then reminded us that just two years before the great fire had destroyed a large part of our city; and she called on Mrs C. W. Lord to speak to us on this subject. Mrs Lord spoke of the memorable Sunday afternoon, when we knew that a great calamity had come to our city, and worse calamities were feared. She thought that Divine Providence must have watched over us when the fire seemed approaching St Paul’s Church, and its very important neighborhood, a change of wind came and swept the flames away. At a later hour when the destroying force seemed moving on the largest residential portion of the


city, another change of wind came to drive it back to the water front and there was, it was believed, no loss of life in the conflagration. In two years there has been, she said, a marvellous recovery, for which are hearts are grateful. Some incidents relating to the fire were recounted.

The first article of the programme was by Miss Lucy Latané, and was on “Milton as a Puritan.” Miss Latané reminded us that the name Puritan had varied in significance during the years following the establishment of the Church of England. At first it was applied to those within her fold who disagreed with ritualistic forms and ceremonies, who proposed reforms in liturgy, and professed to preach a pure gospel. These were the original Puritans, whose successors passed on to great austerity and opposition to Church and King. Milton went through some, though not all, the changes of these people, and at last seemed to go off at a tangent from them.

His grandfather was of an old Catho-


lic family, and disinherited his son, the poet’s father, for conforming to the Church of England. Milton himself, was expected to make the Church his profession, but he objected to signing the thirty-nine articles, at[?] Cambridge University, and went back to live at his father’s house at Horton[?], in Buckinghamshire, where he wrote St. Allegro, and Il Penseroso, and other still favorite poems. After two years of foreign travel, he came back to his own country, to dedicate his genius to civil and religious liberty—as it appeared to him. His wonderful, and merciless defence of the King’s execution, separated him from any alliance with the Presbyterian party, and for a time he was identified with the Independents. The restoration found him blind, and poor, but after a time, he profited by the King’s Amnesty, and in private life wrote his great epic poem “Paradise Lost.” In his later years, he seems not to have gone to any church, but to have been a law


unto himself. It is singular that Dr Samuel Johnson, who liked Milton not at all as a man, says, “That he lived without prayer can hardly be affirmed—his studies and meditations were a habitual prayer. Miss Latane also spoke of Milton’s writings on Divorce; his work on Christian Doctrine, and his political writing.

The next article of the programme was by Mrs Jordan Stabler, and was on, “Milton as a Latin Scholar.” Mrs Stabler spoke of the portraits of Milton and especially of the well-known picture representing him as dictating Paradise Lost to his daughter. She spoke also of one showing him at the age of 12 years-a beautiful boy. He had a bigotted [bigoted] grandfather, and a father who gave him all advantages of education and study. He knew Latin like English and had, it is said, read all the languages considered learned or polite.

After leaving Cambridge, he lived five years in the country, and his Latin poems belong chiefly to this


period. At the age of 30, he went to Italy. In Paris, he met Grotius[?], and in Florence talked with Galileo. At Naples he met Mausa[Manso?], Marquis of Villa, the patron of Tasso, who was delighted with Milton’s accomplishments.

Mention was made of a poem to Diodati, with whom he corresponded in Greek. In England he lived in a house with his nephews, whom he taught languages, even, it is said, Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Syraic. He held the office of Latin Secretary under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, and that of his son. He wrote “Thou oklastes” [?] and two other books in Latin, in defense of the English people, and “Second Defence of the execution of Charles.” The occasion of these defences was that Prince Charles had employed Salmasius[?] to write the Defense of his father, and Milton assailed this defender of the late King with such eloquence and abuse, that


Salmasius is said to have died in consequence. In 1682, when appointed to this work, Milton was blind in one eye, and was warned in vain against losing the other, if he continued to write.

When entirely blind he kept the place of Latin secretary, with the aid of another writer. Another Latin work written for the Protector was: “Reasons for a Declaration of War with Spain.” With the restoration of Charles II, Milton was in hiding for a time, and two of his books were burned by the public hangman[?] before he received the benefit of the King’s Amnesty. Mrs Stabler told of his friend Elwood the Quaker coming ­to read Latin to him, and of the quick ear which detected when Elwood read anything without understanding it. She then spoke of the manuscript discovered among the old English State papers in 1823, which proved to be Milton’s long lost “Essay on Christian Doctrine.” The finding of the manuscript was the occasion of Macauly’s [Macauley’s] brilliant


essay on Milton; and as Macauley’s first distinguished literary success, causing him to be placed among the regular contributors to the Edinbourg [Edinburgh] Review. He says: “Like all Milton’s Latin works, it is well-written. – As was said of Cowley he wears the garb but not the clothes of the ancients.[“]

We were told of the Latin epistle to Manso, with its marked originality and wit. Mrs Stabler, in conclusion, made Milton as a linguist not unworthy to be also the great poet who converted language into the grandest poetry of his time.

The next article was by Miss Lizette W Reese, and was on, “Milton’s Organ Note.” Miss Reese spoke of the Keltic [Celtic] love of the woods and the sea—of the nature music in Keltic [Celtic] poetry. The visions of Milton loom large before us and the grand notes of his music make Tennyson sound sweet and Browning rude. The words are sometimes set to the waves beating upon the shore, and often to the


Cathedral tones that live with us. That haunt us.

Milton makes Satan magnificent, “exalted--” High on a throne of royal state that far outshone the wealth of [Orrus?] and of [Jad?].” The “dim religious light,” the bird “most musical, most melancholy,” appeal to us. “L’Allegro” is all spring. “Il Penseroso” is autumn. Milton, she said, has more sense of form and cadence than any other English poet.

The next article was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was on “Milton as Man and Poet.” Miss Duvall spoke of Milton’s characteristics, admiring many and admitting some not admirable. She spoke of his early, ill-assorted marriage which seems to have warped judgement of all women. She spoke of the “Masque of Comus,” and told of its having been acted before the Earl of Bridgewater by men and women of high degree. Miss Duvall compared Milton and Shakespeare in imagination and charm. As a poet, he had like Sr Galahad, the vision of heavenly things.

The last article of the programme was “Two Poems” by Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud. She said she had nothing “Miltonian” to give us. The first was on those who wake, and make a tryst with darkness, but like to remember those who smile and sleep. The second poem was a lovely little Irish Fairy Tale about the “Little Folk of the Grass.” After the President’s thanks for our entertainment, the meeting adjourned.


[544th Meeting, February 13, 1906]

(544th Meeting.) The 544th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, February 13th, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the charge of the Committee on Current Criticism, Mrs. Percy M. Reese, Chairman. Miss Whitney, second Vice President, presided, and in calling the meeting to order, explained that Mrs Jordan Stabler, our acting President, was detained at home by illness in her family., and that Miss Duvall, First Vice President, was herself ill, though we hoped not seriously so. Miss Whitney spoke of the success of the work on Russia by our member, Mrs Frederick Tyson, and called attention to a fine review in the Evening News of Saturday, February 10th.

The first article from the programme was by Mrs A[?] Marshall Elliott and was on “A New Book on Art.” Mrs Elliott spoke of having received last year, while in Paris, a letter from a member of the Club asking if she had seen any new art works that would interest the Club. She had found in London a book that seemed to be just what she wished to see. It was “The Women Painters of the World,” beautifully illustrated with reproductions of their work. This book covers an immense field, but she would chiefly review the women painters of Italy, France, England and the United States. She spoke of the success of women painters in depicting the tender emotions. She


referred to the portraits of  Madame Le Brun and his daughter, in which the maternal love appeals to all motherhood. She told of Greek and Latin art, and of the fame of Lala the woman painter of the 1st century before Christ. Mrs Elliott told of the progress of Italian Art from the 13th to the 17th Century. She then spoke of Sophonisba Augusciola[?], of whom Vandyke said he had learned more than from all the masters of his day. She told of Violante Teries[?], and then of Elizabeth Terani[? Or Serani?], who was poisoned in 1526 at the age of twenty-six, but is said to have left one hundred and fifty of her paintings, finished with the utmost care. We were told of Lavinia Fontina[?], and of other women who have contributed to the wonderful art of Italy. Mrs Elliott went on to the women painters in England, taking them from the English point of view. She told of Mary Beale, the daughter of a Suffolk clergyman, of Margaret Carpenter and of Angelica Kaufman, of Lady Waterford, and also spoke of the water-colors of the Empress Frederick, eldest daughter of Queen Victoria. She spoke too of Mrs De Morgan, whose work is thought to be very much like that of Botticelli. She told of Miss Gray, Miss Hunter, Marian Stokes and others and referred to the influence of Burne-Jones and to that of Whistler on English art. Coming to the early painters in France, she said they formed a guild like those of the butchers and bakers, and were not considered, as they are in our times. In 1666 the Academy opened its doors to women, but the examinations were once a year, and in the open air. But now we can appreciate the well-known opportunities given art students in France. After reverting to Madame Le Brun, and referring to others, Mrs Elliott spoke of Rosa Bonheur, who broke away from all antiquated restraints and gained a position in Art akin to that of Georges [George] Sand in literature. She


spoke of  Marie Baskertchief, a beautiful girl, whose sad end was a loss to the world of art. The story, she said of our own American women artists, is short, and soon told. She spoke of the work done by E. M. Carpenter, Celia Bow, Bertha Morris and others, and closed by saying that the work done by American women artists in the 19th Century, were reason to be proud of, and believe it will lead to better things. Mrs Elliott then showed us the exquisite pictures in her book.

The next article of the programme was by Miss H. Frances Cooper, and was called “An Old Epic Fable.” Miss Cooper said she had taken instead of a new book an old one—the mediaeval fable called In the Plat Deutche Reineke[?] Vos, and attributed by the Germans to one of their own people, Herman Barkhusen[?], early in the 16th Century, though Jakob Grim[?] gives the old story a much more ancient origin. Goethe re-wrote it in German hexameters, and Miss


Cooper treated it from the English verse of J[?]. J[?]. Arnold, published in 1855. It suggests satire of the people of the time, especially of the clergy, but Grim [Grimm] thought that originally no satire was intended. We were told of Noble the Lion King of Beasts, who commanded that all animals should live in peace, and summoned them all to his court for consultation. All came but Reynard, the Fox, the doer of deeds evil complained of by Isegrim[?] the Wolf; and others who had suffered by him. Different animals are sent for the delinquent, but he entraps his uncle the bear, in a tree, which the bees have filled with honey, lures the cat into a hunt for mice, and tells the fowls that he is doing penance for his sins, and abstaining from all animal food—in order to bite to death the best of the old cock’s daughters. Then his nephew the badger comes for him, he consents to go to the Court. There he deceived the King with protestations


of loyalty, but falls from grace by various wrongs to other subjects of King Lion, each time, however, recovering himself by subtle subterfuges and shifting the blame on others. Miss Cooper brought out the satire shown in this story of Reineke Fuchs, and closed by quoting the quaint moral application of its old fable that it appended to it. “Wisely to take the good and eschew the [girl?]—if rightly understood.”

The next article was by Miss L. H. Kirk, and was the review of the new book, “The House of Mirth,” by Edith Wharton. Miss Kirk spoke of the power and strength of the book and of the interest of its conversations. We were told of a young girl, who chiefly for want of money, drops out of the pale of society, loses her courage, and even, innocently, her reputation. There is much shown of weakness, of the want of moral training and self-control. After reading it, we were reminded that we can be glad that the “Smart Set”


is a small set. But Mrs Wharton’s subjects do not run away from her, as Mrs Ward’s sometimes do. “The House of Mirth” is called the book of the year, and has a great sale. Miss Kirk quoted a review of it from “Life,” which considered its heroine as not well-balanced, and not a cause for tears. Miss Kirk treated “The House of Mirth as literature, rather than as pleasing or satisfactory.

The last article of the programme was a review by Mrs C. W. Lord of “The Divine Fire,” by May Sinclair. Mrs Lord said that this is not as great a book as that reviewed by Miss Kirk, who had treated [“]the House of Mirth” much better than she could have done it. “The Divine Fire” has a slender plot and a tangled love story. It is an English story and tells of a real poet who is of the people and comes before the world with lack of social training, but whose “divine fire” is recognized and brightened, by a splendid woman far above him in the worldly posi-


tion. For her, he makes sacrifices without her knowledge. He suffers from the machinations of an unworthy editor, who well-nigh wrecks her literary career, while he is a long time worshipping from afar her ideal woman, not knowing how truly she appreciates the divine fire and its possessor. Mrs Lord read extracts from the book, and told us that the author, May Sinclair, is a young English woman, who has been in America, and lives in London.

Miss Whitney gave the Club’s thanks to Mrs Reese and her Committee; and the meeting adjourned.


[545th Meeting, Feb. 20, 1906]

(545th Meeting.) The 545th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, February 20th, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the charge of the Committee on Fiction, Miss Ellen Duvall, Chairman. The acting President, Mrs Jordan Stabler, called the meet-


ing to order, and the minutes of the meeting of February 13th were read by Miss Crane. Mrs Stabler read a letter from our absent President, Mrs Wrenshall, dated “Torquay, Devonshire, England. January 2nd 1906. Mrs Wrenshall said she was enjoying her sojourn in England, but was then thinking of the Twelfth Night celebration that night in the Club, and wishing that she could be with us. She hoped her greeting arrived in time to be read to the Club. She had met and made pleasant acquaintances among lovely scenes, but she missed the dear Club and longed for its exquisite companionship.” Mrs Stabler said that she was very sorry to tell us that both of our Vice Presidents were unable to be with us this afternoon on account of illness, but they hoped to be with us at the next meeting.

The programme called first for “Two Children’s Stories” by Mrs Percy M. Reese. Mrs Reese said her first story was one about a child. It was called,


“Was it a Dream?” It told of a hunting-lodge in the pine woods, whither a young man had come, seeking restoration to health. With him were his wife and only child—a boy of six—willing to sacrifice everything else for the recovery that seemed now to be surely coming. But Christmas Eve found them still in the rough surroundings and furnishings, not yet able to leave. The little lodge belonged to the wife, having been left to her with everything in it, by her grandfather who had lived [in? word missing?] the place long and well. The child had hung up his stocking though the other had nothing to put in it. But faith in Santa Claus had not left the little boy’s mind, and the mother let it stay. After he had gone to sleep, she heard him say, “Are you Santa Claus?”—and going on with his part of a dreamy conversation. When the parents came to his side, the awakened child gave a description of the old man he had

seen, in a seal-skin cap, with red clothes and a red ring, who had taken down the two guns, hanging crossed on the wall of the room, and had pushed the empty place open so that he could see through it. The mother, almost shuddering, said that he had described her grandfather.

The child insisted that the guns should be taken down. The opening in the wall yielded to pressure, and a mysterious box was discovered, which contained a packet of twenty-thousand dollars in notes, and papers signed by the grandfather duly attested giving the young wife and mother full right to them—It had come to them in their hour of need, but the mother could not call it a dream, and the child said it was Santa Claus who had brought them the Christmas blessing.

The second of Mrs Reese’s stories was called “Their Own Way.” She told of two children who wished for their own way so ardently, that the mother


let them have it for one morning. So the boy and the girl went out to pick blackberries in great glee. Instead of taking the small tin pail recommended by their mother, they took a big basket, the boy also taking with him his father’s gold-headed cane, and the girl putting on her white shoes and Sabbath headgear. She had never been able to comprehend the reason for wearing best clothes on holidays only. They had always been enjoined to keep on the open road, and they began their expedition by picking and eating the berries on either side of it.

Looking over into the fields they perceived a more attractive fruit, and soon found a hole in the fence big enough to crawl through. The hat and cane being superfluous, they placed them on a large stone, and climbed through to feast a [at] leisure. Of course the white shoes fared badly, and their faces and hands soon looked as if they had been in a fight.

Then, a dreadful big man came


on the scene, accused them of stealing his berries, and threatened to turn his dogs on them. In terror, they climbed through the fence to find no hat, and no cane on the flat stone on the further side. In bad humor with themselves and each other, the forlorn children wended their way homeward; and arriving, began to confess their faults to their mother.

They see the gold-headed cane in its place in the hall, and are told that Rover, the dog, who had followed them, brought it back. A moment later, good Rover appears carrying the hat also—of course with the white satin ribbon partly in his mouth and partly on the ground, and the flowers around it much worse for the journey. The children decide they never will want their way again.

The next article was by Miss Amy E. Blanchard. She told of us a little old spinster, who lived in a house that belonged to her full of old furniture and old memories,


with only her dog as protector. She had, long ago, had her own little share of romance, and had grown to have perhaps more than her share of that devotion to childhood’s belongings and home shown by many women—married or single, young or old—especially old

Her two half-sisters both married, and younger than herself, reach the conclusion that she should have some one with her in the house with whom she can board and still retain a lodging in her old home. So they come to look over the old furniture, and propose to take away much that can find room and usefulness in their own homes, and to do away with that they term perfectly useless. Why Hester wished to keep such things as her own mother’s cradle, or an old trunk they could not understand. One of them opens the trunk to find a heart-shaped pincushion, faded forget-me-nots, old letters, and similar mementos of the past. After they have gone,


Nannie[?], the niece, around whom sounds the love strain of the story, and her cousin Lizzie, another niece, who fain would mar the music if she could, are brought before us. Lizzie watches her Aunt Hester digging a hole in the garden, and bury a box there beside a tree, and the watcher, of course, concludes that something precious is there concealed, which she means to possess. Her cousin Nannie is much nearer the old aunt’s heart—and deserves to be so. When Hester accidentally sees the young minister give Nannie some forget-me-nots, and makes her plan[?] which defeats all Lizzie’s schemes. The old aunt makes her will and leaves her house to the minister for a parsonage—so making two young hearts happy. She soon passes peacefully away. But when the box had been opened, it was found to contain the heart-shaped pin-cushion and the faded flowers. On these, Nannie laid some of her own forget-me-nots, and closed [the]


box up again.

The next article was “A Sketch,” by Miss Lizette Reese. It told of a colored family, in which the daughter of the house, Cora Belle, had, according to her mother’s statement “got religion,” at a camp-meeting, and had shown the wild excitement of her race, when laboring under violent emotion, religious or otherwise. The mother asserts that Cora Belle is not going to dance any more, but her father suggests a cynical doubt on the subject. Cora Belle’s former lover appears on the scene, and asks her to go to a dance with him but she declines, calling him “a sinner.” To this he answers that he calls himself that every Sunday according to the prayer-book. Miss Reese went on to bring to us a strain of music that seemed to be borne on the evening air, and said, “Come, Come, Come.” It was the hymn of the camp-meeting.

Then far off on the other side of the cabin, came a different kind


of music, the times beginning to be played for the ball, and they, too, call “Come—Come—Come.” The lover, after trying to explain his own religious [religions?], as he called it, to Cora Belle, has started for the ball. But she runs out of the door, and stands listening, first to one invitation and then to the other, until youth and pleasure conquer and she chooses to go where earthly pleasures call her.

The last article was a translation by Mrs Frederick Tyson, “A Story,” from the Russian of Maxim Gorky. It told of a 20th Century devil. Mrs Tyson spoke of the strange Russian nature—which is hard for us to comprehend. She reminded us that the strict censorship of the press entirely has prevented free speech in any form but the medium of fiction: The Russians can only voice their despair in the form of satire, and they are past masters of that kind of writing. This story is a satire on


that kind of people who take every opportunity to tell you how good they are, and then indulge themselves in any wickedness that may appeal to them—many of these are what the Russians call the Intellectuals. She told of the street of a Russian City on the eve of Epiphany, where the heavy fog was thick on everything, the street lamps failing to give light, the bells muffled. A little Devil is roaming the streets, avoiding every house where a cross is displayed, not wishing, he says, to come near to the “terrible cross.” At one house where the cross is missing, the devil transforms himself into snowflakes and enters. There sits Ivan Ivanovitch[?], the Intellectual, who was just then in the presence of his conscience. He could not help thinking of a devil—fish devouring a lobster and feeling like a lobster. He would like to tear everything evil from his heart.

Then he heard a voice saying, “I”


may be able to help you.[“] On his recognition and the look of incredulity that followed it, the unwelcome guest continued, “We poor devils have a hard time. We get tired of one kind of work. You are weak and we want the strong souls. What good would it do me to take you? And might it not interest me to see a perfect man?” He went on to ask what Ivan wished to be rid of, saying: “Let it not be the smallest, it will hurt your heart, but not much.” Ivan wished to have his ambition torn away. He felt as if a splinter had been taken from his finger, and the Devil held out on his hand a small object malodorous and formless. Ivan asked that his anger be torn away but the devil said that was only a feeling of disturbance and nervousness. Some more little evils were extracted, which looked like green fruit or old fruit, and were particularly offensive. Then the Devil found that Ivan


looked like a born idiot. Soon he looked as if all his bones were gone away from him. He sat silly and motionless. The Devil considered the only thing to do was to carry him off for a playing of Satan’s. So he gathered Ivan up and rolled him around like a ball for the transportation.

Mrs Stabler expressed regret at Miss Duvall’s absence when her Committee had done such excellent work. The meeting adjourned.


[546th Meeting, Feb. 27, 1906]

(546th Meeting.) The 546th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, February 27, 1906, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was the February Salon, and was under the direction of the Committee on Art, Mrs R. M. Wylie, Chairman. In the absence of the Acting President, Miss Whitney, 2nd Vice President, called the meeting to order. She announced that Miss Duvall, 1st Vice President, was still suffering from


tonsillitis, and unable to be with us. Miss Whitney then announced the programmes for our meetings in March.

The first article of the programme consisted of two lately published reviews of two books recently written and published by members of our Club. They were read by Mrs Wylie. The first one was upon the work of Mrs Frederick Tyson, on Russia, treating of their nations past and present, the political and social conditions—its art, literature, etc. The reviewer spoke first of Mrs Tyson’s very successful translations from distinguished French authors, who are well qualified to judge on these and have excellent opportunities for understanding them, especially since the alliance between France and Russia has been in force. Mrs Tyson’s original portion of the book was given very high appreciation also. The second review was on Miss Florence Traill’s Italian Literature,” and was, like the first, very gratifying to the fellow members of the


two authors. Miss Trail, as we know, received a letter of congratulation on her book from the King and Queen of Italy. She has lately been honored by another letter, sent her from the Queen Dowager Margarita. Her book has since received high honors form the Royal Academy of Italy.

The next article was by Miss Elizabeth Lester Mullin, and was on “Sir Godfrey Kneller,” and the “Hampton Court Beauties.” Miss Mullin said that she had endeavored to bring us photographs of the Hampton Court Beauties. There are, she said, eight pictures still in Hampton Court Palace and three in the British Museum, of which her father had been able to obtain copies, when he was in London, and a picture of Queen Mary the 2nd had been found for her in the Peabody Library. She then spoke of Sir Godfrey Kneller, who was born in Germany in 1648, and died in London about 1723. In 1672 he went to Venice, and one day was attracted by the performances of a juggler,


who singled the artist out as a man with a happy face, and prophesied that he would attain fame and great wealth, that he would first save the life of an innocent person condemned to death. It all came true, and before leaving Venice Kneller obtained the pardon of one whole life was to have been the penalty of an alleged crime. In 1674, he went to London, and on the death of Sir Peter Lely[?], he was appointed to Charles, the 2nd Court Painter—an office he held through succeeding reigns. His friendship for James the Second did not prevent him from espousing the cause of King William and enjoying the favor of Queen Mary. When the King and Queen chose to live at Hampton Court, and to decorate their gardens acording [according] to the Dutch ideas, with trees brought from Holland, Mary gave the order to Kneller to paint the portraits of the beauties of the Court for further adornment. There were


difficulties to overcome, but Mary IV[?] was a Stuart and would have her way. She was the only Stuart who reigned without having favorites—a contrast to her sister Ann, whose correspondence with Sarah, Lady Churchill, afterwards Duchess of Marlborough, carried on under the names of Mrs Morley and Mrs Freeman, proved the reverse. In these letters, King William was called “Caliban,” and a “Dutch monster.” Kneller painted many portraits and when asked why he did not depict historical subjects, he said that historical pictures sought to make dead people live, but the portraits of the patrons made him live. Miss Mullin went on to describe the portraits of the beauties—and their originals. She told of the Countess of Clarendon and Rochester connected with Mary through her mother Anne Hyde, and told of Prior’s poem on the judgment of Paris in which Venus yielded the poem to a fair Hyde. We were told of Lady Ram[?]-


leaf [?] and of the Countess of Essex. Another beauty was Digna Vere, a daughter of the Duke of Oxford, and who married the Duke of St. Albans, a son of Charles II and Nell Grogan[?] and of another of Charles the Second’s sons, whose other was the Duchess of Cleaveland. She spoke of the Duchess of Manchester, known to us by Kneller’s picture and Addison’s poem, of the Countess of Peterborough and of Lady Mary Compton who married Lord Bushhurst[?], afterwards Earl of Dorset. Miss Mullin brought before us the celebrated Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, and quoted from her writings some characteristic descriptions of Queen Mary and her court, and her not at all courtly husband King William the Third. Miss Mullin spoke of several pictures of the Queen; and gave interesting notices of each of the “beauties,” as she passed them in review. She also compared the paint-


ings of Kneller with those of Lely and others.

Miss Whitney thanked Mrs Wylie for our entertainment and also Miss Mullin for her beautiful article. The meeting adjourned. The members and their guests enjoyed the photographs brought by Miss Mullin, and refreshments and conversation for the rest of the afternoon.


[547th Meeting, March 6, 1906]

(547th Meeting). The 547th Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, March 6th, 1906, in their usual assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the charge of the Committee on Foreign Languages, Mrs Frederick Tyson, Chairman. The Acting President, Mrs Jordan Stabler, called the meeting to order. The minutes of the meeting of February 27th were read by Miss Crane. Mrs Stabler announced the subjects of the meetings for the current month, and called attention to the fact that the meeting of March 17th will be the closing meeting of the


16th year of the Club, and the welcoming in of the 17th year of its life. Announcements were made of two invitations to the Club to attend lectures at the Johns Hopkins University. Mrs Stabler then announced that we expect to have the pleasure of lectures given to our Club, as we remember having enjoyed them last year. The opening lecture is to be given by Dr. William Hayes Ward, Editor of the New York Independent, a distinguished scholar, traveler and Orientalist—of the 22nd of March at 8 o’clock p.m.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Marie Perkins, and was a translation from the French of Georges d’Espartes, called “A Life Guard.” The paper described a scene in the hall of Sorbonne at Paris, when the Breton Life Guards held their anniversary and received their Crosses of Honor awarded for especially heroic deeds done in their life-saving duty. All Brittany seemed to be there, in the costumes of the old homes, looking on with the Breton eyes, like bits of its own sea. There were woman, young and old—the old ones having their own kind of beauty as well as young. Bruz [Bruges?] has been called a dead city, but if there is lack of expansion in trade, there is in the old country living power and strength, however, still. The Bretons have been called madmen and fools, but other men sometimes applaud and might wish for a share in such madness and folly. The Silent Sailors came up for the rewards of merit, given by an Admiral, and returned with the crosses clasped in their right hands. One man had saved the lives of 348 men. Others worthy to stand with him were also summoned. One girl of seventeen—who could not swim—had rushed and rolled down the cliffs and though badly hurt, had put out in a lifeboat and saved fourteen men from the angry waves. The Bretons are not dead, the applause they receive seems almost like envy of their mad and foolish courage.


The next article of the programme was a Translation from D’Agiout[?] by Miss Elizabeth Mullin, called “The Inca—[Elia?] Wickersloote.” We were told of a home in Amsterdam, of a room described like an old Dutch painting, showing the life and habits of those who lived in it. There was the old mahogony [mahogany] harpsichord, the gilded chandeliers, the tapestries and ornaments from over the seas, and the portrait of a beautiful woman, with a pink dress, pink cheeks, and a pink flower, looking down upon the occupants, a father and daughter of the prosperous middle class of Hollanders. Jacqueline, the girl of 18, slim and pale, seems to look up at the smiling face of her dead mother, as if she were questioning for something from the great beyond, of which we know so little. Her father has just reminded her of a good ship due from the East that day, and of her godfather whom it would bring back to her, Dr. Wickersloote, a


great traveler and a great botanist.

Soon he comes, and with him is a box, which is placed on the harpsichord. Then he begins to tell of the trees and plants in the islands of the far-off Eastern seas. He tells of the wonderful sweet singing of the native Islanders, of their marvelous sympathy with the plants, and of the growth and blooming of the flowers in response to the harmonious sound. The love of a plant is a poem, he says, and the untaught people hold converse with Nature. The box is opened and some long white filaments appear in it. He calls them the nerves of the [Clans?], and soon after, asks the child, as he calls her, to play an old song, but not violent music for him.

The girl looks up to her mother’s face, which seems to smile back at her, and the music goes on while the father forbears to smoke. The plant sends up a stalk, and finally beautiful and fragrant flowers appear. Afterwards, the greatest player in


the town is called in, but his playing has to be directed. The doctor tells Jacqueline the flower is named for her and himself—it is Incabdia[?] Wickersloote. But it suffers with excess of music, a lively air is played next—and the flower is accustomed to gentle sounds. With an outburst of musical fireworks, the petals fall, the stalk shrinks up and soon the few white filaments remain alone. With the flower dead, the flower, like Jacqueline, faded away also, but at the last the face of her mother’s portrait seemed to smile a welcome upon her. Wickersloote ended his days in an asylum, and the Incabdia[?] was heard of no more.

The next paper was read by Miss Annie Hollins and was a Russian story by Puschkin [Pushkin], called “The Queen of Shades.” It showed us a card-party of young men, one of whom in a pause, relates the experience of his grandmother with cards some sixty years before. She had gone to Paris, and was there called “The


Russian Venus,” but she had played deeply and lost so heavily that her husband had refused to pay her gambling debts. She had resource to a man supposed to possess superhuman powers—who, we were told, revealed to her the secret of success at cards. The next night she played and won, and for two succeeding nights had most phenomenal success. She paid her debts and never played again. But she would never tell the names of her three winning cards even to her sons, who were devoted to play—but being rich had not needed the knowledge. She was very old now with no pretentions [pretensions] to beauty—and rather quarrelsome.

One of the listeners to the story was haunted by it ever afterwards. His name was Herman, and he had come from Germany to St Petersburg, and, not being well off, was possessed by the idea of discovering the names of the Countess’ lucky cards. We were told of the


Countess and her pretty attendant, Elizabeth, who read aloud to her, but, if the book was dull that was considered Elizabeth’s fault. The modesty and irregular payments of her salary, combined with the freaks of the Countess made the poor girl long for freedom. Herman watched the house, saw the pretty girl at the window, and sent her a [sic] love-letters. That it was translated from a German letter did not detract from it, by the unsuspecting young woman. After repelling his advances, she finally consents to an interview—giving him directions for reaching her presence through the room of the supposedly sleeping Countess. But he finds the Countess awake, and pleads in vain for the secret of the three cards. At last he draws his pistols and threatens her life. Then her head falls and he finds her dead. Elizabeth in her own room, hoping he wood not come, is suddenly confronted by the presence and his story. “I,” she says,


“have been the blind tool of a murderer.” But she lets him out through the Countess’s room. As the old lady was known to have heart trouble, her death was easily accounted for, and she was supposed to have passed away in the midst of her devotions. At night, Herman sees a figure at his side, and hears the words: “The three cards are the Three the Seven and the Ace, play any one of them, and at intervals of 24 hours play the other two.” Then the apparition faded. The next night he goes to the finest gambling house in the city, stakes a large sum—and wins. The next night with a much larger sum, he wins more largely still. The third night his play is to put all his money on the Ace—but when the card is shown, it is the Queen of Spades, looking at him with the mocking eyes of the Countess. Soon after he was in a mad-house. Elizabeth becomes the wife of an estimable young man.


The last paper was a translation from the French of Isabelle Massier[?] called “A Glimpse of Siam,” by Mrs Frederick Tyson. Mrs Tyson spoke of Isabelle Massier as a French woman, who has travelled much in Asia and Africa. M. Bruntiere[?] volunteered to write the preface for her book of travels which insured its success. The only fault to be found with her is, we are told, her intense nationalism. The modern French are like the ancient Greeks in their adoration of their native land. After alluding to the successful French colonies in Eastern India, Mrs Tyson spoke of Bangkok, the capital of Siam, on the River Meinam, a city supposed to have 400,000 inhabitants. She told of its palaces, temples, and pagodas, shining with porcelaine, mosaics, and brilliant colors, of the images of Buddha, adorned with jewels and gold, one of these having feet “five umbrellas in length.” The priests are the teachers of the people


and the monks are truer to their vows than those of most heathen lands. She told the story of a princess and a priest who fell in love; however, with tragic consequences to both of them. The building, or adorning of religious, edifices is the best way of acquiring merit in their system, and their erections have great and even aesthetic beauty. We were given a vivid picture of the bazars, where is seen the life of the people, and are found the costumes of almost all nations.

The President thanked Mrs Tyson and her Committee for our entertainment, and the meeting adjourned.


[548th Meeting, Mar. 13, 1906]

(548th Meeting.) The 548th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 13th, 1906 in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the charge of Mrs Sidney Turner, Chairman of the Committee on Essays and Essayists. Mrs Jordan Stabler,


acting President, called the meeting to order. She announced that Miss Cooper, in charge of our “Book Notes,” requested any of our members who have read new books of interest and merit to send her the names of them to be placed on our book bulletin-board. The announcement was repeated of the Lecture to be given before the Club on March 22nd by Dr. William Hayes Ward of New York on “The Garden of Eden.” Mrs Stabler also announced that we are to have another Lecture on March 29th by General Peter Leary on the “Modoc Indian War of 1843.” General Leary gave this Lecture before the University Club in 1897. He was to have illustrations to add to its attractions—if possible. Mrs Stabler then announced that our next meeting on March 20th would celebrate the anniversary of the foundation of the Club and the beginning of the 17th year of its existence.

The first article of the program was by Miss Elizabeth Cary[?] Nicholas, and was entitled “The Essay.” Miss Nicholas spoke of the Essay as less


profound than the treatise, more like an assault than a siege; as an attempt to discuss rather than to investigate exhaustively the questions, interests, and events of human life. There is much of the individuality of the author in the Essay, it seems written with a free hand, and without concealing the individuality that guide it. It may deal with profound subjects, like Locke’s Essay on the Human Understanding, or combine instruction and entertainment, like those of Addison in the Spectator. In the 19th Century, this kind of writing was, perhaps, overdone. .In the 20th we have many unsolved problems left for discussion but the essayist is not obliged to be convincing.

The next article was by Miss H. Francis Cooper, and was on Joseph Addison. Miss Cooper spoke of the men of letters in the 18th century who are still favorites in the 20th one. Joseph Addison the son of a cleargyman [clergyman], was born in 1672. We were told of his school-days and his life at Oxford, which


is still pointed out “Addison’s Walk.” He seems to have been intended for the Church, but events led him into political life, and his poem on the Battle of Blenheim caused him to be made Commissioner of Appeals. We were told of the high regard in which he was always held by his friend Steele. Addison was elected to Parliament, but was not able to speak in the House of Commons. Miss Cooper spoke of earliest literary periodicals, and went on to tell of “The Tattler,” begun by Steele. In 1709, and of Addison’s contributions to its pages, until its end in less than a year. She spoke of the founding of the “Spectator,” destined to take its place among the English Classics in, and of Addison’s charming Essays, as well as those of his well-known associates. We were reminded that Addison is now far better known and admired for his essays, than for his “Tragedy of Cato,” which received extravagant praise from his contemporaries.


Miss Cooper quoted Dr. Samuel Johnson’s eloquent tribute to Addison’s style, and also Macaulay’s assertion that he alone knew how to use ridicule without abusing it—who reconciled wit and virtue, and without inflicting a wound, effected a great social reform.

The next article was by Mrs Geo. K. McGaw and was on “Edmund Burke.” It was read by Mrs Turner. Mrs McGaw spoke of England in the 18th Century as an age of vital interests, a time of great events and great men, when a new England seemed emerging from the conflict of the Old and the New. The name of Burke brings to our minds his eloquent denunciation of Warren Hastings, as the name of Daniel Webster recalls the reply to Hayne[?].  But there is far more to recall. Edmund Burke was born in Dublin, January 1st, 1730. His father was an attorney and a Protestant, while his mother was a Catholic—and he was sent to school to a Quaker,


Abraham Shackelton. In 1743, he entered Trinity College, Dublin, where Goldsmith was his colleague. He soon showed that quality of genius which has been called the Infinite power of taking pains. Mrs McGaw spoke of his writings, literary and political. His first avowed published work was “A Vindication of Natural Society.” It was a satire which imitated Lord Bolingbroke, for the sake of ridiculing him. Mrs. McGaw spoke of Burke’s career in Parliament, and of his speeches on the American War for Independence and the French Revolution. She told of his general political career during which he did not scruple to break with the leaders of his own party when he thought them going wrong. She reverted [referred?] to his impeachment of Warren Hastings in the name of human nature, as the common enemy of all. He refused to be made a Peer, and died in 1797 in his 68th year.

Mrs McGaw said she had found it


difficult to single out any extract from Burke’s writings as a specimen of his style; and she had been surprised to find that the same thing had been said by Hazlitt, who suggests that for full appreciation of Burke’s genius, one must read all of his works.

The next article was by Mrs. P. R. Uhler, and was on Thomas Babbington Macauley. Mrs Uhler spoke of Macauley’s birth in 1800, the son of Zachary Macauley and of Elina[?] Mills, a pupil and constant friend of Miss Hannah More. Zachary Macauley, the father, was one of those who worked for the abolition of the English Slave Trade. Enest and conscientious in all things, he could not comprehend why his children were fond of light literature and kindred amusements, which had no attractions for him. Macauley learned to read at the age of three. His favorite amusement was to lie on the floor with a book and a piece of bread and butter to occupy his


attention. It is not wonderful that the child’s conversation was bookish, and stilted in style. He essayed authorship at 8 years old, attempted an epic poem and afterwards a tract to persuade the people of Tranooancore[?,} India, to embrace the Christian religion. Mrs. Uhler did not long dwell on Macauley’s distinguished public career in Government office, Parliament or Society, ending in his being made a Peer. She told of his first literary success gained by his Essay on Milton, in the Edinburg Review, in 1830, and his immense number of contributions to the historical, critical and cultured literary life of England. Macauley, we were told, seems to have had no love story, but his devotion to his own family ties, and to his mind’s work, made his life a happy one. He died in 1859 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where his memorial stone lies before the statue of Addison.


The last article was by Miss Annie W. Whitney, and was on Maurice Bloomfield. Miss Whitney said she had chosen to write on a man still living among us—Dr Mauriece Bloomfield of the Johns Hopkins University. Professor Bloomfield was born in Austria, studied in Chicago and elsewhere and received degrees from Johns Hopkins and Princeton. He is a writer on the life, literature and religion of ancient India and an authority on the Sanskrit language. After describing his translations from the Vedas and other work, Miss Whitney gave extracts from two essays written and published by Professor Bloomfield. In his article on Symbolic Gods he describes the ascending and descending symbolism of the heroes who were glorified into gods, and of the mythical divinities whose powers and heroic qualities were attributed to men living their short lives on earth. With regard to ancestor worship,


it was said that the primitive man could not get rid of his ancestors, their influence for good or evil remained with him on earth. We were reminded of the deified powers of Nature, as we moderns make our goddess of Liberty, and of the things to be desired, such as heat or coolness, or when as in the jaundice we want the yellow color to be driven away by the red of health. In his article on the Cerberus Myth, Professor Bloomfield said that India was the first home of the story of the plural-headed dog. He quoted from the Athahoa Veda in which Janice [Janus?] the judge of the dead, has two dogs in the heavens, sometimes representing day and night, or the sun and the moon. They are sometimes made the guardians of the doors, and one has to run past the dogs to get into heaven, and sometimes they are the guides to heaven. It was a later conception that afterwards degraded them into


Pluto’s guardians of Hell. It was said that Max Muller sees the gloomy side of the myth, but Miss Whitney explained Professor Bloomfield’s clearer view of it, especially in its relation to humanity.

Mrs Stabler thanked Mrs Turner and her committee for our excellent entertainment. The meeting adjourned.


[549th Meeting, March 20, 1906]

(549th Meeting.) The 549th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, March 20th, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the charge of Mrs Edwd [Edward] Stabler, Chairman of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records. Mrs Jordan Stabler, Acting President, called the meeting to order. The minutes of M’ch [March] 13th were readby Miss Crane. Mrs Stabler made announcements of the course of lectures to be given before the Club this season, the first by Dr. William Hayes Ward of New York, on March 22nd; the second by General Peter Leary, U.S.A. on M’ch 29th, and the third by Captain Jacobs U. S. Revenue Service on April 5th.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs Edward Stabler and was on “Molly Pitcher.” Mrs Stabler spoke of her as the woman who has been called the heroine of the Revolutionary battle of Monmouth, in New Jersey. Mrs Stabler said probably very few of us were aware that a lady now living in Hagerstown—in the 94th year had, in her childhood, known and talked with Molly Pitcher, herself. Molly was a German woman, the wife of a soldier in General Washington’s army. The battle of Monmouth Court House fought—Mrs Stabler reminded us==on June 19th, 1778—was one in which neither side was defeated, but the effect was that of success for the Americans. It is memorable for the displeasure felt and vigorously expressed by General Washington and and experienced soldier, but


who had made a retreat of which Washington disapproved. Molly Pitcher’s husband’s full name is forgotten, but she who came to bring him water on that sultry day is still remembered. He had been killed when just about to fire a cannon. She fired the loaded gun, and stood in her husband’s place for the rest of the battle. When very old she lived with relatives near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and there the Hagerstown lady saw and talked with her. She was a small woman with dark eyes, and her profession was washing. She seemed well-liked where she lived, and she talked of old Revolutionary days, especially of Gen. Washington, who was always her favorite hero.

Mrs Stabler spoke of our keeping alive the memory of the heroes and heroines of our country’s early days , even the humblest of them, who are in danger of being regarded as myths as time rolls on.

The next article was by Miss Whitney, and was called “St. Tammany, a


Native American Saint.” Miss Whitney spoke of the only patron saint ascribed to our country—certainly as truly American as St. Denis is French or St. George is English.  However aboriginal saints may appear incongruous in the company of the patron saints of Europe, ours is represented as one of good and noble qualities. It is not known when, where or by whom an Indian chief was given such a title—nor who he has been chosen the patron of one branch of a great political party. The Chief Tammany was always a friend of the whites, especially of William Penn. Of course he did not escape the notice of [James Fenimore] Cooper who calls him Tamenund. Miss Whitney gave us some remarkable traditionary[?] myths of Tammany, such as his fights with the Devil, in which were employed the powers of the vegetable and the animal kingdoms—poisons [poisonous] rattlesnakes and even the mammoths, whose


bones are still to be found under the ground, where they are said to have fallen before the powers of St. Tammany. The Saint drove the Devil in a hand-to-hand fight as far as New York, where for a time a halt was made. The last days of the Saint were spent in his wigwam “in the discourse of wisdom.” There is a tradition that he ascended from earth like Elijah of old. It was suggested that his shade might sometimes weep ghostly tears, if permitted to re-visit his haunts of old. Miss Whitney spoke of the Tammany Club of Annapolis in 1771, of one in Philadelphia, as well as of the famous one in New York. The 1st of May was St. Tammany’s Day and his followers have celebrated it with observances more or less aboriginal.

The next paper was by Mrs Aaron J{?]. Vanderpoel, and was called, [“]Reminiscences of an Old Dutch Village.” It was read by Mrs Edward Stabler. Mrs Vanderpoel took us


with her to the state of New York, near the Hudson River and showed us the surviving charms of a little old Dutch Village. This one prides itself on the number of great men it has sent out into the world. Among others the 8th President of the United States was born, educated and died there. Another of its distinguished men is still believed, by Northern democrats, to have been entitled in 1877 to the Presidential Chair. One of the best Arabic scholars in the world came from this village, and the brave and magnanimous Admiral Phillip made it his home for years. At the home of a resident, afterwards minister to Spain, Washington Irving was sent to make a long visit early in the 19th century. After the death of his fiancée, Irving visited the farm-houses, being regaled with dainties, and listening to the legends of the mountains, told in perfect good faith. He made acquaintance


with the Yankee schoolmaster and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” was one of the results of this visit. The home of Katrina Van Tassel still stands with its apple-trees around it. Mrs Vanderpoel told of one large-roomed and thick-walled house, whose owner was criticized, for his extravagance in building. He said it was built to please his wife, “for if every brick could speak, they could not all tell the happiness of his married life.” And this was after many years of it. General Montgomery was a friend of the family, and stopping here on his way to that fatal expedition to Canada, fell asleep on a sofa, still preserved, and called the Montgomery sofa. During the Revolutionary War, in 1777, the English General Borgoyne, then a prisoner of war, died in this house, with all his escort[?] around him. One chair used at this dinner is still preserved but there was no Baron Munchausen among the guests to certify it as the one


used by the captive General. After dinner, an officer asked the child of the house , 7 years old, to give a toast and she responded with “God save the King”—[“]and Royal Family”—it was an anxious moment, but after a good dinner, the stern patriots let the toast pass—perhaps as a childish compliment to their prisoner. After his presidential term, Martin Van Buren lived in his native village, and entertained his friends in a beautiful home. One of his visitors was his political opponent—but personal friend—Henry Clay. At an after-dinner reception a very pretty girl came forward, and the gentleman in charge of introductions could not immediately recall her name. “Never mind,” said Mr Clay, “don’t try to remember her present name—I’m sure she will soon change it.” And so she did. The little village is much changed now. There has been a destructive fire, and there are modern improvements—trolley-cars, etc.


The picturesqueness of old Kinderbroot[?] is gone. Mrs Vanderpoel modestly omitted telling us that the old house described was her own home, built by her ancestor, and filled with personal, traditional and historical associations, interesting to her and certainly to her fellow members of the Club.

The last article was by our Presiding officer Mrs Jordon [Jordan] Stabler, and was on “A Birthday.” Mrs Stabler spoke of our pleasure in meeting each other, and our friends today, when our programmes record the entrance into the 17th year of the  life of our Club. For this day we have congratulations, retrospection and resolutions. We congratulate ourselves on the progress we have made in 16 years on the influence we have gained—and also that we have held to our high standards of culture, and to the high aims with which we began our Club life. “And all we know has been largely due to our Presidents, who have been our


leaders and guides. A letter was read from our present President, Mrs Wrenshall, in England telling of her improvement in health, and giving her love to each and all of her fellow members. Mrs Stabler then spoke of the addition to our Library, by the works of our own members, and those of other writers. She recounted the gratifying increase of our membership in the last year, and recalled the much-regretted death of one member, Mrs Early. There are two days when good resolutions are particularly in order; New Year’s Day and a Birthday. In her 17th year, a young maiden dreams of her future, and makes resolutions for her coming life. We will resolve to continue our work with increased devotion to the interests of pure intellectual womanly progress for ourselves and for the benefit of the city of our homes. We wish to add to our numbers those who can and will accept the qualifications set forth in our Constitution and in our


Pledge of Membership. These were read and commended to our consideration and continued loyal devotion.

Mrs Albert L. Richardson, one of the founders of our Club, then read to us a letter to herself from Mrs Marcella Mason Greeley, President of the Sorosis Club of New York, sending her greeting to the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore. She says she has watched its progress, and now “gives congratulations for all it stands for.”

With thanks to the Chairman and Committee of Unfamiliar Records, the meeting adjourned.


[550th Meeting, Mar. 27, 1906]

(550th Meeting.) The 550th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore took place on Tuesday, March 27th, 1906, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This meeting was under the charge of Miss Haughton, Chairman of the House Committee, and Miss Cloud, Chairman of the Committee of the Drama. The presiding


officer, Mrs Jordan Stabler, called the meeting to order, and announced that the programme would be divided into two parts—to give opportunity to those who wished to attend the lecture of Dr Van Dyke at the Johns Hopkins University to leave at the end of the first portion. Announcements were made of the subjects for the meetings of the month of April. The lecture for Thursday March 29th, by General Peter Leary, was announced, and also that of April 5th by Lieutenant Jacobs.

The first article of the programme was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was an address on “Beaumont and Fletcher.” Miss Duvall spoke of the writers of the Elizabethan period, and particularly of the dramatists of that time, dwelling on their power of imagination and poetic genius. She told of their perception of the depth of love, and especially that of friendship. Beaumont and Fletcher near the close of this era,


not only felt and exalted friendship but lived it in a real and mental union—which makes impossible a separation of their literary work done during the time they lived together. This only, she said, seems to be found in the work of Fletcher after Beaumont’s death. Fletcher was born in 1576, ten years before Beaumont, whom he outlived 10 years also, but always keeping the beloved memory of his friend. It is hard to compare them. It has been said that there is more distinction and judgment—perhaps more passion—in Beaumont, and more fancy and wit, it behooves us to give Fletcher. Miss Duvall spoke of the events of their lives, and of their influence over their literary contemporaries, some of whom gave them quite equal rank with Shakspeare [Shakespeare]. To this, she said, we cannot agree and gave the wonderful living force of Shakspeare’s characters, and words for us now. A Bay, she said to us, may be a beautiful

[199] and noble body of water, and we may love its waves and its banks, but it is not the grand ocean stretching from Labrador to Florida, from which we can look out with no sense of limitation. Without detracting from others, Shakspeare, she said, stands alone amongst his contemporaries, and certainly above all of them.

The next article was an exquisite poem by Miss Lizette W. Reese. It was entitled “Lombardy Poplars,” and was a gem of purest ray.

The next article was “A Story” by Miss Cloud. Miss Cloud introduced us to a playwright, who tho’ he could compose plays, and have them accepted, had very limited views in regard to women. Of the latter, he knows only thru [through] types, which thru [through which] he describes. A young woman who aspires to be the leading lady in his new play, is refused an interview by the playwright. By native wit and dematic ability, and her power of impersona-


tion, she conquers the playwright, and becomes engaged—in an unexpected way. It was all told with the power of humorous description, to which we are accustomed from Miss Cloud’s stories.

The next article was by Miss Marie Perkins, and was on “A Toccata of Galuppi’s.” She was accompanied on the piano by Mrs H. Courtney Shriver. Miss Perkins told us of Baldassaro Galuppi of Browning’s poem—he was a successful composer, born in the 1st decade of the 18th century. He was visited at his home in Venice by Dr Charles Burney[?] of London, who made the tour of Italy in 1770, while collecting materials for his “History of Music.” Galuppi’s works were hissed[?] at first, and highly appreciated afterwards, but he was one of those who give voice to us of the time he lived in. It was during the decadence of Venice, everything tending to the destruction of the government, which came before long, by the successful invitation of Napo-


leon in 1796. Miss Perkins read the poem very beautifully, and received thorough appreciation. She had sent to Italy for a Toccata of Galuppi’s which was exquisitely rendered on the piano for us by Mrs Thriber[?] [Shriber?]. There seemed a dancing cadence on the surface, with deeper undertones prophesying “Dust and Ashes.”

The meeting [minutes—word missing] of March 27th were read of by Miss Crane.

Mrs Stabler gave a very interesting account of the lecture given by Dr Ward of New York on March 22nd, recalling our pleasure of that evening. She spoke of Dr Ward’s enjoyment of his visit here and his pleasure in meeting the members of the Club.

Mrs John T.[?]Grahame said a few words thanking the Club for the honor of honorary membership with us, and telling some interesting experiences of her own.

Mrs Stabler also read a lovely


letter from our absent President, Mrs Wrenshall, speaking of her still keeping in touch with the Club, and wishing we all were near her in beautiful Devonshire. From her attractive descriptions, we well could wish so too. She sends her love to each and all of her dear fellow members.

With thanks to the Chairmen of the two Committees of the afternoon and their assistants, the meeting adjourned.


[551st Meeting, April 3, 1906]

(551st Meeting.) The 551st meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, took place on Tuesday, April 3rd, 1906, in their Assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme of this meeting was under the direction of Miss Mary Dorsey Davis Chairman of the Committee on Letters and Autographs.

Mrs Jordan Stabler, acting President, called the meeting to order; and the minutes of the meeting of March 24th were read by Miss Crane. Mrs Stabler then gave a very interesting account


of the 2nd of this season’s course of Lectures, given before the Club. Gen. Peter Leary, U.S. A., our fellow Baltimorean, gave the Lecture, which was on the Modoc Indian War of 1873, in which he as an active participant. She spoke of the practical investigator, who said, “We take our Folk Lore alive,” and reminded us that in listening to Gen. Leary, we take our history alive—from a living, intelligent participator in the making of History. Gen. Leary has been able to correct from his own recollections a very important error in a usually reliable Encyclopaedia with regard to the events of the Modoc War.

The first article of the programme was given by Mrs Walter Bullock and was on Gen. T. J. Jackson—“Stonewall Jackson.” Mrs Bullock was able to show us an autograph, friendly note written by Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson in September, 1862, just after the battle of Sharpsburg, or Antietam. She spoke of Jackson’s Scotch descent, and of the Keltic [Celtic] qualities he inherited. We hear first of his ancestors as settling n Virginia in 1748. His great grandfather was well-off, but the family lost their property, and his father was poor. He lost his mother, whose early teaching he never forgot, when he was seven years old, and his father died a year later. He afterwards left his uncle’s house, saying simply that they “could not agree.” A friendly blacksmith told him of an opportunity to gain the appointment to a West Point cadetship, which he secured. With all his hard work, he kept falling behind his class, for want of preparatory knowledge, generally gaining the next day what he had failed on before. He graduated in the same class with McClellan, quite low, with his opponent very near the top. In the Mexican War he distinguished himself at Vera Cruz [Veracruz] and Chapultepec, coming back with the rank of Major. In Mexico he became much interested in the subject of religion and sought for help from a Mexican Archbishop, but finally became a devout Presbyterian, like his Scotch ancestors. For ten years, he was a Professor in the Virginia Mili-


tary Academy. His first wife was the sister of Mrs Margaret Preston, well-known in Baltimore, and his second wife was Miss Morrison, which whom many of our citizens were acquainted. We are all familiar with the incident of the Battle of Manasses [Manassas], when Gen. Bee gave Jackson the name of “Stonewall,” by which he is best known now. His first and only defeat was at Kerustown[?], but the result of that fight was so advantageous to his side, that he received the thanks of the Confederate Congress for it. Malvern Hill was lost by the Confederates but Jackson was not there. Mrs Bullock spoke of Jackson’s generalshop of his power to attack always at his enemy’s weakest point, and to concentrate his own men where they could do the most execution. She reviewed his career to the fatal mistake of his own men at Chancellorsville, and to the dying words of this great soldier at the River of Death. She spoke of his statue, sent from England, to Lexington. She quoted Lord Wolsely’s[?] eulogy of Jackson, es-


pecially the opinion that the five great English speaking Generals were: Marlborough, Washington, Wellington, Lee, and Jackson—reminding us that three of these were Virginians.

The next article was Mrs Alan P Smith’s, and was on “Mrs Robt. E. Lee.” Mrs Smith said her part of the programme must be a contrast to Mrs Bullock’s. We all know she said that Mrs Lee was Mary Custis, a descendant of Mrs George Washington; that she was married to Gen. Lee long before the War, that she was a devoted wife and mother, and received the perfect devotion of her distinguished husband. Mrs Smith had received a letter from Mrs Lee not long after the war, telling of a sale for the benefit of the Church, in which she worshiped, and of her wish to contribute to it some photographs colored by herself. We who have seen Mrs Smith’s paintings can readily understand Mrs Lee’s request about her methods, and for information as to the selection and purchase of the colors suitable for that kind


of work. Mrs Smith’s article told us of the visits of her sister, and of one of her cousins, who had been friends and household guests of Gen and Mrs Lee, and who read to us some charming letters from the General to these young ladies. These, with some others written to members of his own family, also read, gave a glimpse into a delightful home, and of a great man honored by friends and now by former foes. In one of these letters, he speaks humorously of his daughter, Miss Mildred, who, being the only daughter at home, was a great personage, giving advice to all around her, nothing daunted by their obtuseness and want of vision. Mrs Smith had interesting pictures, as well as autographs, to show us. Miss Albert also brought to us at this meeting an Album containing among other memorials, a rhododendron sent her by Mrs Lee with her signature and a sprig of mignonette from Ge. Lee himself, with his own autograph also.


The next article was by Mrs Charles Carroll Marden, and was on “Gen. Otto[?] H. Williams.” Mrs Marden brought before us one of our distinguished Maryland Revolutionary Generals. He was born in 1748, near the town of Williamsport, which has his family name. She told of his early life and went on to his military career, with its vicissitudes and brave deeds. She spoke of his valor at the Battle of Guildford Court House and of his military wisdom at Eutaw Springs, where he did much to bring order out of chaos, and to save the day. She spoke of his friendship for Washington and other leaders and to the sacrifices he made for the American cause. Mrs Marden told of Gen Williams’ honored later life with his family, by that beautiful part of the Potomac’s river banks, which was then seriously considered by the fathers of our government to be the proper site for our national capital.

The next paper was read by Miss Virginia May Henderson and was on “Hall Caine.”


Miss Henderson spoke of the different opinions held and published in regard to Hall Caine and his works. She read to us two reviews expressing opposite opinions. She told of his early life in his native “Isle of Man,” and read to us his glowing description of that part of the earth, of which it is said one must have a strain of Manx blood to appreciate. She spoke of Caine’s advent in London, and of Rosetti’s attraction to him, who made him his literary reader, Caine says he never saw Rosetti until after dinner, when the reading began, to last till 3 o’clock in the morning. But, however wearisome for him, it was excellent training. Afterwards, Caine went to Rome, to Iceland, and elsewhere, to gain material for his writings. In 1884 or 5, England saw a new novelist arise. Hall Caine, it has been said, seems to find himself full of the idea of justice. Divine justice and the justice of this world as it appears to him. He says he has no plots. He produces his charac-


ters and lets them act for themselves. He thinks of a chapter in the morning before getting up, and then commits it to paper, making very few corrections, though particular in revising proofs. Miss Henderson said that at a lecture given by Hall Caine part of his notes on loose sheets of paper fell to the ground, and came to the hands of a friend of hers. It was shown to us, but had to be deciphered and translated, and the translation was interesting enough. One anecdote told by Mr Caine was of an Irishman who had served at the Bishop’s palace for 60 years, and when his 5th bishop recovered from a serious illness, Pat congratulated with such enthusiasm on not having died, that his Reverence expressed surprise. Pat explained that in his experience, when a Bishop died, a much worse one always took his place, and that if the present one should depart, he could only be succeeded by the Evil One himself. Another extract told of a husband, not very affectionate nor


attentive, who always wanted to have his wife in the room with him, once innocently explaining that is what I married her for.

The last article was given by Miss Mary D. Davis and was on “A Literary Curiosity.” It was a letter of one who calls himself an “Africo-American.” Miss Davis said the writer came to her father, his former master, requesting a loan of money, to get an “edacation,” promising to repay him in due time. She was glad to say that he kept this promise. The Letter is dated from Howard University, where the writer, Greenbury Brown, was a medical student, and is addressed to the Hon. A. B. Davis. He asserts that he has studied, finished, and completely mastered the morbid, descriptive, and general anatomy of the human body,” and he believes that others will be pleased at the success of the first Africo-American Physician from Montgomery County, Maryland. “My wise old preceptor,”


he says, “is more vigilant than the guards upon the Palatine hills, or the wise men on their way to Bethlehem of Judea. Thank Heaven my diagnosis, prognosis and treatment were beyond criticism.” I do[?] aver with sentiments stronger than those of Cicero to the Patres et Conscripti of Rome, never to cause my father, my mother nor you who have been so kind to regret having aided me. No fictious thought nor egotism shall baffle me.” He concludes with, “The verdure of the fields, the breezes of the seashore, the picturesque sceneries from the seven hills of Rome cannot bring about thoughts so jovial as the demonstrations of the study of medicine.” Miss Davis said that this epistolary artist, now Dr Brown in spite of his bombast and egotism had so far as known set a good example to his race, and had done well. Sometime ago, he came to see his old master’s family, bringing his son with him. When congratulated on his success, he


answered, “Yes, I am one of the first physicians in Kansas City. The President thanked Miss Davis for the interesting character and variety of the programme they had given us.

An invitation from the “Academy of Sciences[“] was presented to the Club to attend the Lecture of Dr Rosalie Slaughter Morton, on “The People and Ancient Temples of India,” on Monday evening, April 9th. The meeting adjourned.

[552nd Meeting, April 10, 1906]

(552nd Meeting.) The 552nd meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, April 10th, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the charge of Mrs Thomas Hill, Chairman of the Committee on Colonial and Revolutionary History. The acting President, Mrs Jordan Stabler, called the meeting to order, and the minutes of the meeting of April 3d were read by Miss Crane.


Mrs Stabler read a letter from the Governor of Maryland, Mr Edwin Warfield, expressing his regret that the pressure of many engagements would prevent his acceptance of the invitation from the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, to attend the lecture before it, by Lietenant [Lieutenant] Jacobs, commanding the U.S. ship Guthrie[?]—on April 5th. Mrs Stabler gave an entertaining account of this lecture on the United States Revenue Service, its Institution, History and duties. It was the last lecture of our course this season, and of much interest. Lieutenant Jacobs gave us graphic descriptions of some of his own adventures in Cuba and in the Arctic Regions. He showed us some Esquimaux handiwork, and also the first commission given to an officer in the Revenue Service of our Country, signed by George Washington, President, Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State. Mrs Stabler next spoke of the new book by our former member, Mrs Thurston [Thruston],--“Call-


ed to the Field”—and of the high literary rank given it by its reviewers. The next announcement was of the election to membership of Mrs Van Sickle, whose name is well known to us, and who is Vice President of the Roland Park Woman’s Club.

The next article of the programme was given by Mrs Francis P. Stevens and was on “The Great Seal of Maryland.” Mrs Sevens referred to Gen. Leary’s account of a mistake published in an Encyclopaedia about an event in the Modoc war of 1873. She said what is not true is not history. She had lately found in the Centenial Book of Facts” a representation of the Great Seal of Maryland, in which the motto is given as “Crescite et Multiplecanine.” This was correct 31 years ago, but is not so now. The same mistake was in Webster’s Dictionary. She had written to the publishers in both instances and received promises of correction in future editions. Mrs Stevens was indebted for facts relating to the


Great Seal, to Mr Clayton Hall, and to the researches of Mr Frank Mayer, who painted the portraits of two of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Stone and William Paca, for the Centenial [Centennial] Exposition of 1875. Mrs Stevens then traced the evolution of the Great Seal as we have it now. Of the first seal of the province, which was lost, there seems to be no copy now. In 1648, a new one was made, supposed to be very like the first one. A third seal, believed to be a duplicate of the second, showed the Arms of the Calverts, and also those of the Crosslands—the latter being the heraldic device of Lord Baltimore’s mother—and had also the Italian motto. After the Revolution, while Gen. John Stone was Governor of Maryland, another seal was made—which was too large for convenient use. Mrs Stevens described the changes in the colors and bearings of the seals of our state, and went on to tell us of the one made under the administration of Gov. John Lee Carroll, and


the seal as we have it now, with the motto, “Fatti Maschii, Parole Femine,” which has been variously translated, the favorite translation: “Many Deeds, Womanly Words.” The latter clause interests us as the chosen motto of our Club.

The next article was by Mrs Margaret Fayerwether and was on “Mercy Warren [Mercy Otis Warren], A Dame of the Revolution.” Mrs Fayerwether spoke of Mercy Warren as one of those Massachusetts women well remembered for their devotion to the cause of American Independence. She was the daughter of James Otis, and married Gen. James Warren, both of them distinguished members of historical families, and she herself won a distinguished place in the politics and literature of her time. Like other children around her, she read the “Day of Doom,” and the New England Primer”—and believed the lugubrious assertions contained in them. She married when 26 years old—having been considered an old


maid in those days—and went to live at Plymouth. Mrs Fayerwether told of the friendship between Mercy Warren and Mrs John Adams, and also of the letters of John Adams himself, in which he consulted with, and asked opinions of, Mrs Warren on political questions, and measures of importance to the American cause. He paid very high compliments to the wisdom as well as the patriotism of the women around him in those stirring times. The letters of Mrs Warren to her husband were filled with the questions and events of that day, but those of Abigail Adams to her John, do not scruple to ask him to bring her a bundle of pins, or to tell him of a sore finger. But the self-sacrificing lives of these women were forcibly recalled to our minds. With regard to Mrs Warren’s literary work, Mrs Fayerwether recalled her “History of the American Revolution” and her “Poems.” These latter—though highly praised in


her own day—would not be at all admired now. John Adams suggested the theme of the so-called “Boston Tea Party” to Mrs Warren. But what was read to us of this poem was stilted in style, and full of forced classical allusions—like many of the poems of that time. Mercy Warren, deserving well of her country, died in 1814. Mrs Fayerwether described some beautiful embroidery, still carefully preserved, done by Mercy Warren’s hands. The tradition is that she gathered the flowers herself, and worked their forms and colors from nature. This gives a quaint mediaeval suggestion to the life of a woman whose opinions on war and politics were sought by statesmen like John Adams, and respected by great men around her.

The next article was by Mrs Thomas Hill, and was on “Gen. Lafayette, a Chivalrous and Loyal Ally in our War for Independence.” Mrs Hill spoke of seeing at the Buffa-


lo Exposition, the carriage in which Gen. Lafayette had ridden when in America. She said that in 1776 the Duke of Gloucester, brother of George the Third, was travelling in France, having left England, on account of a marriage, without his brother’s consent. At Metz, a dinner was given to the young Prince, and among the noblemen present was the Marquis de Lafayette—a captain of dragoons at nineteen years of age. He was an orphan with an income of thirty thousand dollars, and had recently married a noble lady, who was always a devoted wife. At the dinner, the conversation turned upon the discontent and revolt of the American Colonies. Lafayette showed great interest, and it is said that he then determined to join in the War for Independence. Mrs Hill went over the obstacles and discouragements he encountered, until he started at his own risk, and expense, across the ocean with


a few other officers. This ship was driven on the coast of South Carolina, where Lafayette and a few others put off in a boat for the shore, arriving at the home of Major Huger[?].  There Baron de Kolb, in as good English as he could command, explained their purpose to their excellent host, who received them, and aided their expedition. We were told of Lafayette’s Commission from Congress as Major General—of his introduction to Washington—and of the subsequent warm friendship between the two heroes. With the sick and ragged American soldiers, Lafayette at once plunged into the fighting. At the Battle of Brandywine, he received a wound, of which he seemed unconscious, until told of it. With courage and energy, he rallied the troops before his would was properly dressed. Mrs Hill broke off her interesting paper, and said she hoped to continue it at a future



The programme next called for “Patriotic Recitations,” by Miss Catherine Milligan Smith. The first one was called “Where the Moon Rose, and took us back to 1780, when the war-time called for all the valor and self-sacrifice that men and women could give to the cause of our Nation’s freedom. The second gave us the Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, from the burlesque point of view, evolved by an old negro’s unrestrained imagination.[1]

The last article was by Mrs Frederick Tyson, and was on “Patty Ringold Durborough.” Mrs Tyson spoke of the early history of her native state, Delaware. She told of the Swedish settlement there; of the union with New York and afterwards Pennsylvania—until the formation of a separate province. She spoke of the natural beauties of Dover, its capital. She went on to tell of her great-grand-


mother, and her beautiful home. Madame Patty Durborough—née Ringold—was born and lived in Delaware; in a youth she was a great beauty, and there were rumors of a duel between two of her beaux, of which, however, her young descendants were not allowed to learn any confirmation. Her home was so near the somewhat disputed boundary-line of the state that two sisters, born on different sides of the same house, were wont to claim to be, the one a Delawarian, and the other a Marylander. When her little daughter was sent for to see her mother, she was carefully dressed by Mammy Ruth and her curls tied in neat order. The child did not see her mother’s bare hand, it was always gloved or mittened. Madame sent to the old country—as she always called it, for the materials of her clothes. She was a member of the Church of England, and had her own chapel in the house. Her father


had been Master of the Hunt in his day, when all gentlemen rode to the hounds, and had their great dinners afterwards, when it was no disgrace if they did go to bed a little befuddled. Mrs Tyson told some charming stories about the child of Madame Patty, her own grandmother, related by the child when an old lady, but even then retaining the childlike trust in God, which gives a faith that can move mountains. We were told of the old customs and traditions of ancestors who have left pleasant memories to their descendants.

The President thanked Mrs Hill and her Committee for the programme we had enjoyed, and the meeting adjourned.


[April 17th, 1906]

The 553rd Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on April 17th, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the Charge of the Committee on Ethnol-


ogy, Miss Annie Weston Whitey, Chairman. In the absence of the active President, Mrs Jordan Stabler, Miss Duvall, First Vice President was the presiding Officer. The minutes of the meeting of April 10th were read by Miss Crane.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs Charles Carroll Marden and was on “Some Christmas Customs in Maryland.” Mrs Marden said she had found great variety in the modes of “keeping Christmas,” even in our own state. She had sent out over a hundred letters of inquiry to friends and others in Baltimore and the counties, and to a large majority had received answers. She gave in detail the interesting results. In some families Christmas eve is the time of great celebration—in others, the Christ day. In soe instances, Santa Claus makes his appearance in person, and is believed to be the benefactor of the Holy season, while in others the Mother of


the family—or her representative—is not only the real giver of good things, but is fully understood to be so. The Christmas tree with its decorations seems to flourish,--although one grown-up Maryland woman said she had never seen one until she went to Germany. Of the stockings and the presents there was much to tell. Sometimes the stockings are hung to the nursery mantel-piece and in some families they are fastened to the door-knobs of older persons. One fashion—of pleasant memory—was that often under the toys, fruits and candies, there was a coin or bit of jewelry hidden in the toe of the stocking—perhaps in several wrappings of paper. Sometimes a switch was hidden in the stocking—let us hope not often. Some parents required the children to abstain from all goodies till after breakfast: “Poor little martyrs.” She told of the covered basket, in which presents were hidden till


the moment of unveiling, and of the draped horse, with the semblance of an equine head and curtains concealing the treasures to be revealed. Mrs Marden spoke of the discrediting of Santa Claus among the children now, and of the loving and generous Christmas spirit for which he stood—which may still survive in our state where the varied customs of its early settlers have not passed away.

The second article was by Mrs P. R. Uhler and was “A Brief Sketch of the Indian Relics of Maryland.” Mrs Uhler spoke of the various Indian tribes who lived in Maryland, before the white men came here, and for some time afterwards, and also of their passing away, until there were in Maryland, in 1890, forty Indians, and in 1900, only four. There were various tribes of red-men in this part of our country, who have eft above ground, little besides the Indian names, still retained in


the land, and waters around us. Near the waters, we find their kitchen midders, and the graves of their dead. The beds of oyster shells and burians give evidence of their means of living, and of such civilization as they attained. Very low on the mounds we find their rude stone implements and weapons, but no pottery or beads, apparently no vessels for holding liquids, and no evidence of fire. They were hunters and nomads. In later times, they raised corn and made stone [kipes?] but not clay ones. The old oyster shells have not chipped edges, but were probably placed where they would be partly opened by the sun, and afterwards by the stone knife. The dead were laid in beds of clay, and covered with mounds of oyster shells. On the Choptank river is a burial place of slaughtered men, the result of ancient battle. They are lying in disorder, with the evidence of their mortal wounds, and with the spear heads


to show the cause of death. In the later graves, there are beads and wampum, and evidence of progress in the way of living. In the western part of our state there are relics of several different races of Indians. Mrs Uhler said that among the relics in the collection at the Academy of Sciences, there is one copper pot, dug up in Prince George’s County. This collection, here in the building in which our Club meets is of great e=interest and value to students.

The next article was by Mrs Walter R. Bullock and was on “The Saviour of Salt.” Mrs Bullock spoke of the significance ascribed to salt in the evolution of agriculture and of settled homes. Salt became a necessity of vegetable diet. Herbivorous animals want it—cat and dog do not. The nomadic hunter who lived on meat, and especially if he ate it before the salt had been cooked out of it, did not require it. She spoke


of the salt used in all the sacrifices of the ancient Hebrews, and of its being considered the symbol of wisdom and grace—of perpetuity and incorruptibility. She told of the ratifying of engagements by the covenant of salt, of its being the emblem of friendship and fidelity, and the sacred pledge of hospitality. She quoted from ancient authors on the remarkable significance ascribed to salt, and went on to the ill-omen of spilling salt, and to the mediaeval custom of placing unhonored[?] guests “below the salt.” Mrs Bullock then spoke of the late remarkable scientific experiments relating to the principle of life, as affected and apparently—to some, appreciable extent—controlled by the use of salt, pointing possibly to the secret of life itself. She closed with the words of Christ anent the salt which has lost its savour.

The last article was given by Miss


Annie Weston Whitney, and was on “The Winged Messengers of the Gods.” Miss Whitney spoke of the ancient myths of all nations, and reminded us of their giving wings to their unforgotten dead, that they might fly back to earth and to those they had left there. In the Rig Veda, the sun is a bird, and the American Indian mythologies abound in bird gods as the Thunder Bird of British Columbia and others. We have also heard of the Brazilian Indian’s Messenger Bird from the Spirit-land. Satan has long ago been given the words of a bat, not of a bird, and the bat it is said, blasphemes when it cries. Miss Whitney spoke of the myths relating to the owl and the crow. Not only in the heather and classic myths-logics do the messengers of the gods have wings, but she reminded us of Seraphim and Cherubim, and the angels of the Bible. She went on to the winged bees, to whom Virgil ascribed supernatural perception and whom the Scandanavians [Scandinavians] reverenced


as the producers of the mead, the drink of the gods. In a more modern myth bees are supposed to tell the news of a new-comer into heaven—this belief, leading to the strange custom of “telling the bees” of a death, as soon as it occurs. Miss Whitney spoke of our conception of an angel with wings, and asked, “Where did we get it?” From the Jew of course; But where did the Jew get it?” She described an old picture of an Egyptian mummy Anubis beside it having the representation of a bird with a human head and arms, and the beginning of a draped robe. With a little change of the draping the angel is evolved very like we[?] have it in religious art, poetry, and ideals. Are we indebted to the Egyptians for our winged heavenly host? It was certainly so suggested in pictures shown us by Miss Whitney. A short informal discussion followed on the use of salt and customs of our day.

Miss Duvall thanked Miss


Whitney and her Committee for the entertainment they had given us, and the meeting adjourned.


[April 24, 1906]

(554th Meeting.) The 554th Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, April 24th, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme was under the charge of Miss Hollins, Chairman of the Music of the Salons. The acting president, Mrs Jordan Stabler, called the meeting to order, and the minutes of the meeting of April 17th were read by Miss Crane. Mrs Stabler referred briefly to the great calamity that had since we last met, desolated the city of San Francisco, and its vicinity by the earthquake that laid waste a portion of our western coast. Though as a Club we may take no action with regard to public disasters, as individuals our sympathies are full and active for all sufferers and bereaved ones. Mrs Stabler then spoke of the honors being


then paid at Annapolis to that brave Captain Paul Jones—honors in which the two greatest republic in the world are participating.

In announcing the programme for May, she called attention to the fact that two only of the five meetings in that month, those of the 8th and the 29th—will be open to visitors. The others will be devoted to the business of the Club.

Mrs Stabler then said that a letter from our dear absent President, to Miss Mary Dorsey Davis, would now be read to us by the recipient. Mrs Wrenshall gives, in her epistle, a pleasant account of her stay in London, but says she has given up her proposed visit to Paris, and also that she has consulted a London throat specialist, who has forbidden her to talk aloud for several weeks. She then speaks of the dear Club, and of missing the rare circle she had been accustomed to meet each Tuesday, “of which I believe there is no other like it in the world.”


Mrs Stabler than spoke of this letter having recalled to her the article by Mrs Wrenshall read to us on January 12th 1904. On that occasion Mrs Wrenshall’s paper was a short “Monograph” on “Recent Discoveries, on the site of Old St. James Towne,” published, by her brother, Major Samuel H. Yonge, U.S. Chief Engineer, in building the great sea-wall there, and in the preparations for the tri-centennial celebration in 1907, of the landing of the first permanent English colony in America. After reading her brother’s short account of the work he is superintending to prevent Old Jamestown from being washed away, Mrs Wrenshall gave us a brief review dealing with old and new Jamestown—in her own pleasant style. After speaking of this article, Mrs Stabler referred to the old ruined Church at Jamestown, on the site of the first English Church in America, where also first were assembled the Virginia House of Burgesses—the first Legislative


Assembly in the New World. She mentioned an article in the Baltimore Sun of April 22d, 1906, which described the proposed action of the Society of Colonial Dames to erect a Memorial building on the site of this old Church. The model for this building is to be the old Church at Smithfield, Isle of Wight Co., Virginia, built in 1632—of which we were given some time ago a description in an article by Mrs Thurston [Thruston], a former member. At Jamestown there is the ruined tower of an old Church, but not of the first one on that site. The article in the Sun speaks of evident indications of a frame building having preceded it—perhaps a successor of the one described by Captain John Smith himself—quoted by Bishop Meade. Smith tells that after worshipping under an awning or under a tent “we built a homely thing like a barn, covered with rafts, sedge and earth.” Still under Smith’s presidency, a log Church was built, but burned down in the 2nd or 3rd


year of the colony.  A more substantial one was burned down during Bacon’s rebellion, in 1676. Mrs Stabler described the ruined Church-tower as it was before the late excavations, and spoke of the general desire for preservation and restoration so far as possible.

The first article of the programme was a “Duo” by Miss Hollijns and Miss Bash [Bush?][2]. They gave us a lively “German Round” by Moszkovski [?]. The next number was an “Aria,” from Mozart’s Marriage de Figaro, sung by Miss Elizabeth Albert, accompanied by Miss Jones, which was much enjoyed. Miss Albert next gave us a German song by Hildach[?] “Whill Nie maud[?] Singen?” We next enjoyed the playing by Miss Hollins of Schubert’s “Impromptu” (G Major.) The next number also given by Miss Hollins was Chopin’s “Nocturne” (Opus 32. No. 1) The next number was a piano solo by Miss Hollins—Godard’s “En Courant,” followed by Chaminade’s “Pierretti” Air de Ballet. We were


favored with a final number, a Duo by Miss Hollins and Miss Bash [Bush?]—a “Contra Dance” by Ethelbert Nevin. The presiding officer congratulated Miss Hollins and her able assistants on the delightful programme given us. After asking all present to spend an hour in social conversation and refreshment—she declared the meeting adjourned.


[May 1, 1906]

(555th Meeting.) The 555th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 1st, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This was a business meeting for the reception of the annual reports from the Chairmen of the various Committees of the Club. Mrs Stabler, acting president, called the meeting to order, and the minutes of the meeting of April 24th were read by Miss Crane.

The programme called first for the report of the Committee on Fiction, from the Chairman, Miss Duvall. Miss Duvall reported that her com-


mittee had given the programmes of two meetings. On that of October 1st, 1905, there were articles by Miss Atwater, Miss Lizette Reese and herself. At the meeting of February 20th, 1906, stories were given by Mrs Percy Reese, Miss Blanchard, one from a Russian author by Mrs Tyson, and a Sketch by Miss Lizette Reese. The 2nd report was that of the committee on Modern Poetry—Chairman, Miss Lizette Reese. She reported two meetings, those of Nov. 20th, 1905, and February 6th, 1906. At the first one, articles were given by our President, Mrs Wrenshall, by Miss Cullington, Miss Duvall, Miss Reese herself, and Miss Cloud. In the programme of the meeting the contributors were Miss Latané, Mrs Jordan Stabler, Miss Reese, Miss Duvall and Miss Cloud. The 3rd report was Mrs Sidney Turner’s, Chairman of the Committee on Essays and Essayists. Mrs Turner reported two meetings under the charge of her committee, those of Dec. 12th, 1905, and March 13,th, 1906. To the pro-


gramme of the first, the contributors were Miss Henderson, Mrs Turner herself, Mrs T. A. Hill, Mrs Alan P. Smith, Miss Mullin and Miss Bates. At the second one, articles were given by Miss Nicholas, Mrs McGaw, Mrs Uhler and Miss Whitney.

The next report was that of Miss Whitney, Chairman of the Committee on Ethnology. Her committee gave the programme at the meeting of April 17th, 1906, which contained articles by Mrs Marden, Mrs Uhler, Mrs Bullock, and Miss Whitney herself.

Mrs Edward Stabler, Chairman of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records, reported having given the programmes of December 19th, 1905 and March 20th 1906. At the first of these meetings, articles were given by Miss Duvall and Mrs Edward Stabler.

Mrs Frederick Tyson, Chairman of the committee on Foreign Languages, reported the two meetings of December


5th 1905, and March 6th 1906. At the first, translations were given by Mrs Spilker and Miss Hollins, and a Talk on Russian Literature by by [word repeated] the Chairman. On March 6th Translations were given by Miss Perkins, Miss Mullin and Miss Hollins and a Review by the Cairman.

The report of Mrs Thomas Hill, Chairman of the Committee on Colonial and Revolutionary History, told of her two meetings of November 14th, 1905 and April 10th 1906. At the first, there were articles by Mrs Albert L. Richardson and the Chairman, Mrs Hill, followed by National Hymns and instrumental music, given by the Junior Daughters of the Revolution. Mrs Hill’s second programme contained articles by Mrs Stevens, Mrs Fayerwether, the Chairman herself, and Mrs Tyson.

Miss Mary Davis, Chairman of the Committee on Letters and Autographs, reported the meeting of April 3d, 1906, where articles were given by Mrs Bullock, Mrs Alan P. Smith, Mrs


Marden, Miss Henderson and Miss Davis herself. Mrs Percy M. Reese Chairman of the Committee on Current Criticism had given us two programmes—those of October 17th and February 13th. The first presented reviews by Mrs Marden, Mrs Hooper, Miss Atwater and Mrs Tyson. The articles given on February 13th were by Miss Cooper, Miss Lydia H. Kirk, Mrs. A. M. Elliott, and Mrs C. W. Lord. There was no meeting of the Committee on Archaeology this year.

Miss Virginia Cloud, Chairman of the Committee on the Drama, reported the meetings of November 28th and March 27th. At the first, articles were given by Miss Duvall, Miss Cloud and Miss Perkins. At the second, there were dramatic articles by Miss Duvall, Miss Reese, Miss Cloud, and a poem illustrated musically, and recited by Miss Perkins.

Mrs Wylie, Chairman of the Committee on Art, reported the meeting of February 27th, where Miss Mullin gave an illustrated article on Sir Godfrey


Kneller, and there were reviews read by the Chairman and presiding officer.

Miss Annie Hollins, Chairman of the Committee on the Literature of Music, and that of The Music of the Salons, gave reports of both Committees. On January 30th for the programme on Literature of Music, she gave us an article of interest on Music in Italy, illustrated with Instrumental and vocal Selections, in which she was assisted by Miss Bash [Bush?] and Mrs W. C. Edmunds. At the Salon of April 24th, there was vocal music by Miss Elizabeth Albert and instrumental selections by Miss Hollins and Miss Bash [Bush?].

Mrs Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on Current Topics, reported her meeting of January 9th—which was devoted to Current Events in Russia.

Mrs Uhler, Chairman of the Library Committee, reported the books given to our Library during the ensuing year.

Miss Cooper, Chairman of the Committe[e] on Book Lists, reported the number of books that had been placed on the bulletin-



Miss Haughton, Chairman of the House Committee, had delegated Mrs Wm. M. Powell to read her report, which gave a circumstantial, well-arranged account of our Club Housekeeping for the year—improvements and purchases made, work done, expenses &c.

Mrs Stabler said that we appreciate gratefully Miss Haughton’s work for our Committee on housekeeping, which has added to our comfort and enjoyment.

Mrs Bullock, Chairman of the Committee on Education, gave the closing report. Her Committee had charge of the meeting of January 16th, 1906, when Mrs Uhler, Miss Duvall, Miss Reese and the Chairman herself, had discussed “The Public Library,” in its history, its functions, and separate features.

The Reports, being all in, the presiding officer announced that a letter to the Club had been received by our Corresponding Secretary from our dear absent President, Mrs Wrenshall, which would


now be read. Mrs Wrenshall begins, “Dear Mrs Uhler—and Dear fellow members.” She writes with evident emotion and recalls memories of the Tuesdays we have spent together—which are very sweet to her in looking back on the years of her Presidency. She thanks us for the support given her, but—thinking of our welfare—she fears she is unable to return to the duties of the office, with which we have, for eight years, honored her. She may be absent from us, and just now is not permitted to speak aloud. She sends her resignation of the Presidency, and asks for her successor, the loyal support that has been given to her. She hopes for us all the best things of life.

Mrs Stabler said, “When the heart is full—words fail.” There must be an answer to this letter—and there is but one answer we would wish to give. She spoke of a cold Mrs Wrenshall had taken at Torquay; and of her being under the treatment of a London throat specialist, who just


now commands absolute silence, but gives encouragement for speaking in two months. She is to return to America in June, but does not know that she can stay in Baltimore next winter. Mrs Stabler expressed her own feeling, that the resignation should not be accepted, and in a few appropriate words, asked for the expression of opinions of our members on this letter of our dear President. The questions and answers that immediately followed showed deep sympathy and sorrow for our highly valued President’s sufferings, and the hope for her return again to be with us in her old office—if possible. Mrs Uhler, Mrs Tyson, Mrs Bullock and Miss Cloud spoke earnestly on this subject. Mrs Stabler said that the suggestion had already been made to ask Mrs Wrensall to reconsider her resignation—the request to be sent by cablegram or letter. Mrs Tyson moved that a cablegram should be sent asking for a reconsideration—so that


we could—at least—give our President the compliment of a re-election.

Mrs Tyson’s motion was seconded by Miss Cloud, but was afterwards withdrawn in favor of one by Miss Duvall, who suggested that Mrs Wrenshall might impulsively answer a cablegram in the negative—and then made the motion that a letter be sent to her, saying that the Club declined to receive her resignation. Miss Cloud made the motion that—later—a cablegram be sent to Mrs Wrenshall, containing the one word, “Elected.” Miss Duvall’s motion with the amendment was seconded by Mrs Bullock and Miss Mullin, was voted upon and passed unanimously—the meeting was then adjourned.


[May 8, 1906]

(556th Meeting.) The 556th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club ov Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 8th, 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. The programme of this meeting


was a miscellaneous one arranged by the Acting President, Mrs Jordan Stabler. Mrs Stabler called the meeting to order and the minutes of May 1st were deferred. Mrs Stabler announced the election of two new members of the Club. The first was Mrs Adeline T. Atwater, well-known for her literary work, and the second was Mrs Joseph L. Downes, President of the Roland Park Woman’s Club. She also announced that a well-remembered former member, Mrs B. Howard Haman, had been elected to resume her membership among us. After repeating the notice of the meetings of May 15th and 29th for the nominations and elections of the officers and directors for the coming year, the acting President announced her appointments on the Committee on Elections. The Constitution provides that this [committee] of five, shall be composed of two members of Board of Management, and three from the rest of the Club. Mrs Stabler appointed Miss


Whitney Chairman and Judge of Election; Mrs Uhler, Mrs Sidney Turner, Mrs Stevens and Mrs Marden.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs Charles H Beebe and was called “Fact Stranger than Fiction.” Mrs Beebe was not able to be with us, and her paper was read for her by Mrs Stabler. Mrs Beebe brought before us the dead natures that seem to exist in each one of us—long the subjects of assertion, romance, speculation and now of scientific investigation. After referring to Stevenson’s “Dr Jekyll and Mrs Hyde[“]; and to the claims of Mesmerism, many years ago, she reviewed the book of Dr Morton Prince of international fame. His work tells of the results of hypnotism as a remedial agency for nervous complaints, by working upon the dual individualities of patients. He tells of a woman twenty-three years old, afflicted with constant headaches and nervous ills, who found improvement from hypnotism but suddenly changed from a quiet religious person to a half-wild, unaccountable


sort of girl—with two conflicting natures. But she was saved from a tragedy—or from an insane asylum—when a third nature developed, different from both, whjich seemed in some sense to solve the problem. Hypnotism was believed to have harmonized and restored to at least a quiet life, the nervous invalid. Other facts were given, certainly stranger than fiction, and the Dr suggested that hypnotism in the hands of a conscientious, wise and experienced physician, might become a blessing to the world.

The next article on the programme was by Miss Louisa O Haughton, and was called “The Prodigal’s Mother.” She told of discussion on the deck of an ocean liner, on the explanations of apparently supernatural events. An old army man when asked for his opinion, told a story—evidently his own experience—which might be explained, but which in its effect on his life was certainly not prosaic nor material. Miss Haughton’s story dealt with the miracle of mother-love, and was well-drawn and suggestive.

The next article was by Mrs William


Paret, and was on “A Visit to Jamaica.” Mrs Paret took us with her on a charming journey, leaving New York on the 15th of January, and sailing into summer seas, and summer lands. She told of the beautiful harbor of Kingston, and of a visit to the home of an Archdeacon in the Blue Mountains, where the climate is delightful. They were regaled with casaba cakes, cola wine—not like our coca-cola, and excellent Blue Mountain coffee. She told of the lovely scenery and flowers, and great tree ferns. She described a reception at the Governor’s House and told of Bishop Paret’s preaching in the Cathedral, where he looked down on a sea of black faces,--1200 people, and only 40 white ones—There are black people everywhere, and there is some inter-marriage of the races. She told of the Coolies from India who keep to their customs, and religion, and are good laborers, but save their wages to return home and are taking a great deal of money out of the country. She described and told of fine illuminations and the fine works she saw there—quoting a poem of


Ella Wheeler Wilcox’s, which compared the fairy scenes represented, with those of the Midsummer Night’s Dream. After giving lively and amusing anecdotes, and vivid descriptions, Mrs Paret told of sailing out of the summer sea, and arriving in New York in a blinding snowstorm.

The last article was by Miss Florence Trail, and was on Grillpartzer and Purcell. Miss Traill spoke of the different attitudes of human thought, the general and the special tendency of mental activity and accomplishment. After referring to the works of some great artists, she spoke of the efforts that are made to bridge the gap between the man of genius and the man of education. No age, she said, had been conscious of its own greatness. She spoke of the comparatively unknown Austrian Grillpartzer, who lived through the cycle from Mozart to Wagner. In studying his life and work, she seemed to find a new luminary in music and poetry. As a poet, he seems to owe everything to music


and when his poetry and music reach us together, we can feel the pusations of his eart. Grillpartzer’s was not a perfect life, but in his work we feel the soul of his existence. He said that Beethoven sweeps[?] over the realms of music, likeBehemoth going over the seas, that he stops where art stops, what he does, we see, but he blazes no path for others. Grillpartzer loved Mozart—but he has no words to describe the indescribable, that which is shown by God’s hand; On Wagner the full vials of his wrath fall. A genius, we are told, is great because he puts bounds for himself, he is not influenced by monstrosity. Leaving Grillpartzer, Miss Trail spoke of Purcell, the great English composer of the latter half of the 17th century. He was, perhaps, not appreciated until 200 years after his death. It was not from instruction he derived his powers—Nature gave them to him. The Opera was then known only in Italy. Purcell originated it in England. He lived only thirty-seven years, but left eighty Compositions


of sacred music, besides those of other kinds. Miss Trail told of his influence on his own time—and later also. She went on to speak of the benefit of a modified generalization and of the place to be assigned to the unknown quantity, informing an independent judgment of Art.

Mrs Stabler thanked the members who had contributed to our programme. She reminded us that we had an artistic, natural, supernatural and psychological entertainment. The meeting adjourned.


[May 15, 1906]

(557th Meeting.) The 557th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 15th 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This being a business meeting—the annual one for the nominations of officers and directors for the coming year, no program had been prepared for it. In the absence of the President, Mrs Wrenshall, the acting President, Mrs Stabler, and the first Vice President, Miss Duvall, the second Vice President, Miss Whitney, called the meeting to order, and presided. The minutes of the meeting of May 1st were read by Miss Crane. Miss Whitney announced that the names of all the present Officers and Directors of the Club had been placed on a Bulletin Board—now upon the platform. Six officers and three directors are to be elected. Attention was called to the fact that the names of the first three directors on the board represent those who having been elected for two years will retain their positions for the coming year. The names of the fourth, fifth, and sixth directors represent those who will go out of office. It was also explained that all retiring members of the Board are eligible for re-election, for other than their former positions. It was announced that Miss Duvall, first Vice President, positively declined re-election to that office. Miss Whitney, being Judge of Election, and Chairman of the Election Committee—announced her temporary vacation of the President’s Chair, and


requested Mrs Thomas Hill to take her place, and preside over the meeting. Mrs Uhler, Corresponding Secretary, called the Roll of the members. Twenty five announced as present and two arriving immediately afterwards were also counted. It was announced that a business quorum was certainly present.

Mrs Marden and Mrs Stevens, having been appointed Tellers, then distributed the nominating ballots. These being filled, and folded by the members, were collected by the tellers. The Election Committee consisting of Miss Whitney, Mrs Uhler, Mrs Marden, Mrs Turner and Mrs Stevens then retired to collect the votes. The request was made b the presiding officer that every member who could possibly come the next Tuesday, would do so and come early. The minutes of the meeting of the 8th were then read by Miss Crane. Mrs Hill, in a few well-chosen words, called attention to the recent affliction of our member—formerly treasurer and also Vice President—Mrs Walter R. Bul-


lock, who has just lost her mother. She suggested that an expression of the sympathy of the Club should be sent to Mrs Bullock by our Corresponding Secretary. Miss Annie Hollins moved that this should be done. The motion was seconded by Miss Reese, and unanimously carried. During [missing words? the time] that remained while waiting for the return of the Election Committee a light collation was served by the members of the House Committee. The Committee returned and reported 27 ballots cast. The result of the nomination was, as now on the bulletin. For President, Mrs Wrenshall, 27. = First Vice President, Mrs Jordan Stabler 27. = Second Vice Preident Miss Whitney, 25.= Recording Secretary, Miss Crane, 25- Mrs T. H. Hill, 1. = Corresponding Secretary, Mrs P. R. Uhler, 26 = Directors, Miss Duvall, 25 = Mrs Reese, 5 = Mrs Paret 2 = Mrs Fayerwether 2 = Mrs Paret Withdrew her name. After a few questions and explanations, the meeting adjourned.


[May 22, 1906]

(558th Meeting) The 558th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore,


was held on Tuesday, May 22nd 1906, in their assembly-room, Academy of Sciences Building. This being the annual meeting for the Election of Officers and Directors of the Club, no literary program had been prepared for it.

At a side-table the Club Book was placed, in which each member, as she arrived, was requested to sign her name, before receiving her ballot—the numbers, to be checked off, as the ballots were given out. These ballots contained the printed names of the candidates receiving the highest and next to the highest number of votes at the nomination—with a space for individual choice if desired.

In the absence of the President, Acting President and 1st Vice President, Miss Whitney called the meeting to order. The minutes of the nominating meeting of May 15th were read by Miss Crane, acting Recording Secretary. It was announced that Miss Louise O. Haughton had withdrawn her name as a candidate for 2nd Vice President. Mrs


Fayerwether withdrew her name as a candidate for Director. An invitation for the Club to a lecture at the Johns Hopkins University was read. A communication to the Club from L’Alliance Française, in the French language was announced; and Mrs Frederick Tyson was requested to read it to us, in her own translation. She did so, giving its purport as an announcement of a literary contest on “Corneille’s Drama”—“The Cid,” in which medals were to be given the successful contestants. A business quorum having arrived and registered—the distributed ballots were filled and collected by the tellers. Miss Whitney requested Mrs Thomas Hill to serve on the Election Committee, in the absence of Mrs Sidney Turner. Miss Whitney also appointed Miss Hollins and Mrs Powell as auditors of the Treasurer’s report which was to be read later in the evening. The names of the three directors holding over from last year were announced—Mrs Tyson, Miss Lizette Reese and Miss Cloud. Miss


Whitney, being Judge of Election, and Chairman of the Election Committee, requested Mrs Tyson to preside over the meeting during her absence while the votes were being counted. After taking the Chair, Mrs Tyson asked if the Club would care to hear some account of the Civic Service meeting at McCoy Hall, Johns Hopkins University, the previous evening, addressed by Secretary of War Tat and Secretary of the Navy, Bonaparte, and also of the dinner which followed the meeting—at both of which functions she was present as a representative of the Woman’s Auxiliary Civil Service Association. Mrs Tyson’s very interesting items were received with full appreciation by fellow members. Some remarks followed on other subjects until the return of the Election Committee, when Miss Whitney thanked Mrs Tyson for presiding and then announced the result of the Election. There were 19 votes. The names of those elected were written on the blackboard, and were


For President, Mrs J. C. Wrenshall               (19)

1st Vice President, Mrs Jordan Stabler       (19)

2nd Vice President, Miss A. W. Whitney     (19)

Recording Secretary, Miss Lydia Crane,      (18)

Corresponding Secretary, Mrs P. R. Uhler (19)

Treasurer, Miss E. L. Mullin,                         (16)


Miss Ellen Duvall,                                          (19)

Mrs Sidney Turner,                                       (17)

Mrs William M. Powell                                  (16)

The treasurer, Miss Mullin, being called on for her annual report, read it to the Club. The balance in bank from last year was $369.30. This was increased during the year from dues and other sources to $1031 and some cents. Expenses, so far, $789.42. Balance remaining $241.90. The report was approved. The election to resumption of membership in the Club of Mrs John R. Tait was announced.

Mrs Stevens spoke of the suggestion that had been made for some decoration of the blank wall behind our President’s chair, and advocated the representation of the Coat of Arms, and the Great Seal of Maryland, as appro-


priate subjects for the adornment of our platform. She reminded us that the motto of our Club had been taken from the great seal of our state. Miss Mary Davis spoke with interest on this subject, and said that some years ago she had made a drawing of the old seal of Maryland from some broken copies, and when the old seal was afterwards discovered in a chest at the State House at Annapolis, it corroborated her drawing. A photograph of her drawing is now in the Johns Hopkins University and one also in the rooms of the Maryland Historical Society. Miss Whitney appointed Mrs Stevens and Miss Davis [to] a Committee to make investigations with regard to the matter proposed—cost, etc, and report upon it in the fall.

Light refreshments were served, and the meeting adjourned.


559th Meeting.[3]

The 559th meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 29th, 1906, in their assembly room, Academy of Sciences Building. This was


a May Salon of our 17th year, and the closing meeting of the season of 1905-1906.

An unusual feature of this monthly Salon was that it was held in the evening instead of in the afternoon, and that our guests included men as well as women. The musical part of the programme was under the direction of Miss Annie Hollins, Chairman of the Committee on Music of the Salons.

Mrs. Jordan Stabler, First Vice President, presided, and made the Farewell Address of the Season to the Club. In beginning, she called attention to the fact that the letter from our President we had hoped to be given to us on this occasion had not yet arrived. Instead we have only her cablegram sent in answer to the one she received announcing her unanimous re-election as President of the Club. Mrs. Wrenshall’s cablegram contained the single word: “Appreciation.” Mrs. Stabler said that we know what this word means to Mrs. Wrenshall, and what it means from her to us; and we earnestly hope that she will return to us soon again, and continue to preside over our Club, with all her graciousness and wisdom. Our Vice President then went on to speak of our past year. She felt sure that – though we were long under the disadvantage of absence of our excellent President—we had still done good work, and made progress in the paths we have chosen to follow. The articles contributed to our literary meetings by our members have been of great interest to all of us, and to the guests who have been with us also. We have enjoyed our musical meetings, and have also had three very fine lectures given before us by men well known in literary or official life. Mrs. Stabler


then spoke of the Club Library; and said she was called upon to present to it two pamphlets, written by our member, Mrs Aaron J[?] Vanderpoel. They contained two articles read before us on “Holland,” – and “An Old Dutch Village in the State of Ne York,”—which we were glad to possess in print. She recalled to us that Mrs. Vanderpoel, in detailing the historical incidents and traditions of an old Colonial residence in Kinderhook, had omitted to tell us that this house—where distinguished men of the olden time were wont to be entertained—was her ancestral home. Mrs. Stabler then thanked her fellow members for the support they had given her as Acting President; and for their good work in the Club, -- believing that its influence would continue to be felt, after our adjournment, and in the future.

It was then announced that the musical programme prepared by Miss Hollins, would begin with “Suite for the Piano In Holberg’s Time,” by Edvard Grieg. This is known as Grig’s Tribute to Ludwig Holberg, who was born in 1684, and died in 1754, who is called the Molière of the North,” and was “the Creator of the new Danish-Norwegian Literature. “The Suite” in five successive parts was played very finely by Mrs. Harry D. Bush.

Vocal Selections followed, given by Miss Edith Stowe[?], whose singing has always been highly appreciated by the Club. She gave us: “I know a Lovely Garden,” by D’Hardelot [?];-- Oh! What we two were Maying; -- and “In Haven [Heaven?]," by Elgar.

We again enjoyed the playing by Mrs. Bush of two


selections: Chopin’s “Nocturne, Opus 27, No. 2.”;-- and the “Concert-Étude,” by MacDowell.

Miss Stowe closed the programme. We enjoyed her singing of the “Lute Song,” by Parker;-- “My Dreams,” by Tosti[?];-- “Lethe,” by Boott[Booth?];--and “Absent” by Metcalf.

Mrs. Stabler thanked Miss Hollin and the guests who had entertained us with the musical programme; and ordered the Club adjourned, until October 2nd, 1906.

Refreshments were served; and the rest of the evening was passed in pleasant social conversation.


[1] !

[2] A Mrs. Harry D. Bush is listed in the 1905-1906 WLCB membership list, and also is described performing in the minutes for the 1906 Salon on May 29.

[3] Handwriting switches here to Lydia Crane’s.