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1902-1903 Meeting Minutes

[MS 988 BOX 4, BOOK 1]


Meeting of October 7th 1902.

The first meeting of the current year 1902-03 of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held in the Club Assembly Room, Academy of Science – on Tuesday Oct 7th 1902.

In the absence of the President Mrs. J. C. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the First Vice President Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] presided. As this 1st meeting was a Salon, the minutes of the previous meeting, those of the last Tuesday in May, were omitted. Mrs. Cautley said a few words of pleasant greeting to the Club, she expressed her satisfaction in its assembling; in its prospects of agreeable, helpful work, in its assured sign and constant efforts. Mrs. Cautley then read a letter of greeting from our absent President, now abroad, -- a letter in which the President, too, sent her greetings and love to the Club, and her best and deepest wishes for its successful work and welfare.

Announcement was then made of the coming course of lectures upon Art, lectures to be delivered under the auspices of the Johns Hopkins University by Professor Churchhill, --also another course of the lectures scientific subjects,


subjects which will be of special interest to teachers, and to those interested in teaching.

Announcement was then made and heard with profound regret of the serious illness of our much loved member, and sometime President, Miss Emma Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent].

The programme for the afternoon was then taken up. The programme was a musical one, in charge of Mrs. J. Elliott Gilpin.

The 1st number was "The Page' song";. From Les Huguenots sung by our former member, Mrs. John T. Pleasants.

The 2nd number was a "Valse";-- Moszkowski played by Mrs. Gilpin.

The 3rd was a vocal duet "From Flower to Flower?,"; sung by Miss Henderson [V. M. Henderson] and Mrs. J. T. Pleasants.

The 4th was a Harp solo, "Conte des [Geis?], played by Miss Selma Cone [Selma B. Cone].

The 5th was a song, "Hindoo Song,"; sung by Miss Henderson. 

The 6th Piano Solo. Fantaisie


Impromptu, Chopin, played by a guest[,] Miss Stanard [?] of Augusta.

The 7th Crossing the Bar, sung by Mrs. J. T. Pleasants.

After the Programme ended, refreshments were served, and the afternoon was spent in social intercourse.


Minutes of October 14th 1902.

The 2nd meeting of the current year of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences, on Tuesday, October 14th. In the absence of the President, the First Vice President, Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] presided.

The 1st announcement was of a book of poems "A Reed by the River";, by our member, Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud, a book just published.

The 2nd announcement was of a book "Jack and His Island,"; a story of the War of 1812, by our member, Mrs. Julius Thurston [Thruston] [Lucy Meacham Thruston], also announcement of the presentation to the Club of a copy of


Mrs. Thurston' recently published book, "A Girl of Virginia,"; presented by the author. Mrs. Cautley expressed her thanks of the Club for the book. Intelligence too, was given of Miss Brent's [Emma Fenwick Brent] continued serious illness.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up, the subject being "Current Topics";, given by Mrs. Fredrick Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson]. Mrs. Tyson prefaced her remarks by expressing to the Club her pleasure at being again with her fellow members. Mrs. Tyson characterized the age in which we live as a most wonderful one. Owing to the annihilation, practically, of time and space, we live, go more, so much faster and closer. She told of a clergyman who lived in Wilmington, Delaware in 1830. In one occasion this erudite divine, preached a marvelous sermon in which he ritually predicted many of the triumphs of science which have now come to pass. After foretelling what in the natural world, he was going on[,] in a continued sermon, to speak of changes which would take place in the religious world: but, savoring of heterodoxy, certain of his parishioners checked him, and the 2nd sermon


was never preached. "Divine Curiosity,"; a desire to know about nature and ourselves, seems to be the deepest law of living. Gibbon said that the human race had, under Marcus Aurelius attained, in all likelihood,-- its highest development; but there are heights undoubtedly beyond that, Mrs. Tyson told of a French nobleman of the 14th Century, who, going from Champagne to Burgundy, made all his preparations as if going on his last long journey.

The question of most immediate interest is[,] Mrs. Tyson said, the Coal Miner' Strike. No strike has in this country, been so great, so prolonged, so far reaching in its effects. And, in the main none has been characterized by so little violence. Mr. John Mitchell controls these miners, those of the Union, and holds them in check. The miners, 145,000 in number, demand an eight hour working day, 10 per cent increase in wages; a representative of their own at the weighing of coal; and a legal [ton?] 2245 lbs. The miners are also out [?] a strike in France and in Russia. The Labor Unions have much greater hold


in England than in this country. There, they regulate the amount of production and, consequently, individual power and initiative are first deadened and then destroyed.

Mrs. Tyson then touched upon the Panama versus the Nicaragua Canal, the purchase of the former from the French government, its advantages. She spoke of the necessity of our having a South American Trade, the trade of that country being now largely absorbed by Germany and England. "We shall have,[";] she said, to spread our protecting wings over those people,"; the South Americans. There was also a feeling abroad that we might be obliged to take possession of Sant Domingo. Sant Domingo is the most fertile island in the world.

Mrs. Tyson then touched upon the condition of Mexico and President Diaz. The country has wonderfully improved, and is falling more and more under American influence. Mrs. Tyson spoke of successful German colonies in South American [America], but thought that the "Monroe Doctrine[";] would ultimately interfere with this colonization. With England we should have a treaty offensive and defensive, and is -- should be distinctly understood that with England we are


never going to War. The Hague Arbitration Tribunal is influencing men more and more, and perhaps it will usher in an era for general annihilation. Our government is rather annoyed, she said, by Cuban affairs. We have declined to trade with her or to allow her to trade with any one else. But she is very ungrateful. She haggles about the Isle of Pines, and asks that the handful of American soldiers shall be withdrawn. And she does not regard sanitation.

Speaking of American women, if there is one thing they lack, it  is patience-- the power to [peg?] away at things. What impresses a foreigner was the untiring patience of American men. We women are too easily discouraged.

President Roosevelt' message contained the first official recognition of the destruction of the Forests. 50,000 miles of destruction goes on yearly; and yet health, comfort, life itself often depend upon the tree growth about us. Something which might to interest women is immigration. Expense of immigration has been, and is the great drawback.

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Mrs. Tyson then spoke of the most "talked of"; or best selling books of the past month. Some question has been asked regarding the decadence of the novel, whether the newspaper is not superseding it.

Mrs. Tyson spoke too, of the Prince of Siam' visit to this country, and of the attention this visit has drawn to Siam itself. The study of Foresting, as a study for women was touched on. Mrs. Carter [Florence Carter] said that this subject had been earnestly advocated for some years by the Federation of Women' Clubs. There seemed to be a reciprocal relation between tree life and human. The cooling and beneficial nature of trees is most marked. The temperature of a tree is 45 degrees: that of a human being 98 degrees. After regretting that her time was all too short for all she wished to say, Mrs. Tyson closed her comments. The meeting then adjourned.


Minutes of October 21st 1902

The 3rd meeting of the current year of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, Oct. 21st in the Assembly Room, Academy of Science, 115 W. Franklin St, the 1st Vice President, Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], presided


The 1st announcement made to the Club was that of the death of Miss Emma [Fenwick] Brent, who died of Friday, October 17th and was buried [from?] Emmanuel Church on Sunday, Oct. 19th. In a few heartfelt words, Mrs. Cautley expressed the Club' sense of loss in this, the death of one of its most honored members, a Charter member, whose devotion to the Club, to its best interests and ideals, was as honorable to her as it was beneficial to her fellow members. Mrs. Cautley then appointed a Committee to draw up suitable resolutions and to transmit these resolutions to the family of Miss Brent. The Committee appointed was, Mrs. Frederick Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson], Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock], Miss Crane [Lydia Crane]. Miss Brent was Chairmen of the Committee on "Memorial Decorations";, her death necessitated therefore the appointment of another Chairman; and Mrs. Thomas Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill] was appointed Chairman of this Committee. The idea of this "Memorial Decoration"; on All Soul' Day, of the graces of the authors and artists of Maryland, originated with Miss Brent, and it is a coincidence that she should be the first to pass away since the inauguration of that Club custom. The programme of the


Day was then taken up. The Programme was called "The Day of the Child"; and was in charge of Miss W. C. A. Hammel [Bertha B. Hammel]. The first article on the Programme was by Mrs. Hammel, and was called: "The Gospel of Sympathy."; Mrs. Hammel began by saying that the Child has always had his place and a curtain necessary perfunctory attention, but not until now, has he had his day, and the kind and degree of attention he requires. History has its children the Persian child, cultured and sensitive, the child of Israel trained in ritual, and tradition, the Greek child trained in Science, and in art; the Roman child school in military glory and in arms; but these historic children are only part and parcel of a far larger whole. [?] just sounded the note of sympathy. In childhood "The Faculties of the child, he said, should not be stayed too early not too severely. First impressions are of mighty consequence, and should be carefully considered. Rousseau did much to call attention to the needs of education, and training. He preached a doctrine of destruction, attacking abuses rather than pointing out remedies; but his efforts were mainly good. Nature wills, he says, that children should be children before they are men. Rousseau erected childhood


into an independent domain, he discovered childhood. With Pestalozzi comes the age of construction. Then comes the child gardener. [Froebel?], who seems to realize to the full the need of early training so quickly adopted that the best results shall be obtained. Dickens has preached the Gospel of childhood, the rights of childhood. His sympathies are with the child as well as for the child. [Froebel?] revealed the true philosophy of childhood. Dickens has embodied a similar philosophy in countless examples.

The 2nd article on the Programme was by Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall], who called her remarks Old and New. Miss Duvall drew a contrast between the old time formality and rigid discipline applied to children and the absence of all formality, all discipline the [anarchial?] principle indeed as practiced to day. She spoke of the cruelty practiced towards children in this absence of salutary discipline; -- of the mischief done in not giving them as soon as possible some idea of law and order. Some idea that self is to be subordinated to the family, to the community, to the country, to God.

The 3rd article on the Programme was


a short story about children. Some school children had become interested in the "Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals,"; and one little girl, desirous of making a dollar to send to the Society, devised an entertainment, admission to which was to cost 2 cents. The afternoon came, the children sat on boards under the grape arbor and the performance began. The Entertainment consisted of 3 Acts of Mercy, the 1st was the pulling of a tooth -- retained with difficulty -- until three were taken from the mouth of the little girl' [?] brother: the 2nd was the washing of a dirty dog, which escaped however, and fled howling to the congenial refuge of dirt and spiders under the porch, and the third was the solemn burial of a "perfectly good cat"; found in an ash barrel, and carefully preserved at the bottom of the refrigerator, for the purpose of interment. The story was much enjoyed, and was an excellent illustration of the droll way in which children adopt and adapt the ideas of their elders.

The 4th article was by Mrs. W. R. Bullock, and was called "Character Loss."; Mrs. Bullock spoke of the many difficulties in the way of education – education in its


true sense of character-building. Instead of plainness and simplicity, school and school surroundings were now positively luxurious. Everything was for the child made easy. Instead of there being no royal road to learning, all roads to learning nowadays were made as smooth as possible. As far as possible the child was spared all mental exertion. All burden was laid on the teachers, and the child' own past in his education was reduced to a minimum. How injurious this is to character formation is easily seen. The child does not properly grow. The child subjected to this method becomes a recipient merely, never a student. Stimulation is what a child needs, not mastery of a subject, and the subjects chosen are too hard, too discursive. Why should a child know the difference between a circle and an ellipse. Too much is attempted. Mrs. Cautley said the Mrs. Bullock has suggested so many interesting ideas, that she, Mrs. Cautley wished that Mrs. Bullock would further develop them.

Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese] said a few words. At the root of all the education lies humility, but the chief characteristic of the present schoolchild is self-conceit. He or she comes to school in a questioning, combative mood. The Kindergarten in largely to blame for


this. It takes from the child' power of imagination. In the Kindergarten everything is made objective. There is a spiritual lack and the child is early limited and accustomed to the sphere of sense. It fails to conceive of that "something beyond"; which we near grasp. "Self conceit and Sass";, Miss Reese thought were the modern child' chief qualities. Mrs. Thurston [Lucy Meacham Thruston] admitted the conceit, but though it was due to the age; a great fault, but one that would correct itself. Mrs. Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner] gave her experience in [hotels?], where, as the saying is, the children "took the place,"; and left nothing for the adults. Mrs. Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson] spoke of her experience at a French Pensivas, where she had spent an evening with some friends. The American children present, Mrs. Tyson said, had made the evening hideous. Two little well bred boys proved on inquiry to the cousins of the Czar of Russia. The parent' egotism, she thought was answerable for these durable children. Miss Crane [Lydia Crane] gave an experience of hers wherein a child, detailing to its mothers[?] admirable qualities of a new school mate seemed up her encomiums by saying "And, Mother, she' a splendid [sasses?]."; Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler] said that a word was to be


said in the parents, a child' individuality was strong, and not as easily controlled as some people imagined. Mrs. Cautley said that there were no accepted rules as regards children, each family was more or less a law unto itself. She had felt this in the training of her new children.

The discussion was enjoyed by all and its close the meeting adjourned.

Meeting of October 28th 1902

The 4th meeting of the current year of the Womens Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, October 28th in the Club' Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences, Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], 1st Vice President presided. The first business transacted was the reading of the Resolutions which had been prepared by the Committee appointed in that purpose. Resolutions expressive of the Club' bereavement in the death of Miss Emma Fenwick Brent, a former President of the Club. The Resolutions have been sent to Miss Brent' family and the answer to them was also read.

The Committee on Memorial Decorations


Chairman Mrs. Thomas Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill], was called open to meet on Saturday, November 1st at 10 a.m. in the Assembly Room of the Club. Mrs. Cautley then presented to the Club in behalf of the author, Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud, a copy of her recently published book of poems, "A Reed by the River."; The Programme in the afternoon was then taken up. The Programme was given by the Committee upon Colonial and Revolutionary History. Mrs. Thomas Hill, Chairman.

The 1st article, "Independence Hall, Phila and its Restoration,"; by Mrs. F. P. Stevens [Mrs. Francis P. Stevens] was then given. Mrs. Stevens began by speaking of William Penn and his charter. He took charge of the Province, he said, for the Lord' sake, and for a place of refuge for freeman. The early meetings held in the colony for the transacting of public business were at Chester until 1682-83, then at the Old Swedes Church, then at the Friend' Meeting House in Philadelphia until 1728. The General Assembly then felt that a State House proper was necessary and fitting, and in 1729 the sum of £2000 was appropriated to build such a building. The State House was accordingly began and finishing touches were given in 1745. The General Assembly consisted 


then of 30 members. Mrs. Stevens gave a detached description of the building both as to plan and size. Thomas Penn [Proprietes?] and his [infer?] Lady Juliana, gave a bell and the tower [in belfry?] was never finished. The earliest bell used for government purposes was in 1685, and the bell was suspended in a tree, as was also the case with Christ Church bell in 1712. The new bell proclaimed "liberty throughout the land and to all the inhabitants thereof."; The bell was successfully recast by American bell makers in 1753. The Continental Congress met in Independence Hall, and sat in Independence Chamber. John Hancock, President, during the Revolutionary period. When Harrisburg became the capital of the state in 1812, much of the furnishing of Independence Hall was removed to that city. Charles Wilson Peale then rented the building and fitted it up as a Museum, and it was long known as "Peale' Museum."; In 1876, at the Centennial, the building was as far as possible, restored, desk, chairs, tables, even the silver inkstands used by the Signers were brought back, and a handsome balustrade was restored to its former place.

The 2nd article on the Programme was


called "A Tory Spy";, by Miss Miss Mary Foreman Day, read by Mrs. F. Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson]. Miss Day began by saying that it was a fact that at the time of the Revolutionary Was, sentiment was largely divided, some for, some against, the Mother Country, -- was either overlooked or unknown. The feeling for the mother country was quite as strong as that against, and many were willing to risk life and honor in her service. Among there were John Paul and [Heathcote?] Pickett, but her sketch dealt chiefly with John Paul. Miss Day gave an interesting description of the country and the borderline between Maryland and Delaware, and the conditions which served as background for Paul' adventures. Suspected of giving information to the enemy, he was [accosted?] and confined, with the prospect of a military trial and execution. The next morning, Pail whispered a plan of escape to Pickett, who, however, was either not quick enough or hopeful enough to grasp it. Paul escaped, not only on this occasion, but on many others, even when pursued by bloodhounds. He was a small wiry man, and tradition ways that once, when hard pressed, a [Mrs. Inion?] concealed him under her hoopskirt. Another time his life was saved by his faithful slaves. Flora and Buster,


who kept secret his hiding place, and brought him food. He escaped all injury and died eventually in 1812, in Hardford Co. [Harford County] Maryland.

The 3rd article was an "Historical Sketch"; by Mrs. Charles H. Beebe [Mary H. Beebe], said, to note the differences between early Colonial beginnings and later conditions. Marriage, for instance, in early Colonial days was almost a necessity. It was not profitable, and scarcely proper to tolerate single blessedness. Unmarried men and women were therefore taxed, the taxes running in some instances, as high as five dollars a week for the privilege of remaining single. Mary Carpenter, sister of Governor Bradford's wife, did, however, continue to escape matrimony. Laws too, some of them serve, were passed to prevent or regulate love-making. The young people had to do their courting on opposite sides of the room, in the presence of the family, but a "courting stick";--eight feet long was provided through which they might whisper their loving words. There was merriment too, however. Those were the days of the "Stay-till Daylight"; parties. In one occasion some invited people by means of a horse blanket soaked in water and laid over the chimney, smoked


out the duly hidden guests, and broke up the party. The 4th article was by Mrs. Thomas Hill and was called "History and Tradition";. Mrs. Hill took for her subject [?] County New York ground made famously [sic-famous by] [James Fenimore] Cooper. Mrs. Hill gave an interesting description of the country, and dwelt upon its beauty. She spoke of the Sulphur Spring, the Indian name of which means Bad Smelling, and the knowledge of which was due to the chance visits to the whites of a friendly Indian. She told of Cherry Valley, and the massacre there in 1778 of Richfield Springs, and of the beautiful Lake with its "Sunken Isle";, and the Indian tradition regarding it.

Coming nearer home, Mrs. Hill spoke of the Eastern Shore, Kent County, and Chestertown, of the War of 1812, of the part played by the English Commander, Sir Peter Parker, and of the American Commander, Colonel Philip Reed. Mrs. Hill accurately described the engagement which took place between the English and American forces, and then spoke of the recent commemorative celebration held in honor of these by gone events.

At the close of the Programme the meeting adjourned.


At the meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, on Tuesday October 21st 1912, the presiding officer, Mrs. R. K. Cautley, Vice President, announced to her fellow-members the death of their former President and faithful friend, Miss Emma Fenwick Brent.

She also appointed a Committee of three members to express to Miss Brent' family the sorrow and sympathy of the Club in this bereavement.

Miss Brent was one of the original members and formers of this Club in March 1890; and, as associate as Director, and as President her fine culture, [wise?] counselor, gentle firmness, helpful suggestions and kind interest have [won?] for her general and personal gratitude and affection.

The officers and members if the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore will hold Miss Brent in loving memory; and tender to her family their full and heart-felt sympathy.


708 Saint Paul Street.

To the Committee:

     Florence McIntyre Tyson

     Lydia Crane 

     Caroline Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock]

The family of Emma Fenwick Brent appreciates most highly the expression of true sorrow and sympathy in its bereavement, and is deeply touched by the goodly words of praise -- "like apples of gold in pictures of silver"; -- that attest so affectionately the estimation in which she is held by the members of the Woman's Literary Club -- an association ever dear and mean to her heart.


     October 28th 1902.

[281 sheet is tipped in]

original members and formers of this Club in March 1890; and, as associate, as Director, and as President, her ^(fine culture), wise counsels, gentle firmness, helpful suggestions and kind interest have won for her general and personal gratitude and affection.

The officers and members of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore will hold Miss Brent in loving member; and tender to her family their full and heartfelt sympathy.

At the meeting of the Woman' Literary Club Baltimore on Tuesday, October 21st, 1902, the presiding officer, Mrs. R. K. Cautley, Vice President, announced to her fellow members the death of their former President and faithful friend, Miss Emma Fenwick Brent. She also appointed a Committee of three members to express to Miss Brent' family the sorrow and sympathy of the Club in this bereavement.

Miss Brent was one of the

[282 sheet tipped in]

by the goodly words of praise -- "like apple gold in pictures of silver"; -- that attest so affectionately the estimation in which she is held by the members of the Woman' Literary Club -- an association ever dear and near to her heart.


October 28th 1902

708 Saint-Paul Street

To the Committee:

Florence McIntyre Tyson

Lydia Crane

Caroline Bullock

The family of Emma Fenwick Brent appreciates most highly the expression of true sorrow and sympathy in its bereavement and is deeply touched


Meeting on November 4th, 1902

The 5th meeting of the current year of the Womans Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday November 4th in the Assembly Room of the Club. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President presided.

The minutes of the previous meeting were omitted. The President made a listed address of welcome to the Club, an address in which she expressed her pleasure at being again with her fellow-members. Her heart had gone out in living thought of them, and her only regret in foreign travel had been that they were not there to enjoy the many things which had given her delight.

On behalf of the Club, Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], 1st Vice President responded by a little speech in which she gave voice to the Club' satisfaction in having the President again with it. The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. The Programme was given by the



elderly cousins and the family doctor figure. The [girl'?] wealth is having a bad effect. She distrusts; she doubts friendship and love, she fears that regard is had only for her money, not for her. She confides in the physician, and he gives her some advice. The next scene is in the mountains. A young man, much affected as has been the rich girl Margaret, has turned hermit. Accompanied by his faithful servant he is trying to shake off the superfluities of [civilization?] while retaining its essentials. Margaret, having met with an accident, finds her way, some what hurt, to the hermit' hut; and when able to return to the farmhouse where she is boarding, the hermit-peep acer to take her thither.

The 2nd article on the Programme was by Mrs. Frederick Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson], and was called "My Mother-in Law' Bonnet."; A daughter-in law tells the story of her experience with her Mother-in Law, and a new bonnet. The Mother-in Law, a New Englander, and Puritan by decent, has in her much latent coquetry and a [sure?] taste for fine millinery. She determines to become possessed of a bonnet, a French creation, which like a touchstone, recalls all the worldly possibilities lying [dormant?] in this little old lady, the wife of


a [stared?] Deacon, and the mother of six sons. The bonnet which the old lady sees, tries on, and loves, is far beyond her price; as she compromises by buying materials which are almost similar, even to a [?] butterfly. Once at home, the new bonnet is made, and on Sunday, late 9the hours being the result of successful managing) the proud possessor of an exquisite bonnet makes her grand entry into church. The people stare, stop singing, buzz. Not even in fancy had the lady dreamed of causing such a sensation. Her sister-in law, however, sternly whispers as to what had "pressed"; the little lady to come to church without a bonnet. She clapped her hands to her head, but the precious bonnet was gone! It was a dreaded moment. But someone in the pew behind bent over and lifted, from the little lady' back where it had caught and hung by the glittering butterfly, -- fit emblem of vanity, the missing fated bonnet.

The 3rd article on the Programme was a story by Miss Mary Foreman Day. The story told of a middle aged gentleman whose much older sister, Elizabeth, had, when young, married a handsome illiterate itinerant preacher. The marriage


was one of infatuation on one side, of calculation and social ambition on the other. But Elizabeth' young sister Margaret, and young brother, Edward, [threes?] in their lot with hers. Mr. Wamsley, the preacher, grew tired at last of the sufferance with which he was treated, and sold his wife' ancestral place on the Eastern Shore, and bought one on the Western, far away from disdainful, disapproving neighbors and kinsfolk. One of Elizabeth' two sons, early "converted";, emotional and unbalanced, developed religious mania -- and in an unusually severe attack, he attempted to kill his mother. The chock did eventually kill her: and when dying, she begged a promise from Margaret that she would make the half-crazed farmers her first care. The story opens a short time after Elizabeth' death, when Margaret has either to marry her brother-in-law, or to see him bring to the house as his wife, a woman of an inferior social standing. Both the sons now grown men, insisted that for all their sakes Margaret must marry their father. She consents, and the marriage is set for a few evenings later. But the neighborhood hears of it, and determines to vent its contempt and displeasure in a "Calithumpian Serenade."; The evening comes. The bride composed and resolute, surprises all. But it is


Elizabeth whom Margaret sees, whom Margaret in feeling, thought, and fancy, follows. At the close of the wedding ceremony, the hideous uproar from the outside begins. A call for the bride and bridegroom comes. Margaret orders the door to be opened, and steps out into the moonlight. She thinks she sees Elizabeth: then calls twice upon her dead sister' name, and falls, herself, dead.

The 4th article was a Reading by Miss Julius Thruston [Lucy Meacham Thruston] from her recent novel "A Girl of Virginia."; Mrs. Thruston first read a short scene from one of the early chapters, a scene by which to introduce certain characters to the hearers. Then Mrs. Thurston read what she said, she would call the "Consolation Scene,"; in which an old colored woman, Susan, plays the past of guide, philosophic and friend to her motherless young mistress, "Miss Frances";. The scene was admirable and was admirably read, and it served to deepen interest in the book.

At the close of the Programme, an informal reception was held in the just returned President' home, and the rest of the afternoon was spent in social intercourse.



Minutes of November 11th 1902

The 6th meeting of the current year of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held in the Assembly Room, Academy of Science on Tuesday, November 11th 1902. The President Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] presided. In opening this meeting, Mrs. Wrenshall said that she has just learned of the death of our sometimes President and loved fellow member, Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent]. Nothing she could say, the President said, would fitly express her feelings nor could she pay too great a tribute to one so loved and honored.

The President then read a letter from Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], a letter of greeting, and one expressive of her affection for and interest in, the Club. Mrs. Turnbull wrote from Dresden and gave incidentally a delightful glimpse of her travels.

A note was read from Miss Rabillon, a note thanking the Committee on Memorial Decorations for the flowers placed upon her father' grave.

The Programme was then taken up. This Programme was given by the Committee on Current Criticism, Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], Chairman. The first article on the


Programme was called "Book Notes";, and was by Mrs. R. K. Cautley. Mrs. Cautley said that in our youth we are apt to be too severe in our judgement of books: in our later years we are more tolerant. Personal feeling, the individual mood enter largely into our estimate. A clever man recently praised Thomas Hardy whom she, Mrs. Cautley says, detests; but when she spoke to the clever man of the "Etchingham Letters";, he loftily replied that he hadn’t been able to read them. In the flood of books which was now bearing us away, it was hard to find reason for most of them. "The Confessions of a Wife";, she thought justified the husband; but it did present a nervous, over emotionalized woman' side of the case. "The Needle' Eye";, was a good Sunday-School book. "The Virginian"; by Owen Wister, Mrs. Cautley said, deserved high praise. His "Virginian"; was the middle-class Virginian, a new type. "Dorothy Vernon"; by the author of "When Knighthood was in Flower";, was poor: Dorothy herself was not a young English gentleman. "The Hound of the Baskervilles"; was good of its kind. So was Harlan' "The Lady Paramount."; Mrs. Wharton', "The Valley of Decision"; was admirable history carefully put together or compiled. As a book about Italy,


it was disappointing, for it was sadly lacking in three essentials, color, music, action. It was like a pale, gray photograph instead of vivid painting. "The Conqueror";, was history from fictions point of view. "The Speckled Bird";, by Mrs. Augusta Evans Wilson "was all an old-fashioned novel ought to be. Miss Hallie Erminie Rives "Hearts Courageous";, was not so heart wrenching as its tragedy, child' play. Mrs. Cautley said she could recommend a little book called "The Best of Stevenson";, and also the "Letters of Madame de Motteville. Mrs. Cautley said she was sorry to dwell so much upon fiction: but summer reading is chiefly fiction, and fiction is the world', chief reading.

The 2nd article on the Programme was by Mrs. Charles H. Beebe [Maria H. Beebe], and was called "A Review."; Mrs. Beebe took for her subject the book. "Mrs. Wiggs of the Cabbage Patch."; She praised the book highly and spoke of its sunny cheerfulness, its wholesome humor, its fine philosophy, its true and deep feeling. None could read it, she said without feeling the humanity common to us all, without being the better. And, she concluded, there is not a dull page from cover to cover. The 3rd article in the


Programme was by Miss H. F. Cooper [H. Frances Cooper]. Miss Cooper began by saying what a mighty force is criticism, it acts as a middle man or go-between, between author and reader. And yet, is reviewing, the critic, like a guide in an art gallery will often notice some one thing since one idea, and will overlook all the rest. Recently, Miss Cooper said, she had been rereading some old books whose interest is perennial, Hans Anderson, "[The Caxtons?],"; "Sartor Resartus."; Some writer has lately said that it would be well if no more novels were written for 10 or 20 years. We surely do not need novels by the yard. Though we may need "helpful novels.

Miss Cooper then gave quite a number of books she had read. Tastes and needs are so different, that in these days, it is hard to commend a book when books are put forth by the thousands.

Miss Cooper spoke of Women in the Golden Age, of Sappho, and the Woman' Literary Society over which she presided, of Sappho' famous ode. Is there any woman of this age who can dream of being remembered nearly these thousand years hence?

Miss Cooper spoke of Mr. Howells’ book called "Heroines of Fiction";, and


of the pleasant memories which the book recalled. She also touched upon the well-known authors who, within the years, have died, Paul Leicester Ford: Bret Hart; Emile Zola: George Carey Eggleston.

The 4th and last article on the Programme was by Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud read from proof-speech her view of Mr. F Marion Crawford' recent novel, "Cecelia."; Miss Cloud spoke of Mr. Crawford' mastery of his subject, so far as local color is concerned, the necessary setting for his characters, in his complete knowledge of Rome past and present. All therefore that is drapery, is incidental and accidental, is excellent. A young girl of eighteen finds herself by means of dreams, a denizen of two worlds, one past, on present. She is a Vestal Virgin of early Rome, she is also a young girl of today. The idea, analogous to that of Peter [?] is worked out along the lives of possible hereditary, not as a case of metempsychosis. Granted the possibility of this rehabilitation of a remote ancestries in the person of her descendant of our day; and we have the material of quite a stirring novel. Whether Mr. Crawford can carry with him the imagination of certain


readers is a question. There are those to whom he appeals and for the others will, the readers ^(will) is joined to his novels, let him alone. At the close of the Programme the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of November 18th 1902

The 7th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, November 18th in the Assembly Room of the Club Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President presided.

The President read certain invitations given to the Club, an invitation from the Charcoal Club to attend its exhibition of "Summer work,"; "private view,"; Nov. 21st and general view, afternoons, from Nov. 22nd to Nov. 28th, inclusive 2nd An invitation from Johns Hopkins University to attend the Lectures on American Revolution by Professor McLaughlin of the University of Michigan, to be given on Monday and Tuesday, Nov. 24th & 25th.

The President on behalf of our non-resident member, Miss Florence Trail of Fredrick presented to the club two books, one a volume of sermons by the Rev. Thomas Scott Bacon, the other a book of poems by Miss [missing text]


The programme for the afternoon was then taken up. The Programme was given by the Committee on Modern Poetry. Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman.

The 1st article on the Programme was by Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall] and was in answer to the question, "Is Poetry Doomed."; Miss Duvall took the ground that poetry, being an Act, and Act being man' expression of his sense of the Beautiful, which impression is a necessity of the nature, -- poetry can never be doomed as long as man is on earth, poetry will be.

The 2nd article on the Programme was called "Reading from the Poets"; and consisted of the reading by Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], of William Watson' "Coronation Ode.

This fine Ode was finely read, and was much enjoyed.

The 3rd article was a poem called "Nearing Home,"; by Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton]. Miss Middleton said that the poem had been inspired by an observation of, and acquaintance with a very old lady, whose cheerfulness, interest in all about his, ready sympathy, and clear, tranquil faith, made her an object of general regard. The poem was [worthy?] the source of its inspiration was much appreciated.


The 4th article on the programme consisted also of a reading of a certain of her own poems, published under the title "A Reed by the River";, of Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud. Miss Cloud read four short poems: the first was, "The Row[?] Bells";, the second was the "Mother Song, also found on Mr. Stedman' Anthology. The 3rd was the fine sonnet "Dusk";. The 4th was the "Goodnight song";.

The 5th article on the Programme was "A Paper";, by Miss L. W. Reese. Miss Reese took for her subject certain tendencies in Literature. None of us can escape the first 20 years of our life, she said, and the same rule holds good for centuries. The 19th Century, she thought, had ended very much as it began. What we find in life, we find sometimes even more clearly in Literature. Then authors [appreciable?] currents, one thousands centralization, one away from it, one towards mysticism, ceremonial, a wistful looking back to the far past. The other tendency looks to the immediate present, books towards accuracy -- science. The first gives us the historic Novel, or romance the second gives us the realistic novel with its slavish attention to details. Both tendencies, both Romanticism, and Realism are over worked. He has "historic";


novels displaying appalling lack of the "historic sense,"; and on the other hand we have the pseudo-pathetic realistic novel, such as Charlotte Bronte' "Jane Eyre,["] and Dicken's "Old Curiosity Shop.["] Processions of pale, snubbed[,] intense[,] plain little governesses pass before us; and Little Nells and Little Dombeys, and small, ill used creatures generally fill, for a time, the scene. The "appealing quality"; the emotional, the morbid, all have their turn. But this muse is a wistful, distrustful one. She walks like Matthew Arnold' muse in gentle melancholy. In the spirit of the 19th Century, there is much that is feminine, and the much talked of Celtic spirit is wholly feminine. It is plaintive, brooding, delicately fanciful, it asks for authority, and seeks support. Tennyson and Browning however, and distinctly masculine. They call things by their right names, a fine courage glows in their verse.

Miss Reese closed her paper by reading an unpublished sonnet of William Watson'  called "Life is still Life.["]

At the close of the Programme the meeting adjourned.



Minutes of November 25th 1902

The [8th?] meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, Nov. 25th in the Assembly Room of the Club Academy of Sciences Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President presided.

The only announcement was that of the Programme for the coming month.

December 2nd Committee on Translations

December 9th Committee on the Drama

December 16th Essays and Essayists

On December 23rd owing to its nearness to Christmas, the usual meeting would be omitted and on December 30th would take place the usual monthly Salon.

The President then read from a Leaflet a Press Notice, called "The New Review,"; published by the Gorham Press, Boston, Mass.,-- a notice of Miss Cloud's [Virginia Woodward Cloud] volume of Poems, "A Reed by the River,"; "Gladness,"; the writer of the Review, said, was the recurrent, joy, bringing note of these poems.

The programme -- for the afternoon -- was then taken up. The programme consisted of a "Talk on Current Topics,"; by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner], one of the Chairmen of Committee on Current Topics. Mrs


Turner began by speaking of our unusually mild and lovely Fall, and apropos to this she read Emily Dickinson' fine poem called "Indian Summer,"; as something of national interest. Mrs. Turner then touched upon the Coal Strike, upon the arduous duties of the Commission, and upon the present pleasant prospect of a patching up of the quarrel between Miners and Operators. She spoke of the strange sight which carts labeled "Welsh Coal[";] present when passing through our American Streets. Mrs. Turner spoke of the recent Election, and of the political complexion of the two houses of Congress. The Republicans will have a majority of 22 in the Senate, and of 29 in the House. The President Mr. Roosevelt, is understood to favor the taking of the Tariff out of politics by establishing a Tariff Commission, although it is doubtful whether such a commission would be able to affect anything.

Next, of current interest, is the return of Ambassador Wu, the Chinese Minister of his own land -- a return possibly to greater honors, possibly to quick death. Mrs. Turner spoke of the pending treaty with China, and gave a list of the commodities which under this treaty will be admitted to China free of duty.

Mrs. Turner spoke of the


Panama Canal, and of our passing trouble with Columbia. She spoke of the Volcanic eruptions still occurring, and of the appalling loss of life which these phenomena have caused. She spoke of the visits of royalty to England, the Emperor of Germany and the King of Portugal being in England at the same time.

Mrs. Turner spoke of the final sentiment by the Hague Tribunal of the "Old Pious Claim,"; the claim of the Catholic Church against the Mexican Government for certain money due the Church for many years past. The success of the court of Arbitration seems established.

Mrs. Turner then passed to inventions. She spoke of Marconi, and of the wonders of telegraphy, of a man in Boston who recently sent a telegram round the world. He telegraphed on Nov. 1st and on the 3rd his telegram came back to him, having taken 29 hours, 29 minutes in the transmission.

Mrs. Turner told of the proposal of a Mr. Alexander Mac Donald of Cincinnati, to purchase "Abbotts [?ford],"; the home of Sir Walter Scott, and then to present in to the Scotch people.


Mrs. Turner then told of the difficulty of buying a Hooded Arabian mare from a Syrian Patriarch. The words "barter or sale"; were never mentioned. All was most decorous, complimentary, and diplomatic. The mare was a present, so was its equivalent, but the American would be purchaser had the mare, and the Syrian Patriarch had 200 pounds.

Mrs. Turner spoke of the unfortunate Russian [Donk--? Not sure of name], of their pitiful religious fanaticism, and of the extreme difficulty of the Canadian government in dealing with this, verily peculiar people.

Mrs. Turner told of the new Railroad across Cuba, which will make future revolutions impossible. She spoke of the reports of two recent visitors to Porto Rico. One says that only, 115 of the Porto Ricans can read or write, and the other declares that the Agricultural advantages of the Island have been much exaggerated. The land has been exhausted.

She spoke of the laying of the cornerstone of the great Aster-Lenny-Tilden Public Library in New York. The three lower stories will be for books the 4th story will be the reading room.

Mrs. Tuner gave an interesting account of the "Book Lists"; of the past year,

[Next page is the first of three inserted pages.]

showing how the different kinds of books have help their own.

Mrs. Turner touched then upon Football, upon its brutalizing and unmanly tendency, of the terrible injuries which those who play it are apt to receive and-- what is worse-- it inflict.

She spoke of the half-tone pictures produced by telegraphy of the Electrotype, of which she gave a description, and of Dr. Richie' Lecture on Photography by Telescope.

Mrs. Turner spoke of women, and of occupations which women are gradually taking up. She spoke of Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, her recent death, touched upon her career as a women suffragist, and said that perhaps Mrs. Cady' best and most lasing work had been in bringing about equitable property rights between man and wife.

[Inserted page 2/3]

Mrs. Turner then spoke of some recent illustrious dead. Zola, Herr [?Krupp? or Knipp?], and others, and then, passing by an easy and national transition nearer home, Mrs. Turner paid a heartfelt, touching, beautiful tribute to our loved member Miss Emma Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent]. Miss Brent' gentle influence, scholarship, friendship, made those who knew and loved her, rich.

In conclusion, Mrs. Turner offered her thanksgiving greetings to the Club, and read a poem of Theodosia Garrison'.

In thanking Mrs. Turner in her interesting talk, Mrs. Wrenshall too spoke of Miss Brent. Mrs. Wrenshall said that she could not trust herself to say much, the shock of the news of Miss Brent' death was still too great, but she deeply thanked Mrs. Turner for her words of appreciation and regard. They must find an echo in every heart.

Mrs. Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill] then said a few words in praise of the Committee on Current Topics, of the need there had been of just such a

[Inserted page 3/3]

Committee, and of the interest and timeliness of its monthly resumé.

The meeting then adjourned, and the rest of the afternoon, which was a Salon, was passed in social intercourse.


[MS988 Box 4, Book 2 BEGINS HERE]



Meeting of Dec. 2nd 1902

The [9th--struck through] Meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, Dec. 2nd 1902, in the Assembly Room of the Club Academy of Science. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], presided. There were no announcements.

The Programme for the afternoon was accordingly taken up. The Programme was given by the Committee on Translations, Mrs. Frederick Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson], Chairman.

The 1st article was called "St Helena,’ and was translated from the French of René [?Doumer], by Miss A. E. Jones [Annie Jones]. The article was a somewhat imaginative interpretation of Napoleon' feelings and thoughts during those last months of his life at St. Helena. The source of information was chiefly the journal of [?Bourgot.] [?Bourgot] had been with Napoleon for nine years, was passionately devoted to the Emperor, and was specially chosen by the Exile to be with him in his captivity. [?Bourgot's] jealous affection however, for Napoleon, made life difficult for everyone, and after his duck with [?not sure of word] [?Bourgot] quitted St. Helena. The life was dreary, monotonous, sad. The Emperor sacrificed hearth to pride, for he declined to go out if accompanied


by an English guard. Hence he confined himself to the house and garden. There were few letters, fewer visits. Naturally Napoleon dwelt much upon the past, his rapid military career. Waterloo, Ella. Like some others he seems to have, in the main, despised his fellows, to have habitually underrated men; and for women, he had a sovereign contempt. Yet his comments upon historical characters and upon the men whom he had known, were deeply interesting and significant. He drew characters with a few incisive touches. Tally and turned everything to personal advantage. Henry 4th was an imbecile. Louis 14th was alone worthy of France. The genius of [?Turenne] was great. War is divined not taught. Napoleon' materialism, atheism, took ultimately the form of superstition, he believed the omens, destiny, fate. His sojourn in the Orient affected him unfavorably. According to [?Douanis] imagination was, with Napoleon the dominant faculty. Individual wills, he believed changed history: but he took no real account of collective forces.

The 2nd article in the Programme was from the French of H. [?Levenr] and was called "King of Kings,"; translated by Miss Virginia Hopkins.


the article was an imaginative sketch of all the reigning sovereigns, their personalities, their doings upon Twelfth Night, the 6th of January, the Night of the Kings. The Emperors of Austria, Russia, Germany, the Kinds of Italy, the Queen of England, the King of Spain, all passed in review before us. And certainly the emptiness of earthly honors. The thorns which earthly crowns are bound to bear, were feelingly set forth. The Emperor of Russia many not indulge in a harmless game of snowballing for fear of assassination. Victoria is disabled by the cries of anarchists; the Emperor of Austria is called from pleasant thoughts, and from a merry spectacle of the national dancers, to attend a grime Council of War. The Quirinal, the Vatican, each has no glittering dream, its sad reality, and the article closes by fixing the mind upon the King of Kinds, whose cradle was a manger, whose shelter an ox' stall, who [?not sure of word] the humble and meek, and "who hath sent the rich empty away.";

The 3rd article on the Programme was a Translation and explanation of [?Fulda'] play, "The Talisman,"; it was given by Miss Anne Cullington. Miss Cullington began by speaking of


the difference between Realism and Romanticism. Realism is a revolt against romanticism, but it lacks proportion, it lays too great stress upon details. Our day and generation has seen a great outbreak of realism. [?Hauptman, Guderman, Fulda,] are to Germany what Zola was to France. [?Fulda] though is the most poetic of the three, and his play, "The Talisman,"; is throughout finely practical. Miss Cullington then gave an outline of the story, and gave translations for three of the chief scenes. "The Talisman"; itself is a supposed magic cloak which will bring truth, justice, and righteousness to light. the [?green] of the story is an old folk-lore tale, used by Andersen in somewhat the same way as it is used by [?Fulda].

The 4th article on the programme was by Miss Mullin [Elizabeth Lester Mullin] from the French of [?Povtsevez], and was called "The Pudding."; It dwelt with the love romance of two pretty sisters who become interested in a young Professor of Chemistry. One things to charm him by her scientific knowledge. The other, a good housekeeper, sets before him delicate cakes and a wondrous pudding. It is intimated to the young man by the Aunt of the young girls, that each will receive a [?dot] and that he may propose for the elder, the


the pretty blue stocking. But he prefers-- what masculine heart does not? -- the purveyor of the pudding. The rivalry between the sisters is not deep, each loves the other too well not to wish her sister happiness, and all goes well. The pudding triumphs.

The 5th article on the Programme was by Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], and was a translation from the German of the [?not sure of two words] with a brief sketch of her life. Mrs. Cautley began by saying that despite the poet, the uses of adversity are by no means always sweet, neither are they always beneficial. Johanna [?Ambrosius], born of peasant folk, had been [?not sure of word] to poverty from her cradle. She had received the usual good common schooling which is given in Germany, and to this had been added some [?not sure of word] reading. Her opportunities, however, had been very few. Then she married early a man of her own class, and grinding [?not sure of word] the cases of the household and of the family had eaten up nearly all her time. The love of learning, the creative spark, however, had not been quenched. Her poems show close love of nature, and [?not sure of word] certain moods and certain thoughts. Her poetry speaks to the heart. "Good Lucky Passed By,"; "My Last Song,"; "In the Chimney [?not sure of word],"; is very poetic in its personification


of fire. "The Last Letter"; which is descriptive of a [?not sure of three words] short by death. Mrs. Cautley gave an interesting description of the woman and of her work.

This ended the Programme, and, at its close, the meeting adjourned.


Minutes December 9th 1902.

The 10th meeting of the current year of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday Dec. 9th in the Clubs Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. The President Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] presided. There were no announcements. The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up,-- this Programme was given by the Committee on the Drama, Chairman, Miss V. W. Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud].

The first article was an "Address"; by Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall], "On the Law of Contrast in Dramatic Act in Literature."; Miss Duvall began by pointing out that a perception of differences and distinctions lies at the base of all our perceptions; that this perception of differences presupposes a law of contrast. Life is [?set] against life, good and evil; joy and sorrow, black and white,-- we may not take one without making provision for the other. Miss Duvall spoke of the


ignoring of this law by the present method of [?specialisms], which is apt to regard life from the stand point of one set of facts only. She spoke of the necessary relation between art and Science, of the reflex-action of Art upon Science and of Science upon Art; and of the disastrous effects of specialism when applied to Art. Miss Duvall gave as illustration the School of French plays which deal with but one passion, and but me form of me passion. She spoke of D’Annunzio's plays as showing monstrous specialism in those convinced of life as consisting of but one elemental feeling with little else. Then as a happy illustration of the observance of the law of contrast. Miss Duvall took Shakespear' "Merchant of Venice,"; and analyzed it. Here the law of contract being recognized,-- color vanity, beauty and the result, and the mind is convinced and satisfied. The law of contract involves the law of totality, and that of unity as well.

The 2nd article on the Programme was a selection from Miss Malloy's [Louise Malloy] play, "[?Nadischa],"; read by Miss Perkins [Marie Eulalie Perkins]. The play is partly historical and deals with the illstarred fortunes of Prince Ivan who, regarded with jealous suspicion by Catherine II of Russia, is kept a close prisoner. A young girl of rank, the Countess Natalie, or [?Nadisoha], disguised as a boy, has somewhat


lightened and relieved the tedium of Price Ivan' captivity. But his confinement is to be stricter and all [?not sure] with the outside world has been forbidden. [?Nadircha] or [?Tassrly],  as she is called, has grown to love Ivan and to bent on saving him. But to begin to accomplish this she must promise herself in marriage to Mirovich. This she does, and the scene read by Miss Perkins was the me wherein [?Nadircha] and Mirovich come to a complete understanding. [?Nadischa] knows the hopelessness of her own love, and frank with Mirovich, she works upon him that he promises to save, if possible, his rival the Price; the reward to be the hand of [?Nadischa].

The 3rd article on the Programme was a one-act play, called "The Toast,"; by Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley]. Time, the beginning of the 19th century. Scene, Virginia, at Colonel Berkeley' country-seat. The chief characters were Col. Berkeley, his daughter Betty, his sister Mrs. Tushill; John Ambler a friend of the family, Charles Berkley, son to the Colonel. Bridesmaids, friends and cousins of Betty; Bishop Latemer more friends and relatives, servants, etc. The play pens with preparations for the wedding of Betty Berkely who is to be married that day at noon to Mr. Henry Temple. From the [?not sure of word] of the servants we do not get a pleasant impression of the bridegrooms


personality. All is nearly ready, however, the bridesmaids appear when Betty herself. John [?Amther] who has long secretly loved her, her Aunt, even the Bishop who is to perform the ceremony; but still no bridegroom. Henry Temple is absent. Charles Berkely has ridden part of the way to meet him and finally comes in – alone. There is consternation; Betty only remaining calm. Temple has left a letter behind him which partly explains his recreancy. Betty, meanwhile orders the wedding breakfast to go on though there will be no wedding. Ably seconded by her father and John [?Amther] she takes her place at the head of the table, and drinks her toast, "To Single Blessedness whispering an aside though, after she has done it,--" I, Johns Tomorrow -- Tomorrow, John!"; and the scene and play close. 

The 4th article on the programme was a story by Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud] called "The Judgment of ??."; The scene of Miss Cloud' story was a little fishing village on the coast. After a storm, a boat is seen tossing on the waves. A long woman occupant of a solitary cottage goes out in a tiny fishing skiff to tow in the strange boat. In it is a dead man with a live child lashed to his breast. The women releases and ultimately brings back to animation and safe life, the child,-- which the


dead man,-- presumably the father, is buried by the fisher-folk. The child so saved, a boy, grows to be 13 or 14 years old, and knows [?our] mother but the woman who rescued him and who idolized him, and [?no] life save what of the wave washed village. One day a stranger comes to the town, and makes cautious inquires. Rumors have reached her, have also reached other; and she wishes certainty. Had there been a shipwreck on or about a certain date? Was there a man drowned? And is it not certain that there was no child, seen or saved? Evidently she wises to find neither a living nor a dean child. At this moment the boy and his rescuer, "Big Dalia,"; appear. The person who has been questioned and appealed to is Captain Grigg, the village Oracle. He rapidly reflects, "big Dalia"; is to all intents and purposes the boy' mother, she has loved, nurtured, mothers, and worked for him. The [?] the real, yet unnatural Mother, wishes, for her own purposes, never to see her child again. The Captain grins his judgement, guarded, but sufficient. "If Dalia aint the boy' mother, then he aint never had one, and never will."; And both women are satisfied "Big Dalia"; keeps her boy; and the


stranger goes her way, in ease--if not-- peace of mind.

At the close of the Programme the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of December 16th 1902

The 11th meeting of the current year of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, Dec. 16th, in the Club' Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided. Announcement was made that, owing to the nearness to Christmas, the meeting of Tuesday, Dec. 39th would be usual Club meeting, and the Christmas Salon would be held on Tuesday, Jan. 6th at 8:30 P.M., instead of in the afternoon. As this meeting would be at night, every member would be privileged to bring one guest, either lady or gentleman.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. This programme was given by the Committee on "Essays and Essayists."; Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] being Chairman.

The 1st article was by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner], and was called, "The Sub-conscious Self."; No one who [?thinks], Mrs. Turner Said, can fail to be impressed by the mystery of


consciousness, the problem of self, its strange, [?Protean] quality. The little girl who said "Mother is [?] of people,"; touched a truth felt by many, formulated by none. What are we? How many of us are there? Does the such conscious self ever sleep? We do a thing, take part in something, apparently with our whole heart, while in reality our heart, our main thoughts, are far away from the immediate present. Mrs. Turner gave instances of this in her own experience. How much and what, does the sub-conscious self absorb, and is it the root which finds the outer, upper, apparent self? Is there not danger in this sub-conscious self which may lay hold, with equal chance upon wither good or ill? And if we can guard it, should we not take heed. Consciousness lies close to the mystery, the wonder, of creation; and there is no deeper, greater, mystery than that.

The 2nd article was by Miss Whitney [Anne Weston Whitney], and was called "The Congress of Americanists."; Miss Whitney gave a description of this muting of scientist in New York, and gave an outline of the work presented. it covered a wide field and embraced nearly all that pertains to early man upon this continent. One is tempted to think, however, that man is put upon the earth both cultured and refined, so much is there of worth in these early


people. Miss Whitney spoke of the "[?Lausing] Man,"; regarding whose age the opinion of the learned so differs, that there is a range of from 8,000 to 30,000 years assigned as the possible antiquity of this prehistoric mortal. Miss Whitney gave an idea of some of the papers which were read and of the discussions which followed. "Doctors differed,"; and at times solemn science was relieved-- unscientific human nature. The use of the word "Amerind,"; for American Indian, produced heat if it did not diffuse light. One delegate, a gentleman from the Netherlands, wished it distinctly understood, that all good things, whatsoever, as well as Tulips, come through and from, the Dutch.

Miss Whitney touched upon some of the work done by women. A Mexican women, an artist, has copied the mural decorations of ancient temples and shrines, and in this way, those valuable inscriptions will be preserved. An interesting paper given was on "Maya Art and Culture,"; and was by Mrs. [?Julia] Mitchell. The women of Colorado are trying to preserve the remains of the Pueblo Indians, those remains being in their turn relics of Maya of Aztec civilizations. Miss Whitney spoke of the Jade and Jet work done by these Indians. These were


some pretty quarrels precipitated by rival claims for credit for work done and there was some excitement among the Mexican Delegates. Miss Whitney spoke of the grace and dignity with which the foreign Vice-Presidents presided at the various meetings, and of the lack of grace and dignity much characterized the American Officer.

The 3rd article on the Programme was by Miss Henderson [V. M. Henderson] and was called "Madame de [?Maintenon]"; Francoise D’Aubigne, afterwards Madame Scarron, later, Madame de Maintenon, 2nd wife of Louis XIV, was born in a prison at [?Mort] in France in 1635, and died at St. [?Cyprus] in 1719-- in her 84th year. Prudence is universally admired and well-nigh universally neglected; and as Madame Maintenon was the incarnation of prudence, she has taken less hold on the fancy and imagination than she deserves. Though her career was so varied and what is commonly called "romantic,"; she herself seemed to lack the element of the picturesque she was a woman of iron self-control, and her prudence, or discretion, necessitated by her early hardships became a second nature. She was in reality a woman of much heart. She never forgot a friend nor a benefit. The children of Montespan


loved her better than they did their Mother, and Madame de Maintenon did all in her power to advance their interests. Reconverted to Catholicism as a girl of fifteen, she made one condition-- that she should not be bound to believe that the soul of her protestant aunt Madame de [?Villette] who had been most kind to her was lost. And finally, she founded the famous school of St. Cyr for the benefit of poor girls of good family that they might be spared the hardships and humiliations which she had known. Miss Henderson gave an interesting account of Madame de Maintenon's character and career.

The 4th article on the Programme was a review of Mrs. Delano Ames of Mrs. Adi's Life of Henrietta Duchess of Orleans. Henrietta, daughter of Charles I., who, according to his wife, lost his life because he never heard the truth--had all the charm of the [?Stuart] race and most of its ability. She was well educated and showed always a thirst for learning. Her letters to her brother, Charles II, reveal unusual depth and strength of feeling, and show much tenderness of heart. These letters also throw much light upon the social life of the court, its formality and familiarity--its excess of pomp and


lack of comfort, its emptiness, intrigue, and ennui. Henrietta married her cousin, "Monsieur"; Duke of Orleans, a man who possessed neither character nor heart. Life for him was an occasion of dress, and a wedding or a funeral made no difference. At first attached to his wife, he soon [?married] of her, and ultimately treated her with indifference, and almost with cruelty, in [?fleeting] upon her petty torments and mortifications most hard to hear. The [?dissensions] between Henrietta and her husband were so marked that when she died suddenly 1670, he was accused of poisoning her. Her malady, however is more likely to have been one of those acute ailments with which modern science has learned to deal. Mrs. Ames gave an interesting account of Henrietta's life and character, this Stuart princess who appeals more than most of her race, to our sympathies and pity.

At the close of the Programme the meeting adjourned.



[Special meeting on death of Mrs. John F. Goucher]

At a meeting of a special committee appointed by the President of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore to express the regret of the Club on the death of our late member, Mrs. John F. Goucher. The following resolutions of sympathy were passed.

Resolved. That in the death of Mrs. Goucher, our Club has lost a most valued member-- one whose rare spirit and bright presence whenever she was with us, was a benediction-- and that the Club deplores not only her loss from our roll, but also her loss to our community to which she was the almoner of so many educational advantages of which the women of our City have reaped and will continue to enjoy the benefits. She was a rare benefactress. She has passed on to the "Many Mansions.["]

Resolved. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family and that may be spread upon the minutes of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore.

H. Frances Cooper Chairman.

These resolutions were further signed by

Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall]

Miss Crane [Lydia Crane]

Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler]

Dated Dec. 26th.




"The Cleveland";

1413 Linden Avenue.

Dear Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall],

A few days ago Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] asked me to prepare some expressions of sympathy from our Club on the death of Mrs. Goucher.

I called together a small committee and the enclosed resolutions were passed, a copy of which I send to you as secretary of the Woman' Literary Club.

I hope you had a "Bright, Happy Christmas,"; and I wish you a glad "New Year.";

Truly yours,

H. Frances Cooper.


December the twenty seventh.




Mr. Goucher


the Misses Goucher

acknowledge with

keen appreciation

your expression

of sympathy

with them in

their bereavement.

Alto Dale

December 31st 1902.




Minutes December 30th 1902.

The 12th Meeting of the Current year of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday December 20th, in the Assembly room of the Club, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of the recent death of Mrs. John F. Goucher, a valued member of the Club, and of the loss sustained by the Club in Mrs. Goucher' death. Mrs. Wrenshall had appointed a Committee, Miss H. Frances Cooper, Chairman, to draw up suitable resolutions, and to send the same to Mrs. Goucher' family. This had been done, and the resolutions would be accordingly placed upon the Minutes of the Club.

Mrs. Wrenshall then announced the Programmes for the coming month: Jan 6th "old Christmas,"; the Club' usual Christmas Reception would be given, the entertainment to be held in the evening. Jan 13th Committee on "Unfamiliar Records,"; Mrs. Stabler [Ellen Austin Walker Stabler], Chairman. Jan 20th Fiction, Chairman, Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall]. Jan 27th Salon, Committee on Music, Chairman, Miss Zacharias [Jane Zacharias].


The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. It was a miscellaneous programme under the care of the President.

The first article was a Christmas story by Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], and was called "The Spider' Kiss."; The story told of two young girls, friends, one of whom, Cecily [?Manness] a beauty and an heiress, was born on Christmas Day. According to the English law of entail, the property descended in the female, as well as in the male line, and one of the provisions of the law in this case was that the heiress should spend the night preceeding her 21st birthday, in the old Manor House, and in a special room of the house, wherein was the portrait of a famous ancestress, Cecilia de la [?Poer Cecily], accompanied by her friend, who cannot, however, share her room,--spends the night in the stipulated room.

Then the supernatural revelation comes from the portrait of the old ancestress, that sin and suffering lie behind the seeming well-being of the family; that the ancestress has been, and is, punished for the deeds done in the body, and can only be released and pardoned on condition that one of the Manners race will give up her [?affianced] lover, which, the portrait [?entreats] Cecily


to do. There is a struggle; but Cecily consents. And then Elinor, her friend, reveals to Cecily that her lover, himself a de la [?Poer], is utterly unworthy, since he has [?yelled] Elinor, because of her loss of fortune. So the story ends with old wrongs righted, and further wrong forestalled.

The 2nd on the Programme was an unpublished Poem by Miss L. W. Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese]. This Poem, suitable for the season was read by the author, and was greatly appreciated by the Club.

The 3rd article was a Christmas story by Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud], called "The Christmas Girl."; The story told how a lady, a woman of wealth, having still her "child' heart,"; loving Christmas and a "Christmas Tree,"; wanted a child, a little girl, to share her joys with. All in the household from the lady' husband down, seek to gratify her amiable wish. The husband looks up a charitable friend, one interested in an Orphan Asylum; each of the half dozen servants tries in his or her way to find the desired little girl. Accordingly on Christmas morning there are about 20 little girls, scrubbed, brushed, clad in new clothes, awaiting an inspection by Mrs. [?Parks-Dover,]


and a sight of the Christmas tree. It is an embarrassment of riches, but Mrs. Parks-Dover and her kindly household are equal to the emergency. The true Christmas girl is brought, however, in the evening by the family friend and Doctor, Dr. [?Forn]. He has taken the child from its dead mother' arms, and asks Mrs. Parks-Dover to care for the little thing for the night, until he can make suitable provision for it. But the little one in so engaging, its need so evident, that Mrs. Parks-Dover decided to keep her for good and all. And so she has her wish for a little Christmas girl. The reading of this story was much enjoyed. After the programme refreshments were served, and the afternoon was passed in social intercourse.

The meeting adjourned.



Minutes January 6th 1903.

The 438th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday Jan. 6th in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences at 8:30 P.M. This being the Christmas Salon of the Club, the members were privileged to invite Gentlemen, which accordingly had been done. In the absence of the President, the 1st Vice President, Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], presided. There were, of course, no announcements, and the minutes were equally of course omitted. A musical programme had been prepared under the direction of Mrs. J. Elliott Gilpin.

The first number was the fine old song, "The Friar of Orders Grey,"; sung by our former member, Mrs. John T. Pleasants.

The second number was a Harp Solo, a selection of Operatic Arias, played by Miss Selma Cone [Selma B. Cone].

The third was the song, "Drink to me Only with Thine Eyes,"; sung by Mrs. J. T. Pleasants.

The fourth number was a piano and Harp duet, from Rossini's Stabat Mater, played by Mrs. J. Elliott Gilpin and Miss Selma Cone.


The fifth member consisted of the two songs, "A song of Thanksgiving,"; and "Love one if I live,"; song by Mr. T. Boyd Spiller. This concluded the programme.

Mrs. Cautley said a few graceful words of welcome, and the remainder of the evening was passed in social intercourse. During the evening, Mr. Spiller kindly sang again. The song was "The Rosary,"; and Miss Beatrice Jones was the accompanist.

The evening seemed to have been particularly enjoyed by all.


Minutes of January 13th 1903.

The 439th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, Jan. 13th 1903, in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], presided.

The first announcement was that owning to the absence of Miss Whitney [Anne Weston Whitney], the duties of the Corresponding Secretary, would, for the time being, be performed by Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler], 254 West Hoffman St.

Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall] moved that a vote of thanks be given the Housekeeping Committee


to whose work so much of the success of the recent entertainment was due. The motion was immediately seconded. Mrs. Hill propose that the vote of thanks be a rising one, which was accordingly done.

The programme for the afternoon was then taken up. This programme was given by the Committee on Unfamiliar Records, Mrs. Jordan Stabler [Ellen Austin Walker Stabler] being the Chairman.

The first article was by Miss Maria H. Middleton and was called "Kennebunkport, Maine."; Before reading her article, however, Miss Middleton read a short poem called "The White Mountains."; The poem gave a brief, general description of these famous mountains, whose far-off outline may be seen from Kennebunkport. There hundred years ago, Miss Middleton said, some enterprising traders bethought them of the desirability and need of fish for Lenten fare, and to this need, and to the trading privileges granted by James I, we owe the early trading settlements upon the Maine Coast. Then came the "Pilgrim Fathers,"; and soon began the history of the early colonies. That history is a stained page, like history generally, at once glorious and


shameful;-- glorious in what the early colonists dared and suffered,-- shameful in the evidence of their greed, their indifference to ordinary human rights, the ease in which they inflicted wrong. The quarrels too, of Europe were, in a measure, transferred to the Western World and at one time five Nations-- France, England, Spain, Portugal and Italy laid claim to Cape Porpoise. Time passed on, however, differences were adjusted, or fought out, and soon Maine made her debut proper.

Miss Middleton gave an interesting description of the Kennebunkport of today-- the people-- the summer visitors,-- the variety, the types, the flower blooming so exquisitely in the sea-air-- the charm of the climate during the heated summer months.

The 2nd article was by Mrs. Thomas Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill], and was called "Memories of Christmas."; Mrs. Hill began by saying that we are all wont as we go on in life, to think and to say, "Old times are best,"; and in a reminiscential mood we always say so. She was glad then, to recall the "good old days"; in Chestertown, Md., especially the times during the Church Festivals. Christmas, Easter, Whitsuntide and [?Shone] Tuesday-- but especially Christmas, that was the great


Holiday time for all. The servants, salves, of course, all had holiday for at least a week, and great was the fun and jollity. The Market House in the town was given up to them for feasting and dancing and young and old joined in the dances, "Juba,"; and other like it. Mrs. Hill said that her father always provided himself with quantities of new silver dollars and half dollars, and to every slave who greeted him with the eager, "[?Hhismas] gif Massa,"; he would give a coin, or coins. Those skilled in cooking made dainties of all kinds, especially pies and cakes and sold them daily in the street. And in every well to do household, a new wash tub was purchased for the express purpose of mixing in it mincemeat. As this article was very brief, Mrs. Hill said that she had been asked to give another one on Warwickshire-- so often called "The Heart of England."; Warwickshire is full of legends and these legends have a kernel of truth, just as the seemingly valueless [?pettle] hides the brilliant diamond. The remains of a knight were found, for instance, in a mound which was popularly believed to be haunted by such a spectre. A spirit called Castle Hill commemorates no Castile, but a fortified duelling once actually stood there. So under what seems simple and rude folk, love, is found much


interesting truth. Mrs. Hill gave several little talks of the country side, of our "One Handed Brughton,"; whose spirit was finally exorcised [?miso a loute], and the [?loute] flung into a marl pit. Later, when the put had become a pond, the owner would not have it drained or dragged, for fear of disturbing the imprisoned ghost.

Mrs. Hill spoke of Wells, and of the legends connected with them, of the Robin Red beast and the legend concerning him, of plants, and the tales which explain and account for them, and Mrs. Hill read with fine effect a short poem upon the pansy which as Shakespeare says, "And Maidens call it Love in Idleness.";

At the conclusion of Mrs. Hill' paper, Miss Davis said a word about the negroes in her old home. These did not dance, but celebrated the time with fervent prayer meetings and hymns. The chorus of one of these hymns, or songs, Miss Davis remembered.

"Peter, and John, and James, I know-- I, what a beautiful morning. "

Mrs. Wrenshall then said that Mrs. Hill' allusion to the Robin reminded her. Mrs. Wrenshall-- of Randall' fine poem on the same subject, and Mrs. Wrenshall


then repeated this poem. It was greatly appreciated by the Club.

The 3rd article, called "Recollections of a visit to Honolula [Honolulu]"; was by our new member, Mrs. Fayerweather [Margaret Fayerweather]. Mrs. Fayerweather had brought with her specimens of the nature work, a mat, fan, necklaces or hays (?) as the natives call them, and an imitation wreath of flowers such as the natives wear on their heads, or round their necks. Mrs. Fayerweather had made her visit in 1888, during the days of the monarchy. Mrs. Fayerweather spoke of the journey, the approach to the Islands, the appearance of the Eastern side, the volcanic look of the bound seamed earth. She spoke of the trees as one of the most beautiful features of Honolula [Honolulu]-- of the Creva Palms which grow to the water' edge, of the Hibiscus which gave in perfusion round the houses, and of the passion for flowers displayed by the natives. Mrs. Fayerweather spoke of seeing sugar-- making in all its [?procisses], and of the interest it excited. She told of the Queen [?Lilio Kalanito] whose kindness they,-- the Americans-- were indebted for an invitation to the palace. Here they mes-some Hawaiian ladies-- members of a charitable association, whose badge was a kind of [?aigrethe], worn in the hair, and made of the gay-colored


feather of birds of native feast to which the narrator was invited, was deeply interesting, though the greatly feared being asked to partake of Roast dog-- that being the natural dish. The feast was spread on a mat on the floor. Pay is of course, the chief dish. Pay is made of a lilyroot-- pounded and reduced to a paste, and eaten with the fingers.

Mrs. Fayerweather also described a visit to Mama Kia and of the sight of this volcano. Looking into the crater-- 100 feet up-- they say as in a monstrous cauldron, the molten lava. It was a black, seething mass, except at the edge now and then ran across the mass, it would heave and hiss, and then shoot up, great fire balls to the height of 50 or 60 feet. Mrs. Fayerweather touched on the Leper-settlement, but dwelt chiefly on the beauty of the Islands, and their many advantages.

The 4th article called Brielle, was by Mrs. Vanderpoel [Adaline Vanderpoel]. It was as a member of the Holland Society (Society of Holland Dames) that the unite had made her visit to Brille which is not far from Rotterdam and [?Delfhaven] was memorable as the print of departure in 1620 of the Pilgrim Fathers. Brielle is 30 miles below and as it was


Market days on the Island, a goodly company of peasants were gathered together to see the American visitors who the natives supposed would prove to be American Indians in war paint and feathers. And the good Dutch turned in contempt from the plain travelling [?duss] of the ladies, and the usual [?tucds] of the men. A figure in black greeted the travellers and evidently wished something. Men his meaning was made plain, he proved to be the Superintendent of an orphan asylum, and his words and gestures were an invitation. The Americans accepted, and saw an admirably kept large Orphanage,-- and -- what filled them with longing, thinking of experiences at home,-- an ample supply of clothing and household goods for years to come!

Mrs. Vanderpoel then toughed upon the history of Holland, a history made famous for us by an American. She spoke of the long contest between Spain and Holland, of the [?quarterings] of Spanish soldiers in Dutch homes, and of the wrongs and insults home by the people. Again and again was Philip II [?entteated] to [?remore] the soldiers, and, when he found it no longer president to refuse, he angrily promised to [?remore] them. This promise he never intended to fulfil. Then the Dutch, driven to


[?whimety], determined to destroy their [?not sure of word] themselves rather than to fear longer such injury. They deliberately refused to keep in repair thi dykes-- the [?arteris] of Holland. The "hilliant pages"; of [?Puscost] assume that Spain' [?recalth] was [?desived] from the accidental gold of the New World, but in truth Spains health, like that of every country, depended on its steady trade. It was the thrift-- and industry of the Dutch merchants while filled the differs of the King. Not till they were threatened did Philip yield. But when the sea was thundering upon Holland and claiming her [?vassls] again, and the neglected dykes signified what must happen when the King suddenly called off his troopers. Mrs. Vanderpoel gave a very interesting description of the origin of the [?Srbiquet] "The Beggars,"; "Les Grieux,"; and incidentally touched upon the part they played in the history of Dutch freedom. Their badge, the "Beggar' Badge,"; such as William the Silent wore, when assassinated-- had been adopted by the Holland Society in America. On April 1st 1872, 300 years after the event, William III the father of the present Queen, had raised a monument in memory of those men who in striving for their own individual freedom strove for the freedom of all. With the blood of such men in their veins, it


was but fitting that these Americans should have paid these respects to that stone and to its memories.

At the close of the Programme the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of January 25th 1903.

The 440th Meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, Jan. 20th In the Assembly Room of the Club Academy of Sciences; the President, Mrs. Wrenshall presided.

Announcement was made of a coming Song Recital so the given on Monday, Feb 2nd by Miss Lucy Stephenson. Announcement was also made of the election of Miss Lizette Wordsworth Reese to the vacancy on the Board of Management caused by the death of Miss Emma Fenwick Brent. Announcement, too was made of the Free Scholarship for Women under the auspices of the Association for the Advancement of Education of Women, and the circular issued by the association was read.

The Program for the afternoon was then taken up: it was given by the Committee


on Fiction, Miss Duvall, Chairman.

The 1st article was a Short story by Miss Virginia Woodworth Cloud. In proportion, color, finish, miss story was exceptionally fine. The scene was laid in a fishing village, and the story told how the chief personage, a gentle woman--by means of some flowers-- brought peace, joy, relief and strength to all with whom she came in contact.

The 2nd article was a short story by Miss Duvall. The story told of a lover' quarrel, a broken engagement, and of a reconciliation where the two quandam lovers happened, at the same time to go to the same store in order to buy for a friend and Kinsman, a Wedding Present.

The 3rd article was a short story by Miss Louise Malloy. The scene was laid in France at the time of Napoleon' rise. It told of youthful impetuousity, danger, disgrace worse than death, of an unexpected rescue-- a noble friend-ship misunderstood by the brother of one of the friends, and of final self-sacrifice in order to ensure the happiness of others. The story was read with fine effect by Miss Perkins.

The 4th article was a short story in verse


by Miss Cloud. In told of what happens when a subject plays Chess with a King, and the subject wins--wins to lose-- save that in this instance he is saved by a woman' wit.

At the close of the Program, the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of January 27th 1903.

The 441st meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday Jan. 27th in the Assembly Room of the Club. Academy of Sciences. Mrs R. K. Cautley 1st Vice President, Presided.

Announcement was made of the Programme for the coming month. Announcement was also made of an invitation from the Charcoal Club of attend its exhibition on Jan. 30th. Friday evening would be devoted to the private view. A note (Expressive of great regret that illness prevented her attendance) was read from Miss Jane Zacharias.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up; this Programme was given by The Committee on Literature of Music";, Chairman, Miss Jane Zacharias. The opening numbers were for the piano,


and were played by Miss Hermina Luders: the first was a "Prelude"; by Sinding: the 2nd Reverie";, R. Strauss: the 3rd ";Etude en forme d’une Valse--Saint-Saens. Miss Luders playing was most masterly.

Mrs. J. Elliott Gilpin then gave a very interesting rapid resume of recent musical events: the revival of old music: the prospects of Grand Opera in New York and elsewhere, changes in the popular feeling towards certain composers and certain kinds of music. The singing of world-famous singers at private entertainments, the publication of certain books concerning music of musicians, Mrs. Gilpin touched upon much in passing.

Owing to the illness of Miss Mary Pangborn, two songs which she would have sung were omitted.

Miss Edith Stowe then sang two songs[,] ";Tosti' Maltimeta[?],"; and Herbert' "Gypsy Love Song,"; the accompanist being Miss Price. Then followed an address by our non-resident member, Miss Florence Trail, on "The Musical Affinities of Italian Verse."; Miss Trail began by speaking of Italy' precedence in Music, of her long unbroken line of musical inheritance, her descent from the sonorous Latin, the beautiful, melodious quality of the Italian Imagine Nevertheless though Italian speech seems made for


music as the wings of a bird for flight, Spain, with a tongue equally harmonious, has no such musical career to show. Spain not having produced one tenth of the music that Italy has. Miss Trail spoke of the Martins of the 17th Century, and quoted his poetry in illustration of what he himself had said of the musical qualities of the Italian tongue. She alluded to Metaslasio[?] with his 22 Opera' [operas], as the Prince of librettists. The affiliation of music with verse has been noticed by many, and Miss Trail spoke of the Waltz and Gavotte as bearing close affinity to the diareses, and the sonarises as showing its kinship with the scerzo movement. She spoke of

the charm and melancholy of the nocturne as suggesting, if not suggested by those world famous lines of Dante', paraphrased by Tennyson-- "A sorrow' crown of sorrow, is remembering happier things.";

The open vowel sounds do in Italian lead inevitably to music as the mute & does [?] in French lead to the prose effect of that language. Miss Trail quoted continually in Italian to illustrate her theory of the close connection between poetry and music, and gave her own translations from the Italians originals. The Italian lover of musical words, however, does not, Miss


Trail said include Italy' deepest thinkers, except, perhaps, Manzoni, heir of [centuries?] of words. It was difficult to illustrate, for [their?] solely dependent upon words for this beauty demands skillful translation. Miss Trail spoke of Longfellow' interesting work, "Poets and the Poetry of Europe,"; and said he had thrown light upon this subject. The Music of Language, and the Language of Music.

Miss Edith Stowe then sang, "O that we two were Maying";

Mrs. Sidney Turner then said a few words conserving Miss Zacharias paper which, had Miss Zacharias health permitted, would have been duly prepared. Miss. Turner, at Miss Zacharias request, read an extract explanatory of the Tristan and Iseult legend of the hold it had taken upon the imagination and upon the early singers and poets.

Miss Luders then played with admirable expression, Liszt' arrangement of Wagner' "Isolden' [Isolde'] Love' Death.";

At the close of the Programme, the meeting adjourned.



Minutes of February 3rd 1903.

The 442nd meeting of The Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, held on Feb. 3rd 1903, listened to a very attractive programme under the Committee on Modern Poetry, of which Miss Reese is Chairman.

The program opened with a paper by Miss Ellen Duvall, in which she gave a short but masterly summing up of the influence which, through the ages have contributed to produce the character of Modern Poetry, English Prose and Verse. She reminded us how in the beginning verse preceded prose; and that its oldest productions were rude war songs. Poetry not only preceded written prose, but long continued the vehicle for recording events, while prose had for its subject the unimportant matters of the moment. Four great books of ancient song, The Siege of Troy, The History of Alexander the Great Charlemagne and the Morte D’Arthur (?) have all affected modern English verse and through it modern English prose. Miss Duvall spoke of a manuscript of the Trojan war written in Latin, that had been discovered and also a document on the same subject, brought to light by the Roman historian Cornelius Nepos; and the Histoire


de Troie, published by Caxton. Very plain still, she thought were also the Traces of the medieval poetry and of Chivalry in modern English verse. Feudalism that is most picturesque of all systems of government, with honor for its watch word fund in Froissart its best experiment. With Froissart himself the essence of chivalry, the words "Noblesse oblige,"; was carried to its logical conclusion to be nobly born was to be noble.

Then came the Renaissance, showing where the true idea of authority originated and Dante showing himself no respecter of persons in the justice sternly meted out to all great offenders. But Chaucer, coming so much earlier, is more democratic than Shakespeare, though neither the one or the other has many of the thoroughly modern idea of human equality.

Coming to modern English prose, Miss Duvall reminded us that only of late years has history become scientific in the English novel, personal worth is the key-note and in English prose genes ally three ideas predominate: the Gentleman paid excellence. Individual worth and love. The feeling of individual responsibility is Jewish in its origin. Love in its modern sense was unknown


amongst the ancients, and the idea of marriage in Greece and Rome was very different from our own. Reverence for women and Christian marriage are both modern, as prevailing to any extent. In morals, as in Literature, effort is the secret face of progress.

The next article which was by Miss Cullington had for its subject,

"Poetry for Children.";

Miss Cullington dwelt on the natural love of poetry that children evince from their birth almost long before they can understand words the tones and rhythm of lullabys give them exquisite content. Their memory for words comes long before their memory for the meaning of words. Miss Cullington read a pretty German Cradle song beginning "Sleep, baby sleep"; and Stevenson' lovely lines in "The Wind."; She told us that these lines always haunted her and as a child "I am dying Egypt, dying,"; brought to her thoughts an endless and comfortless cold and darkness and the other was "Wine is a [?mocker] strong drink is raging.["] A minor tone, she said, always appeals to children they delight in Wordsworth' "Lucy Gray,["] and his other


"Lucy."; Stevenson is a first-rate poetic writer for children, they need our special anthology mistaken anthology will sometimes go far to spike their love for fairy stories. Can children properly handled grow up without a love for poetry? Miss Cullington confessed that what saved her love and appreciation of Milton' Paradise Lost when she was parsing it in school, was the habitual by skipping over privately during the lesson the pages further on, and reading them. Scotts poetry she considered a feast for boys. Coventry Patmore said children like the same poetry as mature minds. The time way is to lead them up and not descend to their level. They should read as Fitzgerald says people in general used to read, "for sheer delight.";

Mrs. Cautley in her paper on "Verse, versus Poetry,"; said in part: Few critics make a difference between verse and poetry. There is much criticism of poetry in which though ably done, confuses the mind. For most of the verse making of the day, a quick ear of facile pen, a clever choice of words even a clever choice of feelings, are all that needed. Twenty words, carefully used, give you the fashion of the day. Which is for verse, not poetry. Fashionable


verse succeeds and sells. True poetry succeeds after we area dead like a great painting. The real poet has to write and the real poet always used perfect form. Rough-hewn poetry has a soul, but true poetry will for this day. What he writes is a part of his life; his heart' beloved. Like being asked the secret of his wonderful coloring, answered that his colors were mixed with brain.

Miss Reese read three poems, "The Violin,"; ‘Tomorrow,"; and "Lilacs";--all of them very highly appreciated; the exquisite tenderness of the last making it the favorite.

The days’ programme being ended, Miss Wrenshall told the Club that it was a fit tribute to the memory of Sidney Lanier, whose birthday is the 3rd of February. She referred to their close acquaintance with him and spoke of the affection she had for his desk which had long been in her possession. She said that his marvelous courage always struck her as a most salient characteristic of the poet. She said she had, herself grown up amongst the Marshes


of Glyn, and then read the poem aloud with infinite feeling. Following it with "Gold Jim"; one of his dialect poems, by way she said of letting us down gentle from the great strain of the first highly wrought piece.

The meeting then adjourned.


Minutes of February 10th 1903

The 443rd meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, Feb 10th, in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, presided. In opening the meeting the President apologized for being late but said that her attendance would be punctual on the coming Tuesday, Feb. 17th and she asked the ladies present to be also punctual. The Spring lectures at the Johns Hopkins will begin next Tuesday, and many of the members of the club will doubtless like to attend.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. This program was given by the Committee on Colonial and Revolutionary History, Mrs. Thomas Hill, Chairman.

The 1st article was by Mrs. Francis P. Stevens


and was called "A Colonial Prophecy and its Fulfillment."; Mrs. Stevens spoke of the former paper on Independence Hall in earlier times called the State House, and said that in perusing her researches she had found in the Pennsylvania records much of interest to the historical student. The achievements of science in our day often blind us to the work of the past. She would like to call our attention to the beginnings of electricity as it were in the early days when Benjamin Franklin was its great exponent. At the time that Franklin was corresponding with Peter Collinson of the Royal Society with regards to the Electrical Fluid, as it was called, Dr. Ebenezer Kinnesley, a friend of Franklin' was delivering a course of most interesting lectures upon the new and great discovery. In these lectures and in certain experiments above all by his divination of what the future must hold for inventive genius in the domain of electricity, Kinnesley may be said to have first called something of the future. He perceived that the "subtle fluid [--?] electrical fire,"; would live in water, and he prophesied its use as a transmitter of intelligence. By means of an electric wire he discharged a battery of 11 guns after it had been submerged in 10 feet


of water. His lecture attracted wide attention, and were advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette. Kinnesley calls all nature "Human Nature";, and speaks of the uplifting, ennobling effect which a study of this manifold nature must exert in pursuance of the subject. Mrs. Stevens touched upon the recent wonders of electrical science, and spoke of [Samuel] Morse, Rowland, Marconi, and asked what might not the future have to show.

The 2nd article in the Programme was by Miss Mary Forman Day, and was called "Historical Records."; Miss Day began by speaking of the early Colonists as bringing with them all the habits, customs, and prejudices of their native land. It was natural that the English colonists should wish to perpetuate families and to preserve estates. Hence came the establishment of Manors. The Manorial grant carried within large privileges. Miss Day then spoke of "Bohemia Manor"; in what is now Cecil County. It was a grant to Augustine Ephraim Herman-- a Bohemian who was born in about 1605 in Prague in Bohemia. As a young man, Herman, with his widowed mother, found refuge, as did many religious exiles in Holland. In


Amsterdam he took service with the Dutch East India trading company Interested in the tobacco trade, he came to Virginia. Sagacious, masterly and far seeing Herman cast his lot with the Colonists. He was interested in privateering, that polite form of piracy; was a land speculator, and a most capable man of affairs generally. For some reason or other there was ill feeling between Herman and Stuyvesant, Governor of New Netherlands, and although Herman married Yanicke [Varlist?], a Dutch gentlewoman, and, having had Sunday translations with the second Lord Baltimore, Herman settled in Maryland in 1673 and called his fine grand of territory "Bohemia Manor";. Here the Bohemia River, he built what was for those days a handsome house adorned by beautiful grounds. Herman died in 1686 and directed in his will that he should be buried between his Yanicke and his horse Gustavus. Many stories were told of this wonderful horse. When imprisoned by Stuyvesant, and lying under sentence of death, Herman feigned insanity, yet was allowed by the guards to hide daily within the prison enclosure. One day, when so[?] riding, Herman suddenly heard his superb hourse which immediately


leaped a palisade 20 feet high, and ultimately bore his master to safety, yet fell dead after swimming the Delaware River just at New Castle. Herman was a remarkable man, mathematician and map maker, and a statesman as well. He has many descendants, but all in the female line.

The 3rd article on the Program was by Mrs. John M. Carter and was called "some Maryland archive."; Mrs. Carter said that she had divided her papers into their heads which she would call

"A Chronicle of Climate";

"A Chronicle of Compassion, and

"A Chronicle of Costume";

The Chronicle of Climate concerned itself chiefly with the impressions of the first colonists concerning the climate of their new home. They formed that this climate suits well the English constitution. The summers are as hot as those of Spain. The winters are as cold as in England and France. Captain John Smith in his discovery and exploration of the Chesapeake, speaks of the kindness and hospitality of the Indians and of the abundance and excellence of the fare, they, the savages so- called provided for the early voyagers. The winter of 1617 was bitterly cold and Smith


and his companions spent it among the Indians who furnished the explorers with deer, turkeys, fish and good head[?]. "Pone"; and "Ominy"; were among the dishes.

"A Chronicle of Compassion"; dealt with the treatment of the Indians by William Penn and their treatment by Leonard Calvert. Both purchased (?) land from the Indians, Penn paying for his in heads and ornaments, Calvert paying for his in hoes and axes. The point was made that Calvert' treatment was the fairer in that he gave something of value in exchange for the land, and that after all Penn' dealings with the Indians was no justice, if as just as Calvert' "A Chronicle of Costume"; dealt with the mooted question as to whether Mr. Turner' pictures in the City-Hall are historically correct. Mr. Turner replaying to his critics says that the wives ruled over by Powhattan [Powhatan] were Algonquin, and that the customs, habits, and costumes of the Algonquin' must have been adhered to by the Maryland and Virginia Indians.

The 4th article on the Programme was by Mrs. Thomas Hill, and was called "Domestic Life Among our Ancestors."; Mrs. Hill said that we so often listen to


erudite papers that perhaps as a change we might enjoy a running commentary on the habits and customs of our early colonist' ancestors. She speaks more particularly of the New England Settlers. They were summoned to Church by beat of drum. The steeple served as a watch timer for the watchman. Churches were not heated, and the cold was intense, but all went, some using foot muffs as means of warmth. Mrs. Hill touched upon the old time "Dames’ School'"; the deportment that was taught in them, so that a child might learn to "make his manners."; Clocks and watches were few, and sun dials, or lines drawn upon the window sill served to mark the time. Wood was the sole fuel and the chief ornament on the fire place was the huge wooden settee or high backed bench. Candles were homemade, or else pine knots dipped in pitch were used. Oiled paper was used for window panes, and when glass was introduced the panes were small and leaded. Glass distinctions were marked, and strong. Gentleman, and Esquire being restricted of official personages, and all lesser folk being known as "Goodman.";

Coming nearer to our own day, Mrs. Hill touched upon the fashion in hair arranging, and spoke of the old-time Calashes[?], patters[?],


and hoops; of the curious Baptism Bags for carrying a child to its christening; of the origin of bonfires. She gave too the origin of the sobriquet "Brother Jonathan"; in the name of Governor Jonathan Turnbull of Connecticut. Mrs. Hill had with her various articles of interest illustrative of her paper. These were seen by the ladies and were discussed with interest.

At the close of the programme, the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of February 17th 1903.

The 444th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held Tuesday, Feb 17th in the Assembly Room of the Club; the President Mrs. J. C. Wrenshall, presided. Announcement was made of a course of Lectures to be given by Dr. Lynn Gardner at the Johns Hopkins University under the auspice of the Colonial Dames. These Lectures will be upon Colonial subjects. Announcement was also made of the course of lectures to the given by our honored member, Mrs. Latimer, on certain English writers, both poets and prose writers. These Lectures will be given at Mrs. J. D. Early', 711 Park Avenue.

The Programme for the afternoon


was then taken up; it was given by the Committee on Art of which committee Mrs. R. M. Wylie is Chairman.

The 1st article on the Programme was by Miss Henderson and was called "Franz Hals";. Miss Henderson gave an excellent biographical sketch of the famous Dutch painter who was born at Antwerp in 1584, and died at [?Haarlam] in 1666. She spoke of his talent which is great, he living second only to Rembrandt, and of his life which, while characterized by hard and brilliant work, was by no means free from the tarnish which adhered to the irresponsible Bohemian of Hals[‘] day. Nevertheless, all life seems to have interested him, and his portraits cover every grade of society. The ultimate excellence of his style is roughly surpassed of the complete masterly of the painter Rembrandt and in curtain particular even, he does not transcend Hals. There is little or no poesy, little imagination, in his work, little or no spirituality. He was a realist and hence his work is valuable not only from an artistic standpoint, but also as a record of the life and spirit of his times.

The 2nd article on the programme was


by Mrs. G. M. McGaw, and was called ";Scottish Art."; Mrs. McGaw began by saying that we do not often think of Scotland in connection with art, her history being allied to [stenres?], graves, things. Nevertheless, if we look into the matter, we shall find many Scottish names inscribed high upon Fame' roll. These Scotch families are generally classed with the English painters; but the land which gave them birth deserves the glory of their achievements. For just as some of England' greatest soldiers have been Irish men, so some of her great painters have been Scotchmen. Mrs. McGaw said that she would speak, however, particularly of but two--Sir David Wilkie{?}, and Sir Henry Raeburn. Sir David Wilkie[?], one of the great "Subject Painters of the world";, was born in 1785, in Fifeshire and died at sea of Gibraltar on the 1st of June, 1841. Mrs. McGaw gave an interesting outline sketch of the painter and of his career, she spoke of his excellence as a portrait painter of his greater fame as a painter of those well-known pictures "Rent Day";, "Sir Walter Scott and his family";, and [theirs.]? His style is distinguished, Mrs. McGaw said by breadth, boldness, certainty and ease.

Sir Henry Raeburn, born in 1756, died in 1823-- was born, lived and died in Edinburgh: he was a portrait painter


par excellence, and is one of the great modern painters. Mrs. McGaw gave an interesting sketch of Raeburn spoke of his gradual emergence from obscurity and as his art grew surer and finer, of his ultimate astonishment of success. His portraits were many and his style is distinguished by force, breadth of execution, and sureness of touch. "A Square Touch";, as Wilkie called it. His portraits of men were, as a rule, more satisfactory than those of women; but he has left certain female portraits which can hardly be surpassed.

The 3rd article on the programme was by Mrs. J. C. Wrenshall, and was called "Gothic Architecture exemplified by the Ancient Churches of Paris"; and the Churches spoken of were

St. Germain des Pres

La Sainte Chapelle

Notre Dame de Paris

St. Etiennne du Mont.

Mrs. Wrenshall began by saying a brief sketch of the influence, religious, political and social, which led to the development of its greatest activity from the beginning to the 12th to the close of the 15th century. In so doing, Mrs. Wrenshall touched upon


the religion and political aspect of the times when Gothic Art was greatest and spoke of the collapse of Feudalism, the growth of monarchy, the decay in monasticism the increase in the power of the Papacy. Mrs. Wrenshall then described the mode of erection and spoke of the cardinal points of Gothic Cathedral architecture. The concentration of [straimc?], or proper distribution of uprights, the buttress and flying buttress the balancing of thrusts; the ribbed vaulting and the pointed arch, all this wonderfully beautiful work was done by the Guilds. Mrs. Wrenshall then described St. Germain des Pres, and touched upon some of the historic associations which bring to it The Choir of St. Germain des Pres was built in 1163, but the more was built much earlier.

Mrs. Wrenshall then passed to La Sainte Chapelle, built in 1235 as a shrine. Louis IX, St. Louis, having brought to it the original crown of thorns. Mrs. Wrenshall spoke particularly of the beauty of the stained glass in La Sainte Chapelle, and also of its wonderful echo (a fact little known) which she had the rare good fortune to hear. She then spoke of Notre Dame de Paris, of its beauty and richness of ornamentation


and of the many histories with which it is linked, for these Cathedrals are the store houses of history as well as monuments of beauty.

She then passed on to St. Etienne de Mon-- a fine example of the earliest Gothic, when Gothic Art was being affected by the budding Renaissance. She spoke of St. Etienne as being heterogeneous, rich, complex, overloaded, as it were, deeply interesting, but less impressive and satisfying than the earlier purer works.

At the close of Mrs. Wrenshall' paper which was illustrated the club had the pleasure of listening to Miss [blank space left for name] who gave a brief, admirable address on the subject of Birthplaces.

At the close of the program the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of February 24th, 1903

The 445th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday Feb.24th in the Assembly Room of the Club Academy of Sciences; the President Mrs. Wrenshall presided.

Announcement was made of a Lecture to be given by Professor Frothingham on Roman Archeology and also of a Lecture by


Professor Shores[?] on Realism and Idealism, on Wednesday, March 18thh. Announcement was also made of a musical recital by Miss Clara Ascherfeldt, pianist to be given at Lehman' [Lehmann'] Hall on Tuesday March 3rd at 8 P.M. also of a "Browning Interpretation"; by Miss F. A. Cox to be given at Hazazer' Hall, on Friday, February 27th at 3:30 P.M.

The Programme for the coming month was then read. March 3rd committee on translation, Mrs. Frederick Tyson, Chairman. March 10th Letters and Autographs, Chairman. Mrs. J. D. Early, for the present under the direction of Miss Mary Davis March 17th Ethnology, Chairman, Miss Whitney. March 24th Current Criticism, Chairman Mrs. Cantley. Mrs. Turner

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. The 1st number was an address by Miss Duvall on the subject of Christopher Marlowe. Miss Duvall spoke of his place among the Elizabethans of his work, of his style its purity and lyrical quality even though he wrote no lyrics proper; of his probable influence upon Shakespeare and possible influence upon Milton. Miss Duvall touched upon the vision-


like quality of Malone' imagination, upon his dream of power, beauty and love. She spoke of a possible early acquaintance if not friendship between Shakespeare and Malone, and lastly dwelt upon Malone' distinct influence upon Gothic.???

The 2nd article upon the Programme was a one-act play or Curtain Raiser, by Miss Cloud. This play is an amplification of her spirited balled of "Sweet P"; and Miss Cloud read its very spiritedly. It is a little drama of the American Revolution, and the scene taken place in a gentleman' home just outside of Trenton. Time, the Christmas eve when Washington crossed the Delaware. The British officers and soldiers, The American Penwick and his daughter, the heroine of the piece, the intensity of the interest, and the rapidity of the dramatic action-- all was greatly enjoyed by the audience.

At the close of the reading the meeting adjourned, and the rest of the afternoon was devoted to the pleasures of the Salon.



Minutes of March 3rd 1903

The 446th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was on Tuesday March 3rd, 1903, in the Assembly Room of the Club, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided. There were no announcements. The Programme was given by the Committee on Translation-- Chairman-- Mrs. Frederic Tyson.

The 1st number, however was not on the Programme, but was given specifically by our honored member, Mrs. Latimer. It was one of her ballads on the Seven Heroes of Christendom, the ballad of St. David of Wales, in which Mrs. Latimer gave the origin of the Leek as Wales’ emblem. The ballad was finely descriptive of St. Davis and his times, and how, by using the Leek as a distinguishing mark he and his Knights in their great battle against the Danes, were enabled to tell one another, and to drive the terrible foes from the land.

The 1st article on the Programme was called "Opportunity";, and was from the French of [Tjinsew?], translated by Miss Nicholas. It was full of the Gallic spirit of quiet irony, cynicism, and satire. The story


turns on the machinations of a French mother to secure for the handsome son an American heiress-- a Philadelphian. Every opportunity is given to the love-lorn Frenchman to press his suit but he is defeated by a designing man, the friend of the family, who steps in and wins the coveted prize.

The 2nd article on the Programme was by Mrs. Cautley and was upon Ada Negri the Italian poetess. Mrs. Cautley gave a brief biographical sketch of the poetess, spoke of her birth, her mother' struggles to provide for the child and to educate her, the development of her mind and genius, and her ultimate achievement of success. She is, Mrs. Cautley said, an idol with the Italian people, to whose sympathies the pathetic story of her birth and early hardships must appeal. Mrs. Cautley also read, preserving the peculiarities of rhythm, two poems of Ada Negri', one called "Fatality"; and the other "Light";. The poems were finely translated and gave an admirable idea of the spirit and feeling of the poetess.

The 3rd article on the program was from Spanish of Armada Palacio Valedes, called "The Love Affair of Clothilde";, and was translated by Mrs. W.L.A. Hamel. The story was a fine specimen of Valdes, art and other power to blend exquisitely the realistic and romantic. The story told of the misplaced affect playwright and poet who simply used her ingenious love to further his own purpose of literacy and dramatic advancement. The story is told by an elderly man, and admirer of Clotilde'.

The 3rd article on the program was from the Spanish of Armando Palacio Valdes, called "The Love Affair of Clothilde,"; and was translated by Mrs. W. C. A. Hamel. The story


was a fine specimen of Waldes [Valdes’] art, and of his power to blend exquisitely the realistic and romantic. The story told of the misplaced affection of a young actress, Clothilde, for a would-be-playwright and poet, who simply used her ingenuous love to further his own purpose of literary and dramatic advancement. The story is told by an elderly man, an admirer of Clothilde'.

The 4th article on the Programme was from the French of Jean Madeline, was called "The Minuet";, and was translated by Mrs. Tyson. The story told of two little old ladies living in one of the Provinces who determine to celebrate in their own, old fashioned way the marriage of their respective grandchildren. Each recalls the past, its ceremony, its grace and merriment and when they come together it is to have a little quiet feast. They recount old interests, old triumphs and one describes her dress at a Court Ball in the thirties. The Champagne is opened and memory is quickened still further. Then from recollection they pass naturally to a desire to enjoy the more the delights they so fondly remember, and accordingly when their friend and advisor the Abbé [Jouvais?] opens the door, the little old ladies are


dancing the "Minuet"; to the horror of the Abbe, and a faithful old servant. The story preserved in a rare degree the grace and finesse of the original.

At the close of the Programe the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of March 10th 1903.

The 447th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday March 10th 1903 in the Assembly Room, Academy of the Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President presided.

Announcement was made of a course of lectures (four,) to be given at the Johns Hopkin' University, on March 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th by the well known scholar Mr. Sidney Lee, also of a Course of Lectures (in French) to be given by Professor [Malillean?] at the Johns Hopkins University, and of two lectures to be given by the same gentleman before L’Alliance Francaise. Announcement was also made of an "Author' Recital"; by Miss Cox, to be given at Hazazar' Hall on Tuesday evening, March 17th at 8 P.M. Programmes of this recital were distributed.

The programme for the afternoon was then taken up. This Programme was given by


the Committee on Letters and Autographs of which Mrs. J. D. Early is chairman. Owing to Mrs. Early' prolonged absence this program was arranged by Miss Mary Dorsey Davis.

The 1st article was on "Ian Maclaren"; otherwise Dr. John Watson, Minister of the Free Church of Scotland, by Miss Louise Stahn. Miss Stahn gave a lively sketch of the personality, life, and work of this present-day writer made famous by his "Bowery Brier Bush";. Miss Stahn Amehled pleasantly upon various phases of his work literacy career and life and spoke too of Dr. Watson' religious work, less well known, of course, than his fiction, but even more deeply valued by those who know it.

The 2nd article was on Pope Leo XIII, and was by Miss Marie Perkins. Miss Perkins sketched briefly and clearly the Holy Pontiff' career. His birth in 1810, his early training; his indebtedness to the piety of his mother who was called because of her alms giving "The Feeder of the Needy";, and who is buried in the Church of the "Fourteen Holy Martyrs"; at Rome, of his college career where he distinguished himself for his love of learning and for high


scholarship, of his first ordination, of his embassy of Belgium where he was, for some years, the Papal Representative and where he took golden promises from all sorts by his taste, grace, and worldly accomplishments and acumen, of his elevation to this Cardinalate, of his being for 33 years spiritual governor of all Umbria. Then finally, Miss Perkins gave a fine description of an election to the Pontificate. Pope Leo XIII is particularly noted for his interest in matters educational and in his devotion to Arts and Letters. Miss Perkins also described a reception at the Vatican, or private audience of the Papal celebration of Mass, of the Pope' personal appearance, and of the contrast made in his ivory face, by his vivid Italian eyes. When she had seen him he would not say adieu, but au revoir.

The 3rd article in the programme was on John B. Tabb, Father Tabb, and was written by Miss Malloy and was read by Miss Maria H. Middleton,[.] A Virginian by birth Father Tabb was bred an Episcopalian, but later in life, became a Catholic. His ability was recognized in the church of his adoption and the spent what may be called his sacerdotal life, at St. Charles Borrome-- The College for theological students near


Ellicott City. To the American literary world Father Tabb is known by his exquisite gem-like verse which or some years he has contributed to the leading magazines[.] A volume of this verse appeared a few years ago and added still more to his fame. Miss Middleton read several of these rare short poems.

The 4th article on the Program was called "The O’Driscolls,["] and was by Mrs. F. P. Stevens. On the New Jersey coast, a few years ago, Mr. and Mrs. Graham had met a young man whose name was Henry Alexander Yelverton[?] Graham O’Driscoll,-- a descendant of the celebrated Irish family of that name. It appears that in 1616 Mr. George Calvert received a grant of land from James I. This land was part of the escheated[?] land of the O’Driscolls, it lay in Munster [Muenster], and Calvert took his title of Baron Baltimore from the then thriving town of that name. In 1618 Algerine pirates raided the country there a bouts [thereabouts], practically ruined Baltimore, and carried off 200 of its inhabitants. In Baltimore' Sesqui-Centennial of 1880, Mr. F. B. Mayer inscribed upon the float representing "Baltimore"; [Baal-tig-more?], the name of a Phoenician town and


Temple, 1555 years B.C.

The 5th article on the Programme was a sketch of Moses Shepherd, Founder of the "Shepherd Hospital for the Insane."; This was given by Mrs. Edward Stabler, who gave a most interesting account of this self-made man. By virtue, industry and perseverance, he amassed the fortune which he bequeathed for the alleviation of a misery second to moral evil only. Mrs. Stabler told of his early years, his struggles, his eventual success. She showed a letter of his-- the hand writing of which was remarkable. At one time Mr. Shepherd kept in operation-- at a loss-- a small mill in which was manufactured cotton seine[?] twine. Asked why he pursued a losing occupation, he said that he did it to give employment to certain old women, who, if he closed his mill, would be thrown upon charity. Moses Shepherd was born in, or about 1773, and died in 1851. His hospital for the amelioration and cure of the insane was the first of its kind.

The 6th article was by Mrs. P. M. Reese, and was on Mrs. A. D. [?] Whitney, the well-known writer of "stories for girls."; Mrs. Reese dwelt upon the pleasant memories we must all


have of Mrs. Whitney' stories and read a short selection from "Hitherto,"; a piece of description which Mrs. Reese said, had always strongly appealed to her.

The 7th article was by Miss Crane, and was a delightful running commentary upon various well known people. Miss Crane spoke first of her sister, Anne Moncure Crane, afterwards Mrs. Seemuller, author of "Emily Chester";, "Opportunity"; and other works. Miss Crane read a poem of her sister' called "December Winds";. The poem was descriptive of a word not at all common, Miss Crane said, to the writer.

Miss Crane then spoke of her connection with the Eight O’Clock Club as Recording Secretary, and said that as Secretary she had recorded many notes from prominent people. She spoke of the late Dr. Herbert B. Adams, of Professor Woodrow Wilson, now President of Princeton, of Professor Sylvester; and gave a little sketch of each. With every article the autograph of the person spoken of was shown to the club. At the close of the program, announcement was made of a Lecture on "Parsifal"; to be given by Rev. [O.?] Huckle on Monday, March 16th AT 3 P.M. at Neptas[?] Hall. The meeting then adjourned.



Minutes of March 17th 1903

The 448th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 17thh in the Maryland Academy of Sciences. The President Mrs. Wrenshall presided. After the preliminary exercise, our President gave the first paper on the Programme, on the "Early Ethnological Conditions in Ireland. Religion, Laws & Literature, Mrs. Wrenshall said in part.

The first accounts of the Settlement of Ireland are based in traditions of a remote antiquity, that its original inhabitants were descendants of Gomer[?], the eldest son of Japhet. It is said that Celts came first from Scythia under a leader named Parthelon about 1500 years before the Christian Era, and settled at Kimmare[?]. The religion of the natives was Druidism. The oak and mistletoe were held sacred. Their priests garbed in bright colors with white scarfs cut the sacred mistletoe at the time of their great feasts, knelt and adored. Bullocks were sacrificed, and human victims. At the time of the Christian Era, the government of Scotias[?] was a species of Feudal system. Each Clan and Tribe chose their chief by election. Several of these tribes joined a province united under the King Eledied[?] in the same manner as in their tribal election. There were forms of these provinces until


the latter part of the first Century. A.D., when a mighty leader arose Imathad[?] by name, who founded a fifth province with Tara for its capital, making himself chief King and exalting tribute from the others. The feudal condition of the government lasted for 450 years. Of the glories of Tara with its enormous banqueting hall 759 ft. long (the length of two city squares-- having 14 entrances built of wood brightly colored with earths, painted) Thomas Moore has sung. Golden chairs—exhumed from Tara' Hill, are shown at Dublin, one seven feet long.

Of early laws some are still extant, a code formulated by Cormac 227-266 A.D. having been in use 1200 years. They resemble Jewish laws regarding possession (in regards to trespassing of animals and some modern Hindu laws as to debts.

In those days, these were some stone forts, the homes of the commander purple were of wood or wanted plaster with clay. There was our conceived memory. The wealth was in herds. There were officials known as Entertainers in those days. Each must have 7 heads of 150 cattle, and 4 avenues leading to his house, for the way faring man to enter.

There were schools both lowest and upper. Many industrial arts were taught. The bounds of property were marked by ashes and


stones and children were taken to them and beaten that they should remember[.] "Beating the bounds";, this custom was called and Mrs. Latimer remarked that she had seen this done at the fundraiser of St. Giles Parish in London--  only that there they beat the walls and fences instead of the boys. In those days, servants could wear no color. Royalty seen the origin of the Scotch plaid.

Mrs. Beebe then gave a sketch entitled "The Wearing of the Green"; She remarked that regarding the coming of St. Patrick to the Island, there was much confusion as there were several Patricks famous in Irish history-- the name Patricius-- indicating noble birth. The year 396 is generally accredited to be that of his birth as the day it is a superstition only that it is the 17th Samuel Lover gave a humorous account of its selection which Mrs. Beebe quoted in full, the idea being that there was this faction in Ireland, one declaring that the 8th and one that the 9th was his birth-day, until a priest of fertile mind reconciled the two parties by saying that they could both have their way by adding the two members which made seventeen. As to his birth place some claim it to be in Scotland between Dumbarton and Glasgow and some in Boulogne, France. His mother


was a sister of an arch bishop of Tours. In early life, he did not know God and loved pleasure. He was captured by pirates and taken as a slave to Ireland, where he labored for six years, tending cattle in County Antrim. He dreamed he returned to his country and heard a voice "Thou shalt surely return to thy country-- Be ready to sail.[";] This came about, and at his old home there was much rejoicing. But he again heard voices call that he must return to Ireland as a missionary. He landed in the south eastern part of Ireland, labored zealously had no commission from the pope. He visited Tara, approached Kings and chiefs, connected them had great success among the common people, the poor and degraded, and died fifty years after his 2nd arrival in the country he so much to enlighten.

Mrs. Bullick introduced a sketch of St. Patrick by speaking of the inherent energy of the spiritual over the natural life, saying that the still small voice of truth in his head above the din and clatter. Luther shook the world. St. Patrick with artistic imagination, oblivious of time and sense, in his great work, made of his life a brilliant success. He stands among the nearly 200 Saints, including Columba that missionary from Ireland, who built the Monastery


of Iona in Scotland. Most of the facts of this life are gained from his "Confessions,"; letters written by him.

Mrs. Bullock rather leaned to the idea that he was of the Latin race. He belonged to the old British Church, of which there were some remains of Scotland as referred to by the Pope' Commissioner to Paladins. "Go to the Scots, who believe in Christ";.

St. Patrick landed first in south western Ireland, met unfree Chinese, then went to Dublin. Druidism was everywhere prevalent. Jocelyn gives an accent of the "Valley of Slaughter[,]"; the Moloch of the West."; St. Patrick spoke of a merciful God who delighted not in suffering. The masses were glad to hear him. He founded the See of Armagh. He died in 465 A.D. in the 70th year of his life. A picture of his grave at Taul[?] has been published recently in a Baltimore newspaper.

Our honored member, Mrs. Elizabeth Latimer, gave then her poem on Sir Patrick one of the "Seven Champions of Christendom."; She prefaced her reading by saying that the poem was simply one of her own imagination not founded on fact. She represented Sir Patrick as having met the other six Champions before the Archbishop of Tours ready to take commands as to that portion of Christendom, to which they should make their way for the


good of the Church. St. George was there with his [illegible] blue, St. Adrew with gleaming [illegible] St. Anthony with his steel-clad hands, and all the rest. Sir Patrick claims to be of the noblest block. A ragged specimen of an Irishman cries out to the Archibishops begging him to send Sir Patrick to Ireland to bid him "Come and look after the heathen living at home."; Sir Patrick begs his Superior not to send him back to "my life given work in my native land where a loathsome serpent lies before the door of my castle."; But the archbishop tells him "Go back Sir Patrick, and subdue your pride! Lay your sword upon the altar until the Lord restore it. Pray.";

He obeyed, and hung his sword above the altar of his hermit-retreat, where as an anchorite he lives on the crest of Ireland mean which stood his castle guarded by the loathsome serpent. No one knew the secret of his life save the faithful henchman at whose request he was ordered to this isle.

One day, some Viking ships were discerned making for the harbor. They had captured three holy nuns. St. Bridget among them. They made for the Castle to kill the serpent but no sword could touch it. Then the legend was told of the enchanted sword hung near the altar of the little church on the cove.

Straightway the Norse King strode to the church

and up the aisle to seize the sacred sword. His knees trembled. His courage failed. The Priest (Sir Patrick[)] reached forth to prevent the sacrilege. The Danes awestruck, submitted, and followed Sir Patric to the Castle, where the loathsome serpent grew livid with fear. Swiftly descended Sir Patrick' [illegible] Dead, this beast revealed beneath him thousands and thousands of snakes, yellow, specked and red. Sir Patrick led the way, and they followed wiggling and writhing to a little lake. Sir Patrick threw in his Hade[?]! The snakes followed. Not one of them remained! The Danes, astounded at this miracle, begged for baptism, and Sir Patrick became St. Patrick! Mrs. Latimer concluded by saying that she wished some modern St. Patrick might relive the sad country beset now by other and as powerful enemies.

The meeting then adjourned.



Minutes of March 24th 1903.

The 449th Meeting of of [repeated] the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 24th in the Club' Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall presided. Announcement was made of the exhibition of the Charcoal Club to be held at(Nazazar' Hall?)from March 21st to 28th inclusive. [?] this exhibition


as also to the private view on March 20th. The members of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore were invited. Announcement was also made of a Lecture to be given at the Johns Hopkins by [G. B. C./ Steicher?], subject. Early Maryland History –- date March 28th.

The President then read a brief address commemorative of the close of the Club' 13th year of active progressive life. She congratulated the Club on its steadfastness of aim, on its concentration of effort, on the excellence of its collective talks, its high aims, its progress, its achievements, here sufficient warrant for the future, and she could but wish it, the President said, all fruition of its own best wishes and best hopes.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. This was given by the Committee on Current Criticism, Mrs. R.K. Cautley being Chairman.

The 1st article of the Programme was by Mrs. Fredrick Tyson, and was a notice of the book called "The Soul of the People";, a book upon Burmah and the Burmese. Mrs. Tyson asked her audience to try to leave off realism and to go in imagination, to see, for the moment, with unfamiliar eyes and ears. Mrs. Tyson then spoke of the people & their manner of life. She dwelt particularly


upon their form of Buddhism, of which she gave a synopsis. To the Burmese the doctrine of Metempsychosis is a cardinal one, and is much dwelt upon. A little boy, girl for instance, remembered his former existence, and a little girl quite clearly recalled her previous life, declaring that she had been a man, had kept a puppet-show, and had been possessed of four wives, and pointed out the corner in the Bazaar where the puppet showman had plied his calling. Mrs. Tyson also told the story of a woman, whose son, in the form of a hunted deer, had leaped into a boat and so escaped death. The people are tender to animals and butchers are treated as pariahs, for the Burmese love life and believe happiness to be the end and aim. Women enjoy a freedom unusual in the East, -- trade is mostly in their hands, though they are permitted to play no role in public. Marriage is not a religious institution. The book, Mrs. Tyson said, is well worth reading.

Mrs. Wrenshall said a word upon the Burmese belief in Purgatory, and told of the Cauldron of hell-fire and of the souls expiation in its upward and downward descent therein, a million years being the time assigned for that descent.

The 2nd article was by Miss Hopkinson


and was called "Racial Characteristics in Literature";.  Miss Hopkinson said she could but touch upon a few points superficially. The present community of life and thought brought about by travel, steam, telephone, and telegraph is such that old racial differences are [unfed?] out or forgotten, & yet distinctions persist. The Russian has his characteristics, The Frenchman, Englishman, Italian, German and Spanish have theirs. A Briton, for instance, takes himself very seriously, while a Frenchman jests about everything, or we think he does for he is nevertheless more sympathetic and adaptive, apparently, than the Englishman. He is, too, less self-conscious. In Literature the English argue, convince, preach; whereas the Frenchman takes much for granted, and contents himself with suggesting and presenting.

Miss Hopkinson then made a comparison between King Lear and Pere Goriot. Since Pere Goriot may be taken as a French treatment of the same theme – i e – parental love and filial ingratitude -- Miss Hopkinson gave a quotation extract from Pere Goriot, which novel she thought wonderfully, Astonishingly true, and said that truth to nature is the greatest of all arts.

The 3rd article on the Programme


was by Miss Henderson and was called "The True Siberia";. The author of this book, she said, gives an idea very different from that given by Mr. Kennan.  The author saw no convicts, no prison horrors, though he found flagrant bribery every where, a stricking [misspell of striking?] instance of which Miss Henderson gave. The book is interesting, yet does not inspire a wish to follow in the author' footsteps. New knowledge is given however, and new views are presented.  The author found the [Tsar ?] inert and stupid, and the progressive life of the country to depend largely upon the colonists. The glory of the Cossacks has departed, and as local [?] d’armes [stray?] hinder more than they help. The style of the very rugged and jerky with here and there [??].

The 4th article on the Programme was an account of "The Little White Bird";, of J.M. Barrie, by Mrs. Wrenshall. Mrs. Wrenshall said that the book must be approached from the psychological, rather than the dramatic point of view. The book was the presentation of a peculiar character and temperament, a succession of feelings and scenes, scenes and feelings, rather than an ordinary story. Nevertheless,


we surely go with the author, for the gift of genius and of human fellowship is his. No one who does not love dogs should read the book, for Porthos, the dog, is one of the most important of the dramatis personae, and what happens, or may have happened is deeply suggestive.  As a study of moods, behind which the narrator shelters his shrinking nature and a wounded heart, and a presentation of many finely contrasted characters, the book is remarkable, and is full of sweetness and light as to be most charmingly companionable.

The 5th article of the programme [others uppercase P] was by Miss Duvall, and was a brief word concerning Mrs. Humphry Ward' just published novel "Lady Rose' Daughter";. Miss Duvall spoke of the dramatic quality of the book, in life and varied action. She spoke of the skill in the management of a social group, and in the presentation of one character which is always the centre of interest, the focus of feeling and of speculation. In depicting so much finesse and [?] ring, not as a moral blemish, as an instinct of self-preservation, Miss Duvall thought that Mrs. Ward had dealt with a fresh theme. The end of the book she thought, [nearer?] than the beginning, because


the chief actors were not in their actions quite as convincing as at first. but [should be capitalized] the novel as a whole was sure to provoke discussion and inquiry. A little discussion did then take place among the Club members and guests, and at its close, the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of March 31st, 1903

The 450th Meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday March 31st, in the Club Assembly Room, Academy of Science. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided.

The minutes of the previous meeting were omitted. Announcement was made of the Programmes for the coming month, after which the Programme of the afternoon was taken up. This Programme was in charge of the Committee on Current Topics, Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Tyson being Chairmen. As a special feature, however, the Club first listened to a Paper on "Exercise and Relaxation, based on Physiological Psychological Principles,"; by Miss Villa Jeanette Curren, an assistant of the Anthropometrical Department of the Harvard Summer School, Hemenway Gymnasium, Cambridge, Mass. Before giving her "paper";, proper, 


Miss Curren made a few remarks explanatory of this theory of Exercise and Relaxation. Miss Curren said that she had the pleasure of knowing Dr. Sargent and his family well and had the advantage of access to his library, so that she was interested in the medical side of the theory. The student or pupil, must build upon some foundations. Here [he] must present credentials, must undergo a physical examination to show that he is both physically and mentally capable. Then followed the comparative measurement, the talking of age, height, weight, relative proportion and development. The birthplace, parentage, inheritances, proclivities, actual activities -- all these are carefully noted and then the pupil is ready to work up for development. Dr. Sargent' system is eclectic, since he takes of every man' best. German, Swedish, Delsarte, and adapts to individual needs. Health is wealth, the basis of all things, and health is physical balance, rhythm, proportion. The immature brain of the child, the most immature thing in Nature, yet reaches the highest and fullest development. Miss Curren then gave an admirable description, scientific yet not too technical –- of the coordination between brain function and bodily action.


Without chemical change there is no thought, to physiological brain activity is due complexity or coordination of bodily movement, or we never see one without the other. The seat of the body' power is in the brain, since motor ideas are the basis of physical skill. The idiot remains an idiot not because his head is inherently skill less, but because his brain is, as it were -- numb. Miss Curren then spoke of Helen Kellar' [Keller'] whom she knows well. Miss Kellar' [Keller'] fingers are her eyes and slaves. Statuary she greatly enjoys, and more so than if she had eyes. It has been ascertained that with her there is lack of development in vizual [visual] and auditory brain centres, but abnormal development, of course, in the finger centres. The Bloodstream is the stream of life, Miss Curren said, and dwelt on the importance of circulation. Deep, full hearting will, in a small measure, take the place of exercise. Good feelings, thoughts, actions also tend to further and quicken life, while evil has just the contrary effect. Constant disobedience to Nature' Claws, whether done ignorantly or intentionally, is sure to cause dire results. In every form of activity, mental or physical, "normal concentration [";] is absolutely necessary. Helen


Kellar [Keller], for instance, learned Italian in a few weeks because she had absolutely no distractions. Grace, the outcome of perfect bodily and mental coordination, is the economy of force, while awkwardness is the waste of force. In conclusion Miss Curren said: "Do not reach the fatigue point. Learn to relax and to rest. Vital force is inexhaustible. Breath[e] pure air fully and freely: Eat good food properly: Learn to rest and to relax[";].

Mrs. Turner then gave a rapid resume [needs accent] of "Current Topics."; First she touched upon the weather, that theme of many changes. Spoke of floods, earthquakes, and storms, so many of which we have had and are having; and passed then to speak of the ever recurrent, exquisite miracle of Spring. There were four recent events of general interest. The Ratification of the Cuban Treaty; that of the Panama Canal; the Close of the Coal Commission Session, with the publication of its decision; the proposition to build a Dam. American Railway from New York to some point in South America. This Railroad is to be 5000 miles long, and is to cost $200,000,000. Something else of current interest is the building of a New War College, so much needed at


the opening of the 20th Century of the Christian Era, a College intended to train young men, in the noble art of wholesale murder. The question of immigration is a serious one. How long the Anglo-Saxon will be permitted to remain Anglo-Saxon is only a matter of time. The "Chinese question"; has so increased and drawn high, that European and American scholars are turning their attention to a study of Chinese language and literature. Apropos of this, the Carnegie Institution is unique in that it—is not to duplicate the work of any other University: hence all its work will be post—graduate and along the lines of reginal research.

Mrs. Turner touched upon the gambling among women, and deplored it. She spoke of the Czar' reforms, or Proclamation of Toleration, and, after an analysis of Russian law, came to the conclusion that the toleration was far more in sound than in substance.

Mrs. Turner spoke of a Nautical school ship which teaches boys objectively -- by means of travel -- and gave the four years itineraries.

She gave a description of the "Bad Lands"; in the West, and of the curious fossilized forms called "Devil' Corkscrews"; which are found there. She spoke of a new


invention by a French Scientist which is intended to bring sight again to the blind. The principle of the instrument is analogous to that of the telephone, since light is substituted for sound. In connection with this. Mrs. Turner spoke of the purchase of the Alice and Phoebe Carey Home as an Asylum for the Blind. Many other items of interest were touched on in passing. "Conscience Money";, ["]the sale or continued holding of Abbots ford,"; and the experiment of science upon Nature in trying to so effect living organisms that they may endure the extremes of heat and cold.

The time passing however, Mrs. Turner said she would reserve some of her material for another occasion. At the close of Mrs. Turner' address, Miss Curren gave a charming practical illustration of those principles pf psycho-physiological culture which she had previously laid down. At the close of Miss Curren' illustration, the meeting adjourned, and the remainder of the afternoon was devoted to the Salon.



Minutes of April 1st 1903.

The 451st meeting of the Woman' [Literary] Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 7th in the Club' Assembly Room, Academy of Science. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, preside. The minutes of the previous meeting were omitted. There were no announcements. The Programe [should be Programme] for the afternoon was given by the Committee on Translation, Mrs. Frederic Tyson being Chairman.

The 1st article on the Programme was a story translated from the French of Herview by Miss Marie Perkins. It was one of those unexcelled French short stories or episodes so treated that, by a presentation of a part we get the simulation of the whole. A group of men after dinner in a Café are discussing "Fathers";. The sentiment is distinctly unfilial, perhaps anti-filial would better express it. All speak save one, a Russian Miriboff. Addressed, he senses as if from a dream, and says "You shall hear";, and then relates the only incident of his childhood in which his father figured. Believing himself an orphan, the ward of the Metropolitan, to his amazement he was taken one day by his Guardian to see his father. They went by unfamiliar streets to a palace


or possibly a prison, and then by a back way gained admittance. Ushered into the presence of the old men (presumably one the Czar of all the Russias [Russians?], the other, the Chief of the Holy Synod) neither of whom makes any demonstration. The astonished boy bursts into tears. One of the old men is about to speak, when there is interruption, the boy is [?] out, and—which man was the Father?

The 2nd article was a paper by Miss Mullin called: "The Birth of the French Academy."; If the French Academy, the Home of the 40 Immortals, the guardian of the French language, Miss Mullin gave a very interesting account. She spoke of its favor from Richelin who was its foster father. Though not its originator, since the Academy had its inception in the minds of certain savants who met together secretly some 3 or 4 years before the formal founding. Founded in 1634, the French Academy escaped even that besom of destruction, the French Revolution, and has for more than two hundred years remained unchanged. Miss Mullin dwelt chiefly, of course, upon its beginnings, its friends and its opponents, its constitution and early government, those who were instrumental in its safe launching, and who,


from the first, promoted its welfare and its glory. Its chief object was the purification and maintenance of the French language, and who object it has surely achieved.

The 3rd article of the Programme were two poems from the German of Ruckert [needs umlaut on the u] translated by Mrs. R. K. Cautley.  One was called "The artist and his Public,"; the other "the World—Mother.";

The 4th article was a story from the Italiam of Grazia Dalida, translated by Mrs. Frederic Tyson. It was called "Jack of all Trades,"; and was a powerful short story of Sardinian peasant life. The story vividly portrayed the old swine herd and father. Sio Sedra, his daughter. Sedia and her worthless, yet taking lover and husband, Boelto. The three persons with all their limitations—limited in everything but human love and suffering, hope and disappointment—move within the wonderful scenery, mountain and sea—of southern Italy. Boetlo, first vagabond, then villain, brings sorrow, shame, and loss to the father-in-law and wife, and the story ends with the significant inevitable suggestion that the [?] Desia will take the law into his own hands


and be his own avenger. The 5th article was a short story from the French of Jean Madeline, called "The Way of the World,"; translated by Mrs. Tyson. It told of the fortunes of two men, Farmers, side by side friends, not rivals, honest plodding tradesmen, content with themselves and all the world. The Russian War breaks out, and Misulet goes as a soldier, the dividing of the ways. Vincent makes an enormous fortune as an army-contractor, goes up, up, up, becoming more and more purse-proud at every rung of success’ ladder. Mislet comes with difficulty makes even a livelihood. He sends his son, however, to a good school where the boy associates with the son of Vincent. But the final touch comes when Vincent says one day to his son "you must not associate with that Misulet boy; they are not of our world.";

The 6th article and last article was from the French pf Michel Proveins, and was a short story called "Before and After";. And was translated by Mrs. Hammel. The story was semi-dramatic in form, and was given


in five scenes. 1st the patient of Groidet, sick unto death in the Hospital, the operating take before him, and only one chance in ten. He is all fawning gratitude to the Doctor Gelatins and will give him half his fortune if his life is spared. Six months after comes. The 2nd scene, one between Groidet and his wife. They decide that it isnt [isn’t] worth while to pay the Doctor any fee, it would be indelicate, he is too intimate a friend, they will make him a handsome present, a work of art, instead: but they cant [can’t] decide upon the price of the work of art. In the 3rd scene Groidet comes rushing in with the news that Doctor Gelatins has died suddenly of heart disease while on his professional rounds. The work of art, there for, like the fee, is out of the question. A handsome floral decoration for the [?] is all that gratitude can offer. The 4th scene is the florists, Groidet and the florist haggling. A wreath of natural flowers will cost 1500 francs, an artificial one 50 francs. Providence prevents him from giving the one, and false pride the other. But what matters it? Will not a prayer do as well—if the soul really survives? Why make any demonstration? Are not love and gratitude really in the heart? At the close of an admirable programme, the meeting adjourned.



Minutes of April 14th 1903.

The 452nd Meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 14t, in the Club' Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided. Announcement was made of a meeting to be held under the auspices of the Consumer' League, in McCoy Hall. Johns Hopkins University, on Friday, April 17th at 8 P.M. President Gilman to Preside. The Programme for the after noon was then talked up. This Programme was given by the Committee on Unfamiliar Records. Mrs. Jordan Staller being Chairman.

The 1st article on the Programme was by Mrs. Jordan Staler, and was called "An Old Dominion Pilgrimage."; Mrs. Staller began by saying that Thackeray' "Virginians";, published in 1854 in Harper' Magazine, first drew her childish thoughts and imaginings to the Old Dominions. The basis of the present Harper was a little itinerary she had made a year ago, in company with others, to curtain, historic places in Virginia. Charlottesville, the seat of the University, so dearly [?] and watched over by Jefferson, who is called "the Father of the University of


Virginia,"; came first. Mrs. Staller dwelt particularly upon the University, its site being considered the most beautiful in the U.S., its Italian architecture, and its so-called "Ranger";, the idea of which was suggested by the slaves, quarters at Monticello itself. Then the travelers went to Williamsberg [Williamsburg] when they saw various things of interest, thence to Yorkstown [Yorktown?], when they saw the first Custom House in the country, and a picture representing the 13 original states, Virginia nearing her head covered as token of her being chief of all. 

Mrs. Staler spoke of seeing the Golden Broom, the Plasta Gensta of the Plantagenets, a plant whose history and symbol teaches 3 countries, England, France, and out own. One story of the Golden Broom' introduction here is, that Governor Endicott of the Mass. Colony brought over his chin a packed in it, and from this the seeds were scattered, took root and grew.

Mrs. Staller spoke of the Society for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, of the good work it is doing, and of the muting he Rev. William Bird Lee who is much interested in the Society and its work. Reaching Newports News, and after visiting old St. John' chuch, Hampton, the party chartered a steamer and ascended the


James River, visiting "Brandon,"; "Shirley";, and ["}Westover[";] in due order. They were most hospitably received everywhere, and were shown all memorials. At "Westover"; they said the Bird portrait that of the celebrated William Bird II, being really beautiful. Mrs. Staller spoke of the carved pineapples everywhere visible in these old houses, and of the fruit being an emblem of hospitality. At Westover they also saw the secret chamber and the secret passage. At "Shirley"; they were received by Mrs. Carter, and were shown the portrait of Washington by Charles Wilson Beale, painted in 1772, the picture in which Washington wears the uniform of a British Colonel. Then they went to Richmond and saw various memorials there. Mrs. Staller spoke of the influence of Churchmen in the early life of Virginia, of the great preponderance among the "Signers";, and of how the shaping of our government was dominated by the ideas of there early Virginians. Apropos to the word, it is said that when Thackeray was in Baltimore, the guest of John P. Kennedy, he on one occasion declined an invitation to dinner because of his being obliged to supply certain "copy"; of the novel, the Virginians, then appearing. Kennedy offered to write the desired chapter, and then allow


Thackery to attend the dinner. This is said to have been done and Chapters 51st and 52nd are attributed to Kennedy. Mrs. Staller' paper was fully illustrated by views and pictures of what she had seen.

The 2nd article was by Mrs. Albert L. Richardson, and was called "Colonial Aristocracy of Maryland."; Mrs. Richardson said that she wished to refute certain statements recently made concerning the early settlement of Maryland. It had been said that Md. Was a penal colony, that children swept up from the London streets, had been sent over here, that the early colonists were not all they might have been. All of which is totally contradicted by history. Calvert' grant made of Maryland a Providence, titles and rewards were among the Lords Proprietor' privileges, Manners, with their Courts Baron and Leet could be, and were established, and finally 22 gentlemen, so named, come over in the "Ark and Dove";. The early life of the Colony was gay and social, with all the refinement and as much luxury as possible of the mother country, Guests came unbidden and stayed for weeks, and hospitality was everywhere the order of the day. Land, has, in many instances, remained


in the same family from those early days to these, even to the 9th generation the emigrant of to day who comes and finds everything prepared to his hand, cannot expect to have the same feeling for the country as have the descendants of whose first colonists whose works do surely follow them and whose memories should never be forgotten.

The 3rd article on the Programme was by Mrs. J. C. Wrenshall, and was called "Glimpses of Holland."; Mrs. Wrenshall began by speaking of Holland' unique geographical position, a land [?] from adverse circumstance and maintained against it, a land whose face is to the foe and whose back is to the Sea. Mrs. Whrenshall then spoke of the Hangue, world famous for its peace tribunal and of Mr. [?] proposal to build a Peace Palace. She went on to speak of La Haie, the residence of the royal family, and described the palace and its placing in a beautiful woods. She described the [?] private dining room, which is comparatively simple, and is not like the room of a very rich woman. Mottley' portrait hangs in his room, for here he wrote his "Rise and Fall of the Dutch Republic.[";] Mrs. Wrenshall gave a detailed description of the celebrated


"Orange Room,"; with its wonderful color effect, a room unlike anything else in the world. Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of the picture "Peace barring out War,"; and of the "Pease conference."; She spoke of the old shooting gallery now converted into a picture gallery, and of the many objects of interest which hold the traveler. She touched upon Rotterdam and its aspects, and passed then to Amsterdam and the many associations which cluster about this "Venice of the North,"; many of whose streets perpetuate the names of Holland' sons. She spoke of the picture gallery wherein is seen the glory of the Dutch school and described in detail the famous painting misnamed the "Night Watch,"; but which evidently represents a company of the Musketeers of Amsterdam going out for target practice, while a golden haired girl holds aloft the prize, a golden cup, which al may see. To save this picture from Napoleon, it was cut from the frame, hidden away, forgotten, and afterwards recovered. A copy of it is in the National Gallery of London. Many of Holland' pictures were brought back from the Derives after the Peace of the Allies.

Mrs. Wrenshall dwelt upon the growing charm of Holland its cities and people, the canals high above the level of


the country—that country which is really the child of the Sea, the red-roofed farmhouses, of all that catches the eye and hold the memory. She spoke of Maarken, a visit to which is an episode in one' life, and said that a sight of Holland leaved one deeply desirous of further and fuller knowledge.

At the close of the Programme the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of April 21st 1903.

The 453rd meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 21st in the Club' Assembly Room, Academy of Science. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided. There were no announcements. Though not the last Tuesday in the month, the day was regarded as a Salon, seeing we had with us our honored honorary member Mrs. Alice C. Fletcher who, Mrs. Wrenshall said, by way of introduction, is President of the National Anthropological Society which she has brilliantly conducted this winter, and also a Fellowship of Harvard University.

Miss Fletcher then gave her paper, the only one of the afternoon, a paper called "The Sagas of the Pacific Islands."; Miss


Fletcher began by speaking of the Pacific Ocean, its wonder and beauty, and vastness, its extent covering one fourth of the surface of the Globe, and of the interest which its myrial islands have evoked. Are many of these islands in reality Mountain tops, parts of a once vast continent? To other questions there is as yet no definite answer. Passing seaward, from temperate to tropic climate, the traveler comes first to the Hawaiians Islands with all their volcanic marvels. Here the natives are fairly amphibious, and come swimming and diving about the vessel, diving for coins far down into the clear water[.] Inward thence the traveler comes to the Island of Java, with its traces of primitive man, & to the Eastern Island where are those strange sculptures, silent witnesses od an unknown race. For whence did the Polynesian people come, and where was there earliest home? The name Hawaii or Hawaiki, is echoed far and wise throughout all these islands, and in the Maoris chants, Awaii means "Kingdom,"; or ["]country of the Kingdom."; But Hawaii cannot be the parent home, some students think that they have found in the Polynesians certain racial affinities with the Dravidian people of India, with the Hill tribes of India. and believe that when India was conquered by the Aryan race, some of the


Dravidians driven to the South and East put finally to see and found ultimate lodgement [lodgment] in the Islands of the Pacific. For, according to these scholars, certain Aryan traits may be found in Polynesians tongues, words pertaining to foods, as Pig, for instance, with its long historic and [?] associations. Certain it is that the Maoris were once far better ship builders and seamen than now. For they not only could and did build ships double-decked, capable of holding more than 100 persons, and of being well provisioned, but this seamanship was also sufficient to carry them even to those very Islands in which they found rest & a home.

Years ago, an English missionary Mr. Henry spend years in collecting the Maoris chants, songs, legends, and sagas. For political reasons the MS. had to be published in France, and was accordingly sent to Paris in 1848. In those turbulent days it was unfortunately lost, and has never been recovered. At the death of Mr. Henry, his notes came into the possession of his daughter, and she, in her turn has spent years in reconstructing that M.S. These Sagas of Polynesia, or of the Maoris, do not differ essentially from the Sagas. They are [??] in form, some may be


dated, while the date of others is lost in the dark backward and abysm of time, places become personified, as do also natural [?]. So that we have [?] and gods many. Certain narrations printed plainly to actual happenings. A five sea-description, for instance in which the sea was pictured as all might, mystery, and [?]vast, dark white, steep, high, cold, deadly—pointed clearly to some adventurous voyage far to the South in which the Seamen had some face to face with the wonders of the Antarctic Ocean. These Sagas abounded in action and description of perils of water and perils of land.

The carvings of the South Sea Islands indicate one trait of the people, and as the people of all classes [?] in handicraft, Tani, God of Beauty and of art, born in the sky, is much honored in the Sagas. So also in Cru, son of the supreme God, God of the earth, air and war. Periodic homage was rendered to Cru. From windward and leeward, from land and sea, unshippers led by the priests met by appointment at ^a certain place. This was an awful solemnity, and the "taboo"; or "taper"; of silence was laid upon all. No fire, no roaring, no sound [?] that of the trumpet might be heard. A slain man, or whale or shark was offered in Cru' honor. Then the sacred fire was


lighted, and the taboo of silence lifted. Dramatic exercises then took place and games followed. All of which points to the dice earnestness of men in trying to penetrate the mystery of life and of death. The 13th and 14th centuries seem to have been a time of interest in the Pacific Islands. The Priests of Samoa were skilled in navigation, astronomy, and divination. Miss Fletcher then gave the legendary story of [?] brothers, prophets, priests, and wizards. Each killed the son of the other, and the consequent feud was deadly & eventually landed in Hawaii. King Kamchamcha was the 21st in descent from this Prophet—priest—wizard of older time. With his daughter, Mrs. Fisher, the line ended, though her name and life have been worthily commemorated by his husband. The office of high priest was hereditary in a certain family, and Paraboa, the last survivor, died in 1819. Miss Fletcher then gave several translations of hymns of invocation. The shadows of those Vikings of the Pacific shine through their Sagas; their loves and their hates, their worship of the great elemental powers or gods, are not wholly new things [?] seems to have heard something of their like before, and Miss Fletcher closed her paper with an eloquent tribute to those far off Island Maurois


who, in being so primevally human were not far, but near.

At the close of the programme, the meeting adjourned.


Minutes of April 28th 1903.

The 454th Meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, April 28th in the Club' Assembly Room Academy of Science. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President presided. Mrs. Wrenshall first announced the Programme for the coming month, the first three meetings of which will be for business. on May 5th Reports of Committees.

May 12th Nominations of Officers & of 3 Directors [.] May 19th Election of Officers and Directors:

May 21st the closing Salon.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up as this programme was given  by the Committee on Archaeology of which Miss Emma Brent was Chairman, it was but fitting that on this, the first Programme given by the Committee since Miss Brent' death, there should be some memorial of her. Mrs. Wrenshall, in alluding to Miss Brent, said that the Committee could not come together without bearing virtues to her worth, to her intellectual attainments, to


her deep and far reaching influence and to the loss sustained by the Club in her death. The first article, therefore, was a paper especially prepared by Miss Lydia Crane upon Miss Brent as a representative Literary Woman, not necessarily as an author, but as a woman who loved steadfastly and served faith fully the best and finest things of mind and soul –- who revered in books [--] the precious like blood of a master-spirit. This Paper, fully worthy of its subject, was listened to with deep attention by the Club; and at its close Miss Duvall moved, and Miss Middleton seconded that the Paper should be spread upon the Records. The motion was unanimously carried.

The 2nd article was "A Letter from Rome,"; written to the Club by Miss Lawrence Turnbull. In this letter speaking first of "Roman Archaeology,"; its engrossing interest, the wide field it offered to the student, the long special training and strenuous study which Archaeology requires, Mrs. Turnbull passed naturally to Miss Brent as the head of the Archaeological Committee along lines similar to those pursued by Miss Crane, Mrs. Turnbull spoke of Miss Brent' enthusiasm for and devotion


to archaeological study and research to her love of historic tenth, patience, faithfulness, and from faith that only the best can ultimately prevail. If what a woman may do to inspire a love of study Miss Brent, she said, was a noble example. We realize how greatly she made use of all opportunity.

The 3rd article on the Programme was a paper by Miss Maria H. Middleton, a paper called "A Glimpse of Ancient Rome";. Rome has lately celebrated Miss Middleton said, the 21st year of her founding. Rome is a name to conjure by, and [?] and like enthusiasts, find one desire to know something of that and the deadly wonderful storied past, and though buildings are crumbling, Sirocer does a destroying work still these students have accomplished and are coming constantly upon new "finds";, and are laying bare the past. Old tombs, for instance, with their inscriptions, epigraphs upon buildings and monuments, are invaluable as throwing light upon daily life and belief. Miss Middleton spoke of the remains of Caesar' House, of the Catacomb of St. Calixters, of the Mamestime Prison, where, according to


tradition Saints Peter and Paul were imprisoned and of the small door of the prisons which opened into the Cloaca Maxima. She also recalled to memory Cardinal Newman' forgotten historical romance "Calinta."; Passing from ancient to Christian Rome, Miss Middleton spoke of the "Ghetto,"; now scarcely to be reconstructed even by the student' imagination, and quoted Crawford' description of the Ghetto, where, for centuries thousands of human beings were huddled together in an inconceivably small limit. Happily, the Ghetto has falled into decay, Miss Middleton spoke of the six Vestal Virgins, of their temple, one of the earliest, of the Roman Forum. of [should be Of] the cassed  figure in the Rostia, and their associations with the bows of the Roman Galleys. Miss Middleton had with her a coin of the time of the Emperor Adrian, whose image and superscription it bears. This coin was dug up on the site of Caesar' Temple, and is more than 1000 years old. She had too, a little reproduction of the 3 pillars of the Temple of Castor and Pillay: and also one of the Temple of Vesta. Miss Middleton also read a short poem on the old Roman coin.

The 4th article on the Programme was by Miss P.R. Uhler, and was called "Notes on Ancient and Modern Egypt.[";] Mrs. Uhler said that


her intention was to call attention to certain books about Egypt. "Explorations in Bible Lands,"; Egypt, Assyria, Arabia, and the Hittites. Of a recent work received by the Peabody Library, Stiendorf' account of Napoleon' Expeditions in 18-9-13, in 12. [?] with Plates. All civilized countries have taken part in exploring Egypt, and rich are the results. The date of Nankrates fixes the date of the earliest Greek civilization. Mrs. Uhler spoke of the valuable papyrus finds of [?] studies, and of the jealous guarding of his work, of Maspero and others. She spoke of explorations in Arabia of the Sycamore as the source of incense, and of Arabia being the connecting link between the civilization of the Biblical "Python,"; and its identity with the Egyptian Nankurates, of the Royal Tombs of the 1st Dynasty, of Abydos, and the Cliffe 4 miles across, of the wonderful Tombs cut from the low spines of the hills, and of the drainage ravine which served the locality so well. Though 4 times ransacked these Roock Tombs have yielded a rich fruitage, for they have afforded a complete sequence of Kings from Minor down. Mrs. Uhler also spoke of a recent Polish novel called "Pharoah and Priest."; She spoke of the wonderful Nile Dam just completed, and


gave its dimensions, the quantity of water it will contain, the amount of territory it will irrigate and make fruitful. Of Egyptian curios it is said that most Pharaonic lounges are manufactured in Paris, and then sold to the guileless traveler. Mrs. Uhler then spoke of a book, "Egypt Painted and described"; by R. T. Kelly. This Mr. Kelly, an artist, had seen life away from the beaten track and this book was all the more delightful. He dwelt upon Philae and its never-failing wonder and charm. Mrs. Uhler read 2 descriptions of Egyptian' sunsets from Mr. Keyy' book.

At the conclusion of the Programme two motes of regret at inability to be present at this meeting were read. Two notes from Miss Brent' sisters, Miss Ida Brent, and Mrs. William Keyser.

The meeting then adjourned.



The Literary Woman

Miss Emma Fenwick Brent

It is a labor of love to recall the life and deeds of our honored fellow member, fellow worker, and former President, Miss Emma Fenwick Brent. But it is no easy task to do her justice. She was our friend, and did for us much more than we knew. Of this latter fact I have become keenly aware in looking over the programmes of her Club in its early fays, and still more in further search of our records.

The life of a good and true woman is apt to be many sided: but of this one there are only two or three sides that I can try to present to you here. We now that Miss Brent had a highly honored ancestry, from the early days of Maryland and Virginia, that she was the daughter of a brilliant and distinguished lawyer, that she had all the advantages of education and of education and of the association of refined and cultured kindred and friends. Of her social and philanthropical interest there is no time to speak now.

But it is as the literary woman that I have to present our friend now, as the typical literary woman, not especially the author -– the woman to whom learning and literature are like air and food, necessary to her life of development.


I first saw her from this point of view in the old Eight o’ clock Club where for some six years, beginning in January 1881, she held her own well among some of the brightest men – as qwll as some of the brightest women in Baltimore.

Driving that time, she also gave lectures to advanced classes in Literature. We have the record of twenty of these lectures, -- on subkects requiring erudition and research. They began with "Egypt as Teacher, its Religion, Art, Laws, Literature, etc."; and ended with "Intellectual and Social Life in Anglo-Saxon Literature."; She also contributed articles upon "[?] of the Day";, to the Press of this city.

Though not one of the founders of the Woman' Literary Club, Miss Brent was one of the original members and organizers of it. The founders were eight or nine literary women, including the originators of the movement, -- Miss Torsey, now Mrs. Richardson, and Miss Haughton, -- and also Mrs. Turnbull, Mrs. Fabian Franklin, and others, who met in March 1890, and send out invitations for "the formation of a Literary Club."; When after being surprised by my invitation, I went on March 19th 1890, into Goucher Hall at the Woman' College, and saw among the thirty or more women gathered there the Kind face of Miss Brent, and then met Mrs. Tirnan, Miss Could and several others. I was glad


indeed. Then and there was organized this Club, & was elected our honored first President, Mrs. Turnball and other officers.

Miss Brent was a member of our first Board of Management, having been a Director for the year 1890-91. She was President for the year 1893 and ’94. -- in some respects, our most difficult year. She left the office with the respect of those who differed from her, as well as of us who agreed with her. She did out seek oficial [official[ position, and more than once declined it. But she was made a Director again in 1895, and five times afterwards; and held that position when she died. In our first year 1890, she was the Chairman of the Committee on "Eminent Women."; In 1892 she became Chairman of the Committee on "American Literature in the 19th Century."; In 1893 she became Chairman of the Committee on "The Exact Study of the English Language,"; and continued to hold the Chairmanship for six year. In 1899 she became Chairman of the Committee on Archaeology, succeeding our President, Mrs. Wrenshall, the founder of the Committee six years before. Miss Brent continued in this Chairmanship until her death. She took great interest in the work of her Committee, and made researches for them.

Of her literary writing much could be said.

In my minutes of the Eight o’clock Club, I land the report of an Essay by Miss Brent, "On Fools."; She treated the court fool of the middle ages, often, she said, the teller of the tenth to tyrants, and, it has been said, the forerunner of the Poet-Laureate of modern times. She spoke of the saving of the life of William, afterwards [?] the Conqueror, by his fool. But for this rescue, she suggested there might have been no Norman Conquest, and no English – and American nobility – of Norman blood. She went on to Shakespeare' fools, shining, she said with the light of his genius, which glorifies everything it touches. Another Essay was on "John Chinaman";, treating humorously and fairly a subject of which Miss Brent has had excellent opportunities of judging.

Of the work done by Miss Brent for this Club I have the records of nearly thirty articles addresses etc. I ask you to let me [?] some of the words she said to us. The articles I found on my file of programmes was read on {/} the 7th 1890 and was on "Two Oriental Women."; My recollection is that one of these women was Rebekah, the wife of Isaac, and the other that East Indian Queen whose mausoleum is the Taj Mahal, the most magnificent tomb ever erected for a woman. Some time afterwards, Miss Brent was required to read this article to us again; but she gave


us instead a description of the Taj Mahal.

My next record of Miss Brent' article given January 24th 1893, on "The English of American Literature."; She said that when the beautiful Saxons first appeared in history, they came speaking a language which has developed into the one we speak now, keeping ourselves in touch with our early forefathers. That our language was brought to our western continent by a precious inheritance of a noble literature – an almpst inexhaustible mine of treasures.

She then spoke of the imitative literature of the American Colonial days: then of the development of skilled writers among us; down to Hawthorne Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes, and to the best of our authors of to day [should be today]. She reminded us of the position of women in the literature of the present time, and paid a tribute to the new, fresh Southern literature whose praise is in all the land.

In April 11th 1893, Miss Brent gave an article on "Two Italian Writers. Petrarch and Boccaccio."; She spoke of the early literary work done in the days that knew not printing; when the compass was not fully known to sailors; and when the course of the old Northman Vikings voyage was directed by the fight of ravens. But even then the Orientals, the Chinese, Miss Brent' favorite Orientals, had long known


the compass, and they made long voyages, even it is said reaching over our own American shores. But, she reminded us, there was then the rich and beautiful Republic of Florence, in the 14th Century, and the love of beauty had many manifestations. She bought before us the career of Petrarch, and the lovely inspiration of his Laura, and his influence over Boccaccio and dwelt especially on Petrarch' share in the revival of Art. In May 16th 1893, Miss Brent gave a paper on Lorenzo di Medici, taking him from various points of view, and quoting among other things his characteristic saying that "poetry had made him a lover, not love a poet.";

In February 20th, 1894, Miss Brent, who was then President, and also Chairman of the Committee on "The Exact Study of the English Language."; She spoke of human speech, given to man alone. She said that the Chinese tell us of an ancient people in their country, whose language is composed of the simplest possible sounds, the name by which they call themselves seeming scarcely to be pronounced at all. She reminded us that, though the ancient Chaldeans reached a high degree of language, poetry and legends, the Basques in Spain are said to speak the same language that they


bought from the plains of Shinar, -- from the Tower of Babel. She related the observation on the origin of speech made by Monsieur Taine on his own child. – a baby girl. He says the child begins with sounds as with motions. When it first begins to turn its head or put out its hands, there is a vague twitter, then throat some sounds, the novels precede the consonants, etc. Darwin made similar observations on a little boy. Miss Brent then dwelt on the sounds that have come down to us through Hebrew, Greek. German, French and Latin, to the English fitted for the genius of Shakespeare, and for the needs of daily life.

In an article on the "Power of the Word,"; on April 27th 1897, Miss Brent spoke of words as our counselor. Keeping great lessons and whole historic lying within themselves. She had, she said, once read two pages of a modern historical novel, and found them grose and shocking. Shortly after being at a summer resort she happened to hear Mrs. Ballington Booth describs [describes] her work among low and even depraved people, without once becoming course or revolting in words or manner. Miss Brent then spoke of that creation of the genius of Spenser, the Lady Una, "from whose fair eyes the lion took commandment."; She spoke of cant, and of creeds misused, and warmed us to keep guard over the nobility of our words as well as over the nobility of our deeds. In December 10th, 1895,


Miss Brent' article was "On Metaphors in Shakespeare."; From this and from five or six well written and suggestive articles, I must unwillingly refrain, from quoting, though they show the wide and varied range of our friends thought, in formation and researches, and her power of words.

Her article on April 7th 1896, was on "Intellectual Activities in the Reign of Charles the Second."; She quoted what Green has said about "the comedy of the Restoration, -- when modern England began."; Then, Brent said, times had changed, somewhat as they had done at the close of our own Civil War. A new epoch had come, full of high lights and deep shadows of inconsistences and experiments. But that was the time of the founding of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, the days of Newton and Dryden and Pepys and the Marquise of Worcester, and very many others, still remembered. She told of the Reverend John Williers brother-in-law of Oliver Cromwell who proposed that universal language should be formed "for the conscience of all men upon earth, a dream still unrealized after two and a half centuries.[";]

In March 9th 1897, in a debate on the Education of Women, Miss Brent spoke to us on "that general culture which fits a woman to make a happy home, where her strength and wisdom


are gained. I am sorry to pass over her article on "Some Louisiana Traditions,"; and another called "Along Forgotten Lines,"; both of great interest – in order to notice her work in Archaeology. In November 19th, 1895, Miss Brent gave us an article "In the Religion of Ancient Egypt."; She spoke of the accounts given by such early travelers as Herodotus and Plato of the life and the religion of Ancient Egyptian; and of the confirmation their records have received from the monumental inscriptions and sculptures that still remain, and are still being discouvered. These monuments, she said, were not reared in vain: they give us a message which thrills us now. She spoke of the interviews of Moses and Pharaoh both taught in the priestly schools of Egypt, the representatives of two peoples of ancient prophecy; of which one is now a nation without a Kingdom, and the other a Kingdom without a nation. She spoke of the Egyptians as being essentially religious, -- who are said to have been the first people who believed in the immortality of the soul.  She related ancient myths and told us the story of the Sphyny is said to have been found in yucatan {Yucatan]. Also that the myth of Osirus awakened thought of the reanimation of soul and body, and seemed too a foreshadowing of the great Redeemer who is to judge the quick and the dead.

On April 21st, 1896, Miss Brent gave an article


On the city of No Amonen, as it is known to students of the Bible and also as the Thebes of history, the city of the Sun God, Amonen Ra, and an ancient intellectual centre. She told of its ancient glory, and closed by reminding us of the destruction that came upon No Amonen, as foretold in the eloquent words of the Prophet Ezekiel.

On May 19th, 1899, Miss Brent gave us an article on "Our Indebtedness to Archaeology";[.] She spoke of the study of Archaeology, which opens the treasure houses of far off regions and times, making them real and familiar to us, and in the great searchlight thrown into the dark corners of the past. In quoting from the Egyptian Book of the Deas, the claim of one man that he had led a just and honest life, she said it reads like Job' defense of his own integrity.

In April 1898, Miss Brent had given us an article on the Assyrian Religion. She spoke of the early worship of the heavenly bodies, especially of Bael and Ishtar. the sun and the moon, which seems to have begun in a reaching not for the supreme God who in time came to be venerated in the forms of His most glorious ministers. Then followed the degeneration into idol worship. She told us that the Chinese, in whom she had been interested, the most intelligent ones will tell you that they do not worship the idols themselves, but they reverence and adore the great power


whose attributes are represented by the images before which they are accustomed to bow down. The survival of ancient types, cults, and customs were always peculiarly interesting to Miss Brent, and a well recognized and appreciated feature of her Archaeological work. I have heard that she told a distinguished Professor of Oriental languages that the Chinese pointed characters looked to her as if they were the old Assyrian cunei from ones turned upside down; and that he seems quite pleased with the suggestion, which apparently was new to him. On April 15th 1902, Miss Brent gave us an article called "A Strange People."; It was an account of the Mayas, an ancient Central American nation, whose records, remains and traditions show a civilization and intelligence marvelous in our eyes.

We owe to Miss Brent the institution of our Committee on Memorial Decorations. I ask leave to read an extract from the Minutes of the meeting at which it was proposed.

The meeting of April 18th, 1893, was under the direction of the Committee on the "Authors and Artists of Maryland,"; of which Miss Milnor was Chairman. An article was given (by Miss Bennett) on Rinehart the sculptor. Miss Brent spoke of Rinehart' bequest for the education of


young students of sculpture in Maryland, and of his works, saying that she feared his services to his State were forgotten. She suggested that the members of our Club should at least once a year decorate the graves of Rinehart, of Edgar Allen Poe, of Sidney Lanier, and any others of the Authors or Artists of Maryland whose graves are with us.

To the suggestion of doing this on Decoration Day, Miss Brent answered that that day was sacred to


"Love and tears for the Blue,

Tears and Love for the Gray.";

To the suggestion of All Saints Day, Miss Brent said that so many of our people would go to God' Acre on that day, she though it might be well for the Club to make another choice.

A resolution was offered by Miss Brown, and seconded by Miss Grace, appointing All Souls Day, November 2nd, for decorating the graves of the Authors and Artists of Maryland, also appointing Miss Milnor and Miss Brent the Committee to have this affair in charge, with power to add their members to their committee to assist them. It was passed without opposition.

I ask also leave to read a few of Miss Brent' farewell words in giving up the Presidency on June the 5th, 1894.


She spoke of her wish to bow before the Club as a dignified body, dignified by faith and courage. She mentioned having lately read of the superb courage of the Maryland soldiers at the battle of Gettysberg [should be Gettysburg]; and she thought the Maryland women as have and as true to what they believe to be right as the Maryland soldiers ever were. She spoke of those of the children of our State who have made her

"glorious by the pen,

And famous by the sword.";

in the part; and of those who are working now for her glory and fame in the future. "She reviewed our work in the year just past. and thought that, without vanity, we could count upon growth and progress. We had faith in each other, and faith in ourselves; and could hopefully continue the work which our first President prophesied would be a great and growing power for good in our community. She would leave her office with thanks, and with satisfaction in the firm bases on which she believed us to stand. She said that like our own state, we have sought less for size than for excellence, and to be true to the spirit of our Maryland motto, -- to exemplify "brave deeds and gentle words.";

Soon after the reunion of our Club last


October, we learned that our honored member Miss Brent was dead. But her work among us still lives, and is not forgotten: her example and wise counsels remain to inspire us [.] And remembering the motto of our Club Parole Femine -- we cannot forget the friend who said to us "Let us keep guard over the nobility of our words as well as over the mobility of our deeds.";

Article by Miss Lydia Crane.



Minutes of May 8th 1903.

The 455th Meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, May 5th in the Club Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided. As the meeting was a purely business one, denoted to the reading of the Reports, none but members were admitted. Announcement was made that the coming Tuesdays, May 12th and 19th would be denoted, the first to the Nomination of Officers and Directors, the 19th to the election of the same.

Announcement was made of the presentation to the Club by Mr. Livezy of a pamphlet entitled "Woman and Christianity,"; the author being Josephine K. Henry.

Announcement was also made of an invitation to the President and Board of Management, of the Woman' Literary Club, by the "Press Club"; of Baltimore to be present at a Reception to be given at the Carrollton, May 19th.

The business of the afternoon was then taken up, and the reports of the 13


Committees of the Club were called for. Eleven responded, the only reason which presented a report from the Chairman of the Committee on Education was, that the Committee had during the past year given no special programmes. and the illness of Miss Jane Zacharias prevented her attendance, and there was a miscellaneous Programme given on Tuesday, Dec. 30th    28 Programmes in all.

Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Tyson each declining being Head Chairman, made appeals in behalf of their Committee, or rather, they declared, that their Committee consisted of all head. Whereas, properly, all the Club should belong to the "Current Topics"; Committee. Every member should speak on some topic of interest to her, there should be a time limit, and then a general discussion.

On the translation Committee, four or five languages were represented, the members were enthusiastic, their work excellent and flourishing, and the Committee Meetings had been frequent and stimulating.


The Reports were then given. Fiction –- 2 Programmes; but unfortunately, no Committee meetings.

Modern Poetry 2.

Essays and Current Criticism 3.

Ethnology 2 including the Salon of April 21st when we had the pleasure of hearing our honorary member, Miss Fletcher, on the "Sagas of the Pacific Isles";.

Unfamiliar Records, 2

Translations -- 3

Colonial and Revolutionary History, 2

Letters and Autographs, 1

The Drama, 2

Education, 1 "Day of the Child"; by Mrs. Hammel.

Art 1

Literature of Music -- 1

Current Topics -- 3

There were also 2 special musical programmes arranged by Mrs. J. Elliot Gilpin -- one on October 1st and the January salon on January 6th.

Mrs. Wrenshall announced that through Mrs. P.M. Reese, a Club Book Plate was to be presented to the Club by Mrs. Saunders, formerly Miss Elizabeth


Hallowell. Mrs. Wrenshall then thanked the Chairman for the reports, and for the works of the various Committees. It had been a hard year and there had been interruptions through sickness and bereavement; yet no programme had failed, and all had been ably represented. She must urge upon the Committees however, the importance of Committee work: for the Programme is but the outward and visible sign of good Committee work. Mrs. Wrenshall then spoke of the advantages of the Committee Room, and of the advantage of stated meetings. She spoke of the placement of work. Each and every Committee should keep to its own special lines, thus preserving the integrity and individuality of the work, the harmony and homogeneousness of the whole. Mrs. Wrenshall said that no member must wait to be invited to join a Committee. According to her wishes and intentions she must, herself choose and join whatever Committee she preferred, the Chairman being always most glad to receive new members. Regret was expressed at the contemplated leaving of Mrs. Cautley, Mrs. Hammel, and Mrs. Fayerwither [Fayerweather]; 


but added the President "they’ll come back.";

With a few more words as to work and its results, and again with thanks and congratulations the President concluded. The meeting then adjourned.


Meeting of May 19th 1903.

The 456th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, May 19th, 1903 in the Club' Assembly Room. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided.

As this was a business meeting for the yearly election of Officers and of 3 Directors, none but the active members were permitted to be present. The meeting having been called to order, the registration book was signed and every member received her ballot sheet. The ballot sheets were then collected, and the Committee on Elections, Mrs. Uhler being Chairman and Judge, then withdrew. During the counting of the ballots the Treasurer' books were audited by Miss de Valin and Miss.         Informal conversation


was indulged in, and after a time the Election Committee returned and Mrs. Uhler announced the results. The ticket as it stood had been almost unanimously elected, save when the graceful modesty of two well known candidates had compelled them to cast a vote for some one else.

The President,            Mrs. Wrenshall.

First Vice President,     Miss Whitney.

Second Vice President,    Mrs. G.K. McGaw.

Recording Secretary,      Mrs. Jordan Staller.

Corresponding Secretary,  Mrs. Uhler.

Treasurer.                Miss Middleton.

For 3 Directors.               Miss Reese.

                          Mrs. ^ Miss Early.

                          Mrs. Tyson.

After pleasant remarks from Mrs. Uhler and the President, the meeting adjourned.



Minutes of May 26th 1903.

The 457th meeting of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on  Tuesday, May 26th in the Assembly Room of the Club: Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided.

As this was the closing Salon of the year, guests had been invited. The programme was a musical one.

The 1st number was the Overture from Suppi' "Poet and Peasant,"; for piano and violin, played by Miss Louise Stahn and her father, Mr. Stahn. The 2nd number was Rubenstein' "Spring Song,"; sung by Miss Edith Stowe to the Harp Accompaniment of Miss Selma Cone.

Then came the address of the President for the 5th time, Mrs. Wrenshall said she had received from the Club the compliment and mark of confidence, in being chosen its President. This trust was most gratifying, and had grown dearer and nearer as the year went on. We have lived in mutual interest, hope, confidence,


and aspiration. We look back upon work well done, we look forward to increasing excellence, and to the successful furtherance of our high aims. Our influence and interest has not been confined to our selves, but has gone out to others ad kindred organizations. L’Alliance Francaise wishes through its President Mrs. White, to express its thanks for assistance given, for encouragement and hearty cooperation; and Mrs. White also desires special thanks to be given to Mrs. Hammel, our own valued member, who was also Chairman of the Hospitality Committee of L’Alliance Francaise.

The President of the Press Club, our member Miss Malloy, also asked to return thanks for the courtesey [courtesy] of the Woman' Literary Club of Baltimore, in lending the Assemble Room on the 18th of May.

Mrs. Wrenshall also alluded to the election of Miss Marie Eulalie Perkins, another member, to the Presidency of the Laudriga Club, which owes its existence to the thought and efforts of our present member, Mrs. M.R. Bullock, and our former


member, Mrs. J. F. Dammann. A most important work done outside of our Club, was the formation of a circle, composed of the Graduating Class of the Eastern Female High School, to study the writings of the late Sidney Lanier. This circle had been organized by our member, Miss Laura de Valin, 1st Vice President of the School, and it was with great pleasure that the speaker thought of these young minds and hearts becoming thus early acquainted with a spirit so rare and delicate as that of the late poet, Lanier -- one, too, peculiarly our own. Such knowledge and familiarity cannot but bear fruit in years to come.

Yesterday has come the promised, and greatly desired Book Plate. Mrs. Saunders, (or Miss Hallowell'[)] work was deeply appreciated, and the Club rejoiced in its acquisition. Thanks were due Mrs. P.M. Reese, through whose kind offices and friendship with Mrs. Saunders the Book Plate had been given.

Mrs. Wrenshall then welcomed


formally the new members on behalf of the Club, hoping the Club would be to them the rallying point and inspiration it had been to others, and hoping that they might denote to it their own best work. The new members were Miss Bates, Miss Cowdray, Miss Louise Woodward Cloud, Mrs. Morgan, Mrs. Markland, and Mrs. Madren. Certificates of membership were then given to new members who had joined the Club during the year -- and certificates were promised upon application to those who had never received them.

In conclusion, Mrs. Wrenshall said, that, in this time of mental rest and relaxation, she hoped the Club members would make good the Summer months by some form of healthful, helpful, mental activity. Strong resolutions to work faithfully carried out must produce the best results, and whatever the sources of our knowledge and inspiration, our loved Club will be indeed a Looming -- cup into which each and every one pours her best for the benefit of all. At the conclusion of the


President' speech, the Programme was resumed. The 3rd number was Thomas’ "Winter,"; a Harp Solo, exquisitely played by Miss Cone.

The 4th and 5th numbers were two songs by Miss Stowe to Miss Cone' Harp Accompaniment. "Hogan' Slumber Song,"; and "Annie Laurie.";

The 6th number was Langley' Canzonetta -- "Felice"; -- for piano and violin, played by Mr. and Miss Stahn.

Then came the presentation to our loved 1st Vice President, Mrs. R.K. Cautley, -- who is leaving us for a while, & of an amethyst pin (violet bring the Club color) in loving token of the Club' affection and esteem.  The presentation was made in a few graceful, heartfelt words by Miss Perkins.

At the same time, there was presented to Mrs. W.C.A. Hammel, our valued fellow-member, a silver pencil as a small mark of the Club' appreciation, and regard. Miss Perkins with regal felicity made the presentation to Mrs. Hammel.


The two ladies, greatly surprised, could only murmur their thanks.

The meeting was then adjourned until the Fall. Oct th, and the rest of the afternoon was spent in social intercourse. We had with us on this occasion, Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull, our member, and former President, just returned from Europe; -- and as our guest, Mrs. Sidney Lanier.