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1901-1902 Meeting Minutes

OCT. 1, 1901-MAY 27, 1902
MS988 Box 4, Book 1


Meeting of October 1st 1901. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, held its first meeting of the season of 1901 and 1902 on Tuesday, October 1st, in its rooms in the Academy of Sciences building, Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was a Salon and was in the nature of the meeting of the [Clan?], there being present members of the various Club committees that having already left some footprints on the sands of time, are ready to be up and doing, working ever onward to a higher nobler goal.

The President, Mrs. John C. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], made a few graceful and helpful remarks of greeting and in speaking of the Club as a literary factor reminded us that in all growth there are periods when improvement is more marked than at others. Such a period has come to the Woman's Literary Club in the past years as is shown by the increased number of members whose names have appeared as contributors to the leading periodicals. She felt, she said, that the Club was growing closer to its high ideals, that while through mutual interest friendships are being formed that would be


an integral part of the future life of its members. The Club as a whole was becoming a stronger factor for good in the community with power to help in the advancement of educational work. She urged the members to keep steadily to their highest aims, all working together for future improvement.

Mrs. Wrenshall then gave out the programme for the month, after which Miss Mullin [Elizabeth Lester Mullin] made her first appearance before the Club as a writer of fiction. She had aptly chosen for the opening of her story a young girl with literary aspirations, who confesses to efforts, and failures. But the reader is left to wonder what the literary career of the young aspirant might have been, for the little God who touches every human heart with his fatal darts, so touched her that what at first seemed a poisoned arrow proved in time to be one of those that made all life take on that rosy hue that turns this world into an earthly paradise and so, the literary field was left free for other aspirants.

Discussion over the tea cups followed after which the Club adjourned.


2nd Meeting of October 8th 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, October 8th, 1901, in the Assembly Room, Academy of Arts and Sciences, Oct 8th, 1901 [sic]. The President presiding. Minutes of the previous meeting were read by Miss Whitney [Anne Weston Whitney].

The President spoke gracefully of our loved Recording Secretary, Miss Crane [Lydia Crane], of her temporary retirement from active work, and of an earnest hope that rest will make her before long to resume the duties which none but she, can fulfil so well.

Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] then gave notice of the formation of classes for "vocal culture" by our former member, Mrs. J. F[?] Pleasants [Mrs. John T. Pleasants]. Those desiring to join these classes, or to receive instruction can address Mrs. Pleasants, 7 Mr. J. T. Pleasants, Sun Office.

Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler], Chairman of the Library Committee then presented certain books. "Falstaff and Equity," by Judge Phelps of the Baltimore Bar, presented by the author.

"Israel the Biblical Bible" by Rabbi Fluegel[?] presented by Dr. Uhler.


"The Source book of English History," by Professor Grey Lee Carlton, presented by Dr Uhler.

"The Guide to the City of Baltimore," by Dr. Hollander.

"The Cross or the Pound," by Major [Pangborn?].

"State's Philosophy," by Ignatius [Bartony?].

"Our Cruise in the Mediterranean," by J. T. Wilson, and then certain pamphlets.

"John Hanson," by Douglass [W?.] Thomas.

"The Beginnings of the Classical Heroic Conflict," by Dr. Henry Wood.

"Christ and the City's Poor," by Rev. Oliver Huckle.

"Concord, and the American Revolution," by Mr. Chas. J. Bonaparte, and lastly an historical novel, "Mistress Brent," by Lucy Meacham Thurston [Lucy Meacham Thruston]. This book was presented through the good offices of Mrs. Percy M. Reese [Elizabeth Reese], who had met the young author.

There was presented to the Club with the author's compliments, Mr. C. B. Tiernan's book on the Tiernan family. Of this book Mrs. Wrenshall spoke in praise, saying that it contained much information of general interest, particularly that contained in certain letters and would be found very pleasant reading. Mrs. Wrenshall also read several


press notices of the book. The regular Programme was then taken up.

Miss Whitney read Mrs. J. T. Early's [Maud Graham Early] excellent "appreciation of Professor Shalers recent work. "A Study of Life and Death." Mrs. Early began by saying that Science and Religion have the same motive, to penetrate into the unknown. and Professor Shaler's book seeks to offer suggestions upon the standing problem of present Life and possible future existence. The book appears to be based upon the atomic theory, and to work out its reasonings along the lines pertaining to the atomic view of matter, its properties and forms. Professor Shaler spoke for instance of gravitation as a formative force from Sun to atoms, but one which while all recognize none may create, control or destroy. Newton revealed the hypothesis of ether, or space form but all are ignorant of its nature. The first conception of the living creature of man, in the universe, is appaling. He seems less than the least but conceived of as the resultant, a friend of all other activities, the pivot of all labor including that of consciousness, he is greater than the greatest. Life, therefore, is the summit of all action, the


ultimate of all activities. Professor Shaler's argument for a future life is most significant, our ignorance of matter being too great to make assertions regarding death. Religion and Science, alike in certain motives, are alike too in the importance they assign to realms of possible knowledge.

The next paper in the Programme was "King Alfred in Literature" a particularly timely paper in view Alfred's Millineary [Millenary]. Miss Cullington [Anne Cullington] began by saying that the early Anglo Saxon, like primitive people generally, wrote in poetry, and celebrated the deeds of his heathen forefathers and heroes. With Caedmon began a new era. The old heathen tales were fitted into the recent Christian truths, a kind of old wine into new bottles. But with the increasing [inroads?] of the Danes and the final fall of Northumbria, learning and Christianity were alike menaced. And at the coming of Alfred religious, social and intellectual life was at very low ebb. Alfred's aim therefore was not so much to create, as to restore, to bring back what was already in existence but was in danger of being lost. So he translated rather than created. For in times of strife, men's minds seek the practical


and educational. On this side the Humber there were few who could read or write, either Saxon or Latin, so that Alfred's work was better than original, in that it was most timely. He transformed the early poetry into the alliterative form (probably with a view humorizing [humanizing?]) and translated Bede's "Ecclesiastical History," Anicius Boethius "Consolations of Philosophy," Augustine's "Soliloquies," and "Liber Pastralis [Pastoralis]" of Gregory the Great. This latter has little literary worth, but being a literal translation of the Latin original, serves as a mine of information concerning West Saxon English.

Miss Cullington herself translated Alfred's paraphase [paraphrase] or translation of Gregory's figure of the concentric rings illustrative of the dependence of man upon God into the simile of the wheel with its axle spokes and [filly?]. Miss Cullington said she had no time to speak of Alfred's share in the laws and chronicle of his times.

Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] then spoke of her visit to Winchester, and of seeing the gigantic bronze figure of Alfred, standing upon a block of rough granite, and marked with the single word "Alfred."

Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock] spoke of the interest


taken by her pupils in the Alfred Millinary [Millenary] of a subscription to the fund sent through Mr. Bright, and of the hope to receive some written accounts of the celebration.

Miss Reese regretted the dispension of the legends regarding Alfred, especially that of the [ca?es].

Mrs. Wrenshall said that the legends would never die.

Miss Cullington said that in reading Alfred she was struck by his simplicity and high thought, by his great desire to uphold learning and to teach. She said that she and others found that he had a partial touch, if not absolute poetry; a style of his own, and some originality.

Miss Middleton said that Mrs. Frederick Harrison too gives Alfred credit for a style of his own.

The meeting then adjourned.


3rd Meeting of October 15, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday October 15th, 1901, at the Assembly Room Academy of Arts and Sciences. The President presiding. The only announcement made was that a meeting of the Fiction Committee would be held in the Committee Room on October 17th. A full and prompt attendance was asked.

The regular Programme was then taken up. The first article called "Book Notes" was by Mrs. R.K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], and was read by Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese].

Mrs. Cautley began by saying that there is an analogy between Fashion and literature, but the high heels and rolled and powdered hair, and some of the so-called historical novels which are a mixture of Capitals, bad spelling and worse history, light blowsy novels overdressed, as it were, and out of taste. The historical novel "A Tory Loves," and the charming story, "Beaucaire," however, were instances of the reverse, and show clearly what may be done with historical material by masterly hands. "Audrey," Mrs. Cautley thought while interesting, had a tendency to over run its canvas and fell short thereby of dramatic effect. Gilbert Parker's


new novel "The Right of Way" was praised as being his strongest work, one which showed continual allowance; and "Liza Wetherford" by Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud] published in the September Atlantic Monthly, was characterized as the finest short story which Mrs. Cautley had seen. She also commended for their interest Sarage's "A Life After Death," and John Sargent Wise's book "The End of an Era."

The next paper on the Programme was called "Books. Old and New" and was by Miss Reese. She began by speaking of a novel by Felix Gras. "The Reds of the Midi," a tale which deals with the doings and adventures of the Masseilles [Marseilles] Battalion during the days of the French Revolution. The story is given very feelingly and artistically by one of the supposed actors old Paschal,--and is the told from the peasant's standpoint. The Masseilles [Marseilles] Battalion was free from the terrible excesses of the "Reds of Paris.["]

The next book spoken of was by Henry Kingsley, brother of Charles. Henry Kingsley was not so fortunate as his more famous brother, Miss Reese said, but was quite as well worthy of attention, and his novels despite stock construction and loose pointed periods, have in the that pith of life


and human nature which holds both mind and heart. Miss Reese also spoke of Parker's novel "The Right of Way." She thought the best thing about the book was the sustained characterization of the hero, who skeptical and self-indulgent, cannot so be worked upon as he is charged.

The next article was by Mrs. J.I. Early [Maud Graham Early], and was called "Some Book Expressions"--this paper was also read by Miss Reese. Mrs. Early began by saying that Books, like people, make very different impressions, and are regarded with very diverse feelings. She spoke of "Doom Castle," by Will Munro, and gave a short description of its plot and movement.

The story reminder [reminded] her of Browning's poem "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came," and was a treasure trove to all who truly love a romance, so vividly is the book written that she could see all the places and people described, and felt familiar with the old castle. "Doom Castle," she thought was a fitting comparison to Munro's other novels.

The next book Mrs. Early spoke of was Matterlinck's "Life of the Bee," in which he draws a certain analogy between the life and work of the most intelligent of insects and the life and work of man. In Bee life, however, the individual bee


is nothing, the life of the hive--collective life--is everything. The drones excite pity. The Bees are considered to be as well worth study as anything which is real. The book abounds in Faith, mystery, hope, and in an ideal one both outward and inward for all who believe that the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal.

Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall] alluded to two interesting and instructive books. "Porto Rico and Porto Ricans," and "The Phillipines," [Philippines] by Miss Howe. This was followed by a Sketch. It was a psychological story, holding the convincing quality which alone makes a Ghost story interesting. The incident was that of a new comer to a country town, who, on the night of his arrival makes a beastly trip through the rain and dark to secure a doctor for his sick child. He follows a light [,] secured the doctor, escorts him back and takes his prescription. When this prescription is presented to the druggist the next day, the denoument [denouement] takes place. The druggist summons witnesses, and the narrator learns that the Doctor has been dead over a year.

The last article on the Programme was by Mrs. R.M. Wylie [Elizabeth J. Wylie], and was called "A Book Review." Mrs. Wylie began


by saying that she had been reading some the old books this summer and found them very pleasant company. The first was ["]St. Ronan's Well," that admirable description of a 17th Century Spa, or Hotel[,] as one of the characters insisted upon calling it.

The next book was Miss Yonge's "The Armorer's Prentices," which introduces one to the New Forest, Sir Thomas More, Wolsey, the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and gives an interesting glimpse of by gone days.

The next book was "The Shadow of a Man," by Horning, the scene of which is laid in Australia, part of the time in Melbourne. The description of ranch life, Mrs. Wylie said, was particularly interesting. Mrs. Wylie then spoke of Mrs. Easterwood's new book "Lazaria," a novel founded upon one of the many stories told of the Little Dauphin of sad surmises. This tale avers that he was brought to this country, was first held by the Indians, but was afterwards taken and educated, and lived and died under the name of Williams, a clergyman in the Episcopal Church.

Mrs. Wylie commended for its interest Mrs. Overton's, "The Heritage of Unrest," a vivid picture of Indian life and wrongs. "The Crisis," Mrs. Wylie said she had read, but would make no comment, as we had all


probably read it for ourselves. At the request of the President and others, Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud] then kindly consented to read her recent story "Liza Wetherford," a reading which the Club greatly enjoyed.

The meeting then adjourned.

4th Meeting on October 22nd, 1901

The 4th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday October 22nd, 1901 at the Assembly Room, Academy of Arts and Sciences, the President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] presiding.

The first announcement was that the Rev. Henry Van Dyke will give a lecture on behalf of the McCall Mission in the Concert Hall, Academy of Music on December 9th. Subject of the Lecture "Literature and Life in the 19th Century["].

The second announcement was that Miss Shedlock, an Englishwoman, will give recitations on October 31st, in the Music Hall. Tickets to be had at the Hall or from Mrs. W.R. Buckler. "Eringenius."

The regular programme was then taken up. The first article given us was by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner], and was called "Pictures That Have Never Been Painted." Mrs. Turner invited us to a Subjective Art Gallery, lighted by the light which


"never shone o'er land or sea, where hang those imaginary pictures which like unheard music, transcend all that mere color can represent. She spoke of the invalid who, ordered not to use her eyes, unconsciously so exercised them in this kind of mental vision that the physician warned her of her danger. The highest art Mrs. Turner said, is the closest imitation of Nature, and so she would ask our attention to the pictures. The first which she would call "Genius," was the aclamhation [acclamation] of the soul upon an exquisitely sensitive face. A description of the woman's face was given, its fair Anglo Saxon beauty showing well against a pleasant home setting. Apropos of genius, Mrs. Turner quoted Dryden's lines. "Since, place, and circumstance may with pain be wrought, The genius must be born, and never can be taught[.]"

The second picture was called "The Lord is in His Holy Temple; let all the earth keep silence before Him[.]" This picture consisted of foreground, middle distance, and background. In the foreground were six persons, in the middle was a bay or lake, in the background the everlasting hills, and above all and crowned all the ineffable sunset. The third


picture was called "Waking Papa." We were asked to see a seemingly empty house, a deserted hall in the midst of which stands a casket. A little forgotten child strays in, goes to the casket, sees in it her father and bends over to wake him with a kiss. The mother coming in at that moment, her involuntary cry disconcerts the child, and the kiss is not given.

The fourth, and last picture is called "Birth." The scene is a fisherman's cottage, in early morning with everything astir. The fisherman's young wife is standing by the cradle in which is a very young child. These unseen, yet very real galleries are all hung by the nail which has a very long memory, and here may be found the greatest pictures, for such have never been painted. In conclusion, Mrs. Turner quoted Kipling's lines in "L'Envoi."

The next article on the Programme was Miss Cloud's [Virginia Woodward Cloud] rare story given with all those individual "little touches" which are the very life of a fine art. It was a romantic, in contradistinction to a realistic love story, with all the charm of the forest, of the night, of the stars in it. The Prince on his wedding-eve, disguised as a forester, goes with his more than lover, his friend, Germaine into the forest. There they fancy


themselves for the moment, of earth's humblest, and well within the happy reach of all earth's real gifts whether of joy or of love. Germain loves but knows what the Prince though a Prince, is less than a man in that he neither knows or cares what love is. Germain contrives that the disguised Prince shall meet the unknown Princess, his fiancee, his pomps and rank too, are, for the time being laid aside, and then as every day youth and maiden they meet and love. The outcome of the romantic adventure is joy and gladness, and the extreme beauty of the story rests upon the joy bringer--the true lover and friend--Germain.

The last article on the Programme was called "Art in America," and was by Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley]. and read by Miss Nicholas [Elizabeth Cary Nicholas]. The article was descriptive of a visit to the Art Gallery of the Buffalo Exposition, said to be the finest exhibition of American art as yet brought together. Mrs. Cautley said that it was a regrettable fact that American artists have first to make something of an European reputation before they could receive attention at home, but so it seemed. At Buffalo, however, Mrs. Cautley found the chief American artists and all ably represented. Abbey, Whistler


Sargent, Ade, all have much of their best work here given to view. She did not find their characteristics at all changed, save in the case of Sargent, who, having for some time showed people how to paint, was now showing them how not to paint. Certain of his works showed a decided "insolence," she thought in its indifference to detail, and carelessness of execution. In the portrait of Joseph Chamberlain, for instance, the head was magnificently done; but a child asked, "Mamma, what are those pink bunches--are they flowers?" meaning the hands. Elihu Vedder, Thomas Moran, all were seen at their best, as of course [,] was St. Gaudens, the Sculptor--supremely best, whose work stands easily at the head of American plaster art. Mrs. Cautley said she was glad to see that Canada made so good an exhibition of pictures in the Exposition and that she found the work of women--what there was of it--both strong and excellent.

The meeting then adjourned.


5th Meeting October 29th, 1901

The 5th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 29th, 1901 in the Assembly Room, Academy of Art and Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

After the reading of the previous minutes, the President announced that the committee (Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent] being Chairman) which has in charge the commemorative decoration of the graves of the authors and artists of Maryland would meet on Saturday November 2nd in the Committee Room at 11 a.m. All who could do so were asked to send flowers to the Committee Room earlier on the same day. Persons other than members of the Club who might care to join the Committee in its work of decoration were cordially asked to take part in this yearly commemoration.

The regular programme was then taken up. The first article on the programme was a story by Mrs. P.M. Reese [Elizabeth Reese] and was called "Her Standard." It was a realistic story of New Jersey Farm life and happenings, and showed that the old saying is true that "True Love never does run smooth." The author began by saying that there is a belief among the New Jersey farming folk that the yearly visit to the sea shore, and the accompanying dip in the surf, brings luck, and that in the ocean bath is washed


away ill luck in all its forms. The story told of the hard, colorless, drudging life of a young woman, who parted ten years before from her lover by a quarrel, and from that time devoted herself to home duties only, and had taken no thought of the outside world. In the development of the story we learn that the source of the lover's quarrel is that Mark Johnson confessed himself a married man; and hence the girl could do nothing but part from him. After first declining as usual to go with her family to the yearly "wash," the sudden news that Mark Johnson and his old wife, are to be there, fires the joyless Sarah Beulah with the determination to go. She does go, to the amazement of every one. Her father insists on her taking the customary sea bath with him. Mark Johnson's wife ventures beyond her depth, and though Sarah Beulah tries desperately to rescue the unfortunate woman, she is drowned. The ultimate outcome of the story is left to the hearer's imagination.

The second article on the Programme was by Mrs. Charles H. Beebe [Mary H. Beebe], and was called "What Dreams may Come." Dreams, Mrs. Beebe said[,] belong to us all. Dreamless sleep is theoretically possible, but very seldom actual. In repose we see a process of compara-


tive dissimulation. Dreams do not come strictly within the sphere of observation and experimentation, though the consciousness is always a psychic state. Since life enhances the conscious and sub-conscious. Ribot holds that that unconsciousness is illogical, when spoken of in connection with dreams. Sleep, then, is sub conscious not unconscious. In sleep mind is interrupted not arrested nor stayed. Dreams do help in the solution of certain physical and psychic problems. Prophetic dreams, as of ill health, or of certain actions, are due to impressions received in the subconscious sleeping state. For pathological sensations unnoticed while waking make an impression while asleep. Mrs. Beebe instanced Tartini & Coleridge. The Society for Psychical Research have done both harm and good with regard to this borderland of dream:-harm, in setting unscientific and superstitious minds to speculating and generalizing on insufficient knowledge:-good, in that it had given clear statements and scientific reflections to a hazy subject. Ribot holds that there is a real emotional memory quite distinct from intellectual memory. Waking, we have one world in common; but sleeping, each has


a world of his own, and we are then indeed of the stuff that dreams are made of.

The next article on the Programme was by Mrs. Thomas Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill] and Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler] and was called "Reminiscences of the Exposition." Mrs. Hill began by saying that one week at the Exposition was far too short to do it justice; for in some respects the Pan American far exceeded expectations. Beauty, Mrs. Hill said, an exquisite color scheme was the over-balancing and vital impression of the whole. As the Exposition was intended to promote trade with South American and Mexican neighbors, a Spanish style of Architecture was used. As there was exhaustless power behind the Electric arrangements owing to the use for lighting purposes of the Niagara river and Falls, the Electric display was unsurpassed, and the beauty by day and by night of the "Rainbow City," was something never to be forgotten. Beauty was the Key note in the Pan American Exposition. Mrs. Hill spoke of the Government and buildings, of the charming "Midway," the Phillipine [Philippine] Village, and last though not least, Fair Japan which was indeed sweet and restful. Mrs. Uhler said she was disappointed in the Liberal Arts Building. She also


spoke of the lack of artistic souvenirs, which lack seemed strange considering the great beauty of the Exposition. Mrs. Uhler said that the Exposition Numbers of the "Cosmopolitan," and of the "World's Work," contained the best accounts and illustrations of the Pan American. Mrs. Uhler also spoke of the "Indian Congress," composed of 700 Indians, as being one of the most unique and interesting features of the Exposition; and of her finding the Maryland Geological Exhibition in the Mines Building.

The 4th article on the Programme was by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner], and was on "Current Events." Mrs. Turner began by saying that having spent the summer in a corner of Maine, she found it somewhat difficult to get back into the main current of events.

The first event of National interest and importance touched upon was the assassination of the late President McKinley. Mrs. Turner spoke of the universal sympathy called for by the President's untoward fate, and of the impressive spectacle caused by a nation's mourning. Impressive too, was the fact that though the President's death was so terrible and so unexpected, the public tranquillity


was in no case disturbed. As she had not gone to the Exposition, Mrs. Turner said that she was much obliged to the two ladies who had just given us their charming observations and experiences. A matter of public interest was the throwing open of public lands in Oklahoma. Before the white man was allowed to settle, 3000 Indians were given choice of land with the wholesome proviso that they should not attempt to sell until the lapse of 25 years. The Indians chose, in most cases, the best lands. Mrs. Turner spoke of the good it was to sure to do.

She also vividly described the machine which generates the X Ray, and of her having seen a heart beat, as well as watched the rhythmic rise and fall of the diaphragm. A photographic plate in a room next to the one in which was the X Ray, had to be protected by 3 thicknesses of lead from the influence of the Ray. All this Mrs. Turner saw in the Bellevue Hospital.

Mrs. Turner spoke of the well-named "Arctic Circles," a woman's club instituted at Nome in the far North, a Club which from its location was necessarily exempt from Current Topics. She also spoke of the Federation of Women's Clubs in Arkansas, and of Mrs. Ellsworth formerly of Mt. Washington, a member of the Nucleus Club


there and a pioneer of Club work in the West. Mrs. Turner touched upon the Hall of Fame with its 29 Immortals. She spoke of the American Woman's Club in London with its already large membership. She alluded to the ever-widening opportunities for bread-winning open to women. She spoke of the richness of Hawaii's soil where crops of fruit and vegetables seem to grow many months in the year.

The loss by death recently has been that of Fiske [John Fiske, historian] to whom Mrs. Turner paid a fine tribute, the late Professor H.B. Adams [Johns Hopkins history] whom she had also known personally;--and Crispi, [Francesco Crispi] the late Prince Minister of Italy.

Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] spoke of the feeling in London at the time of Mr. McKinley's death, and of the London cabmen who wore, for one week, a little badge of crape.

The meeting adjourned.

6th Meeting on November 5th, 1901

The 6th Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday November 5th, 1901, in the Assembly Room, Academy of Arts and Science. Mrs. Caustey, First Vice President presiding.

After the meeting was called to order, Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] announced the Programme for


the month.

5th Current Criticism

12th Comment on the Drama

19th Fiction Committee

26th Salon with paper to be arranged later.

The regular Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. The first article was by Miss Evelyn R. Early [Eveline Rieman Early], and was called "Bonnie Prince Charlie." Miss Early spoke of the Stuart name as one to [conjure?] by, as one which evokes stirring memories of the past, for it was not what the Stuarts were, but what they inspired, which makes them memorable. Not themselves noble, yet never was race more nobly served. Mr. Andrew Lang's recent work [The Mystery of Mary Stuart] is not only history, but a portrait gallery filled with pictures of the royal family, whose history is so like pure romance. Its last member who made trial for the throne, the young Pretender, Charles Edward, had all the charm and perhaps all the weakness of his race, not destitute of high hopes, nor incapable of desperate enterprises, but wholly lacking in that pathetic patience and force of character which alone makes men masters of their fate. Charles Edward, son of James III, Chevalier St. George, and Clementina Sobieski, was born in 1725.


Miss Early gave a charming little letter written by the eight year old prince to his father--a letter which seemed to promise well for the future claimant of a throne. But when the young man applied to that throne, Jacobitism [Jacobism] was becoming a tradition. The house of Hanover was established, and the last of the Stuarts failed. The Scotch do not judge the Stuarts. They loved them too well. For the Stuarts seemed to form the core of poetry, haunting memories, and high hearted, if desperate hopes. Miss Early traced lightly the career of the Prince from his opening years to his death, which happened on the eve of the French Revolution.

The next article on the Programme was a Poem called "The Trouble of the Rain," by Miss De Valin [Laura V. DeValin]. As introductory, Mrs. Cautley said that she, having committed the grave error of asking masculine advice, was responsible for the misprint of the Programme which read "The Trouble of the Rain[?]." She, Mrs. Cautley[,] had been a little in double about the word, and hence had called in advice which proved at fault. Miss De Valin then read her poem which was short, and was realistically descriptive of a rain shower.

The third article on the Programme


was by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner], and was called "The Unattained Best." Mrs. Turner said that over every cradle hangs a nebulous haze of possible attainment, that there is a something in every life unattained, it is true, yet which if rightly striven after, makes all other attainment possible. Contentment, or self satisfaction, is fatal to any real advancement. She did not believe, she said, in letting well enough alone, unless it was the best under the existing conditions, and she instanced her own experience while travelling [traveling]. In every line of thought and work, that we should strive for the best pnossible, and this achievement of the best --for us--lies in our own structure. A high ideal she believes to be a divine mandate. Men and women are battlefields, and we are worth our best. At the same time she thought the mediocre was not sufficiently appreciated, not sufficiently allowed for and encouraged. Failure, death even were not infrequently the result of discouragement. One of the great benefits of Club life was that of kid, loving, yet dispassionate criticism. We all need to see ourselves and our work with others' eyes.

The fourth article on the Programme was by Mrs. George K. McGaw [Margaret Ann Worden McGaw], and was


called "Impressions of England." It was written in the form of a letter to a young friend. But in speaking of England whence should we begin? London, which the writer had thought of a cheerless, smoky, rainy, and chill, proved to be a beautiful city of lovely gray tints, everything toning into soft harmonious shades, and the flowers! Everywhere she was impressed by the beauty of the flowers. The grow in perfection. Perhaps one of the pleasantest experiences is to go to Oxford by coach, as she had done, along a beautiful road enriched by this profusion of flowers. On the way to Oxford they stopped at Blenheim Castle, a not remarkable spot, though interesting at the present to Americans as the present Duchess is an American [Consuelo Vanderbilt]. At Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, they heard the finest choral music ever heard, and a voice said to be the finest baritone in England. They saw Chester with its Roman remains, and also inscriptions bearing witness to the terrors of the plague which swept the city in 1664. The writer had been desirous to find out something of the Alfred Memorial, but from no one, not even a banker, could she get the information she sought.

At the end of Mrs. McGaw's paper,


Mrs. Cautley said that there might be a paper written called "Little Ironies of Westminster Abbey." Since things and people inimicable and separate in life are here brought together. Elizabeth's [Elizabeth I] tomb is superimposed upon Mary's [Mary Stuart], as if the one were keeping the other down, and there still hangs on the wall a remarkable order given by James I with regard to his mother Mary Stuart.

Mrs. Cautley also called the attention of the Club to certain books. "The Benefactress," by the author [Elizabeth von Arnim] of "Elizabeth and Her German Garden," a book not quite so equal in tone as some of the others by this author. "The Chevalier St. George," by C. Sanford Terry. "The Fallen Stuarts," by F.W. Head. "Frederic Mistral," by Charles Alfred Downe. "Forest Folk" by James Prior. "Women and Men of the French Revolution," by Edith Sichel. "Latin Anthology," by Professor Tyrrell.

The meeting adjourned.


[Meeting of November 12, 1901]

The 7th regular meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday afternoon, November 12th, 1901, in the room of the Club at the Maryland Academy of Sciences. The meeting was called to order by the President, Mrs. John C. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall].


In the absence of Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall], secretary pro tem, the minutes of the previous meeting were dispensed with, and Mrs. Hammel [Bertha B. Hammel] was asked to take the minutes of the current meeting.

The President announced that the proceeds of the Chrysanthemum Show for that afternoon would be devoted to the Children's Fresh Air fund, on the Committee of which Mrs. Carter [Florence Carter] is chairwoman.

The President expressed recognition of the article in the previous Sunday Sun, giving an account of the Club. For this article, she said, she believed the Club owed its thanks to Miss Lantz [Emily Emerson Lantz], and added that she thought it especially pleasant to receive recognition in one's own city, not withstanding the usual fate of the prophet in his own country.

The Club then proceeded to the programme for the afternoon which was opened by a study of the ["]Midsummer Night's Dream,["] by Mrs. Charles Beebe [Mary H. Beebe]. Introducing her paper with Bottom's words "It is past the wit of man to say what this dream is." Mrs. Beebe went on to say that a present day volume of Shakespeare so abounds with notes and explanations, that the author would scarcely recognize his own work. There is little left for the reader to study on his own account, and


he is prone to take on faith the explanations, often faulty, that have been made for him, and finally concludes that he knows more of the author's meaning than the author himself.

This play is a poser for critics. They begin by questioning the fitness of the name, many contending that the dream did not occur in Midsummer. But Mrs. Beebe believed it very appropriately named, being a veritable midsummer night's dream from beginning to end.

In point of fancy it stands first among Shakespeare's dramas. It is in a class by itself. Oberon, Titania and Puck are the children of Shakespeare's romantic fancy. Some critics claim that there is too incongruous and heterogeneous a mingling of the course [coarse?] with the supernatural, but Mrs. Beebe thinks the former has been raised to the level of the supernatural. The whole play is strong in its dramatic element. The descriptions are vivid, and we are carried into the haunts of the fairies, the fairies of Shakespeare's England. It is throughout an antithesis, or rather a series of antitheses. It is one of the few of Shakespeare's dramas that has come to us in correct form;--it is supposed to have been corrected in


Shakespeare's own theatre. Whatever may be said of it, all is dreamland, a place for dreamers and not for critics.

Miss Louise Malloy then read a paper on "The Stock Company as an Educational factor in the Community," the result of an interview with Mr. George Fawcett, the director of the Percy Haswell [Mrs. George Fawcett, actress] Stock Co. [formed in Baltimore 1901] in this city, and an actor of experience.

A good stock company has a distinct educational value in a community, aside from its primary object, the amusement it affords. In the old days it was the standard of English and of the Classics. It was from these stock Companies that the great mass of the people got their knowledge of Shakespeare,--of the old poets, and of the famous dramatists of the language. The modern Stock Company [,] however[,] fills a different place. But there is one quality which should still survive from the idea of the old stock--its place as a standard of good English,--and clear and accurate pronunciation.

For an actor it is the best of schools. The star system tends to throw performances out of proportion. In the Stock Company right proportions are restored. To the actor it has its chief value, not as an end but as a means, as a training.


not as one's final work. The character of a community can generally be recognized by its theatre-goers. In communities where life is strenous [strenuous], there is more craving for theatrical amusements, than in communities where life is slower, and more placid, and less affected by commercial activity.

A good stock company can do more than supply this rest from strain. It forms dramatic taste among theatre goers. With the advent of really good (plays) shows, comes a healthy susceptibility to good impressions, and the theatre comes to represent an element in the intellectual development of the town through the education of its peoples' tastes. It is going to have another good effect, an appreciable influence in the development of a national dramatic literature. The necessity for plays will stimulate the writing of them, and when (the) American dramatic literature is an established fact, the Stock Company system will be found to have had no small share in bringing this about.

Miss Virginia Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud] then read two poems. "The Race," and "The Poet."

Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] read scenes of the first act of a dramatization of Henry Esmond, ["The History of Henry Esmond" by Thackeray]


prepared by herself and Miss Malloy. The opening scene represents Steele, Addison, Swift and Esmond over their wine. Time, after Blenheim. Later is a scene in which appear Lord Castlewood with Baptiste, the Prince (in disguise) at Kensington. Lady Castlewood, Beatrix, and Esmond.

Upon the request of the President, Mrs. Cautley also read a love making scene between Esmond and Beatrix.

Miss Cloud was the Chairman of the Drama, and had charge of the programme.

The meeting then adjourned.

Meeting of November 19th, 1901.

The 8th regular meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, November 19th, 1901, in the Assembly Room, Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mrs. J.C. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall, the President, presided.

After the reading of the minutes of previous meetings, which minutes had been kindly taken by Mrs. Hammel [Bertha B. Hammel], the President announced that at the Salon on the approaching Tuesday, the 26th, the paper would be given by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner].

The President also read an invitation from the "Charcoal Club," [Baltimore men's art club] to the Woman's


Literary Club, to attend an Exhibition of the work of the Charcoal Club at the Club rooms from the 17th to the 22nd of the month from 3.30 to 5.30 p.m. daily.

The programme was then taken up. The first article was by Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall], and was called "The Bishop and the Benefactor." The sketch was rather in the nature of an essay in the guise of a story than a story proper, and went to show that that rare quality--the Will--both in the community at large as well as in the individual, may be imperilled [imperiled] by too much generosity as well as by too much indifference; that man collectively and individually must be taught to depend upon himself rather than to rely upon others, that unwise generosity is bound to do harm.

The second article on the programme was a story entitled "Her Soldier Lover," by Mrs. J. H. Wilson Marriott. The writer described a young, pretty vivacious girl, too much given to coquetry, one who, because of her lack of appreciation of certain fine qualities in her lover, excited the apprehension of her gentle old Aunt. Seeing that the girl was trifling with happiness, the Aunt gently told her young niece the love-story of her own youth. A story crossed by death and disappointment here, but never dimmed by

[insert between 98 and 99]

disloyalty or doubt or feigning. The niece took the lesson to heart, and so treated her lover, that the happiness of both was assured.

The 3rd article on the Programme was by Mrs. Percy M. Reese [Elizabeth Reese], and was called "Howard Pyle as a Writer for Children." Mrs. Reese began by speaking of Mr. Pyle as well known as a fine illustrator, and writer for children of the larger growth, but comparatively unknown as a writer for children. And yet, she said, he excels in this difficult and particular art. She spoke of Mr. Pyle's versatility of his talents branching forth in many ways, and read in illustration of what she had to say, from Mr. Pyle's book, "The Moon Path," and also read in its entirety a little animal story called "The Three Little Pigs." Like all good stories for children it held more than it seemed, and a quaintly significant moral--old as the everlasting hills--young as the youngest child--but a moral which was not too strongly insisted upon


[paragraph repeats sections of previous page] disloyalty or doubt, or feigning. The niece took the lesson to heart, and so treated her lover, that the happiness of both was assured, a quaintly significant moral--old as the everlasting hills--young as the youngest child--but a moral which was not too strongly insisted upon.

The 4th article on the Programme was a story by Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud], a story which will shortly appear in print. It would be both impossible and ungracious to attempt to unravel the threads of a texture so fine and rare, for realism and idealism, fact and fancy, imagination and historic truth, are here for too skillfully blended. Miss Cloud successfully accounts for La Fayette's anticipation of Clinton's attack upon Barren Hill, and shows how a young gentlewoman, apparently all softness and tenderness, preferred truth and duty before an ignoble love. Prevented her country men from surprise and defeat, and saved from the world's scorn, a man's name and honor, though she could not save this man, her lover, from his own base self. When the girl, dying suddenly in her youth, came to be laid in her coffin, the old serving woman showed that the powder, worn apparently in caprice, had hidden the suddenly whitened locks which betokened


a veritable heartbreak.

The 5th article on the Programme was by Miss Cullington [Anne Cullington], and was called "The Historical Novel." Miss Cullington traced ably the rise and development of the Historical Novel, from the old time romance which was read as supposed history, down to the mangled history of to day which is read as supposed romance. For most of the much authorized historical novels of to day, Miss Cullington said were poor history and worse English. The historical novel for the Anglo-Saxon, began with the Arthurian legends and tales, and has been present with us from the dawn of our intellectual consciousness. Chivalry, Gothic art, the glow of romance, the spell of beauty--the dream of some condition loftier and better than the present--all find their hiding place and true fine echoes in historical romance. Not a writer of any note but has essayed his strength in this particular; until it would sometimes seem as if English and American writers loved and sought History only as the hand maid of romance. Sir Walter Scott was wholly given over to this form of fiction. ["]Henry Esmond["] is the greatest English Historical Novels [novel]. Charles Kingsley wrote "Hereward the Wake," and also "Hypatia," going as it were from


early England before the Norman knew her, to Egypt and to Rome.

Miss Cullington spoke well and ably of the spherodic [spheroidic] power of Characterization which the latter part of English historical fiction can show, and spoke of Cooper, Hawthorne, and Miss Mary Johnston as telling examples of what may be done in the art of the Historical Novel.

At the close of the Programme, the meeting adjourned.

Meeting of November 26th, 1901.

The 9th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, was held in the Assembly Room of the Club, Academy of Sciences. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] presided. After calling the meeting to order, this meeting being the usual monthly Salon, the reading of the minutes of the previous meeting was omitted.

The President then announced the weekly programme for the coming month. As Christmas Eve falls upon Tuesday this year, the Club will hold no meeting on that day. The President again referred to the coming Lecture on December 9th, by Dr. Henry Van Dyke of Princeton.

The President then presented to the Club


on behalf of Mrs. Edward Stabler [Eliza Butler Stabler], a book entitled "A Collection in Prose and Verse" by a lady of Maryland, and Original Poetry never before published by Citizens of Maryland; published at Annapolis in 1808. Printer, Frederick Green.

Mrs. Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner] was then asked to give her paper prepared for the occasion, "Current Topics" being the subject. Mrs. Turner began by calling attention to the Pan American Meeting [Pan-American Conference] held in the city of Mexico, which has three very important measures under consideration. First, a system of Arbitration. Second to be made operative through an International Court similar to the one projected by the Hague Conference. Third, a better system of quarantine by which vessels and trains coming from infected places shall be well inspected, and those on them who are fit so to do, shall be permitted to go on their way. As the present system of quarantine is a relic of barbarism, any improvement on such a system should be hailed with delight.

The Trans-Siberian Railway, Mrs. Turner thought, is a matter of special interest. This Railroad built by American Engineers, and largely with American material, is 6000 miles long, and has already cost $300,000,000, and more that 100,000,000 Russians have sought


homes there. Russia now controls about 1/4 of the globe.

Apropos of Russia and the great North, Mrs. Turner said that Ibsen's [Henrik Ibsen] surprising recovery from desperate illness (a recovery which dates from the time of his sending for Bjornsen [Bjornstjerne Bjornson, author, Nobel laureate], and reconciliation with him after a life long feud--[)] Ibsen is now writing his autobiography, and is enormously afraid that some knowledge of it may [be] premature by be[ing] given out. So he keeps his MS. closely hidden.

The death of Li Hung Chang [Li Hongzhang], is an important event in the political world. Li Hung Chang was well known in this country, being a Chinese Liberal, and was accessible to Western ideas while holding fast his own. According to the Chinese custom, a cheque was put in his coffin with which to pay his way in the spirit land. Egypt. Charon.

Mrs. Turner then alluded to the friction which has taken place between the Senate and President Roosevelt because of the Army and Naval appointments. The President has openly declared that "Influence" will no longer influence, that fitness alone shall be considered. As President Roosevelt stands "unpledged" to the party leaders, so-called, it will be interesting to see whether


the Executive or the Legislative branches of the government will prevail. The overthrow of Tammany [Democratic political machine in New York City], Mrs. Turner thought is matter for National congratulations, and the election of Mr. Low [Seth Low, reform mayor] promises great things for New York in particular, and for good municipal government in general.

The Hall of Fame at the Charleston Exposition [South Carolina Inter-State and West Indian Exposition] was mentioned, and nineteen of the well[-] known Marylanders whose names will grace that Hall we[re] then read.

The name "Cape Nome" [Seward Peninsula, Alaska] was then explained. It is due to an error in reading the word Name as Nome. The mistake was made while preparing the chart on board the British Ship "Herald," of the English Geographical Survey.

Mrs. Turner mentioned the deaths of Kate Greenaway, celebrated for her illustrations of children, and also the death of Mrs. Henschal.

Mrs. Turner spoke of the exits from the Music Hall as being inadequate and unknown to the large audiences that are frequently brought together in the building. The matter, she thought, should be agitated until safe provisions for leaving the Hall, are made.

She spoke of the unifying of the system of railroads under Mr. J.P. Morgan, and


of the all embracing nature of this gentleman's possessions, and read a little humorous rhymed skit to show that Mr. Morgan aspires to possess all things.

In regard to ["]Woman's Work," Mrs. Turner mentioned the novel written by a Mrs. A. Lanndress [?], a book just published, of a woman who though blind and deaf, yet appreciates any [and?] enjoys music through the sense of touch; of another woman who has built herself a house out of eight old disused street cars, all of which goes to show that where there's a will there's a way.

Mrs. Turner then spoke more at length regarding Child Labor in Southern Mills. This mistaken employment of children is a sad phase of industrial development. One fourth of the "labor" in South Carolina is done by children under 14 years of age.

Mrs. Hammel [Bertha B. Hammel] said, that apropos of this question of "child labor," that Southern women were doing their best to call attention to its evils, and to have it either abolished or else properly controlled; that she had written to Mr. Walter H. Page, Editor of the Review, "The World's Work," and had received a very nice reply, but one in which he still holds to his opinion that one of the difficulties is that Mills which employ children are owned and conducted by Northern Capitalists, who are either


indifferent to, or ignorant of, these distressing and hurtful conditions.

Miss Mary Davis [Mary Dorsey Davis] spoke of her recent visit to California, of her visits to the Chinese quarter of San Francisco, of a Mission work there in the Chinese quarter, conducted by ladies, Presbyterians, a mission which has for its object the rescue of children and girls from virtual slavery and worse, and of the Chinese Ambassador as having furnished in beautiful Chinese fashion the parlor of this Mission House. Miss Davis also spoke of her short stay in Denver, Col., of a visit to a "Woman's Club ["] there, and of her becoming the guest of a Southern woman, a member of this Club. This lady had "gone West" 35 years ago, just after the Civil War. Three and a half months were occupied in making the journey across the plains. The hardships were many, but the kindness of the Indians--one chief in particular--was great. He supplied the traveller [traveler] with an abundance of game, and asked in return for the favor of two of the lady's beautiful auburn curls. She hesitated at first, but finally gave him two. He was much delighted with her gift, and when she next saw her Indian friend, he had proudly plaited the two auburn curls into his own raven scalp lock. She was begged again for her hair, but this chief


entreated her to give it to none but chiefs, which she did; for during that long journey in return for necessary provisions, she parted with nearly all her auburn curls.

Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock] spoke of the submarine boat now undergoing experiment; and Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall] alluded to the recent studies of Professor Ritchie with regard to the Nebular Hypothesis.

The President called attention to the gift of Mrs. Phoebe Hearst to the University of California. This gift, a sum of money, is to be used in the study of Indian life along the Pacific coast.

After pleasant social intercourse "over the Teacups," the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of December 10th, 1901.

[note in margin] Turn to page 112.

The 11th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday December 10th, in the Assembly Room of the Club, Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided. Owing to an unusually full programme, the minutes of the preceding meeting were omitted.

Mrs. Wrenshall announced two new members of the Club. Miss Virginia Hopkins, and Miss Coulson [Elizabeth Coulson], both of whom had been


unanimously elected. The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up.

The first article was by Miss Nicholas [Elizabeth Cary Nicholas] and was called "The Brigand and the Duchess," translated from the French of Edmond About. This tale delicately ironical, and well translated, preserved its seasoning of truly Gallic wit which consists in extolling the acumen of man at the expense of the sentimentally emotional in woman. The narrator longs to hear the true story of adventure of the Duchess and the Brigand; but he never does. The Duchess cleverly evades and only half discloses, when hard pressed, the truth. The Brigand was a very pretty brigand of the operatic stage order, a sort of Claude Duval [French gentleman highwayman] with whom robbing was less an offense than an excuse for fine manners. For the apologies of the Brigand for demanding drachmas in return for a lady's liberty were so moving that the Duchess seemed at a loss which to regret more--the liberty, or the ransom money. But the opportune appearance of the soldiery saves the lady, and sends off the Brigand. Indeed we are left in doubt whether there is a brigand at all, whether he too might not have been a travelling sous-prefet [sub-prefect].

The second article of the Programme was called "The Rose of Sharon," from


the Italian of Mathilde [Matilde] Serao [Italian journalist, novelist], and was translated by Mrs. Frederick Turner, and read by the President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall]. The narrator, about to set out on a visit to the Holy Land, wishes to catch a glimpse of that dream of beauty, the "Rose of Sharon." Confessing that longing to a disillusioned friend, she assures her that there is no such thing as an actual "Rose of Sharon," that it is a figment of the oriental imagination, an oriental figure of speech for ineffable beauty, transcendent happiness, a perfect love. It was a tradition like the "Seal of Solomon," "An Apple of Sodom." The narrator determined to believe, however, makes diligent inquiry for this wonderful rose; but only to meet with continual disappointment. She does not find the Rose, but does discover that every impressionist believes only his own impression. She still persists, and finally after hearing that there is no such thing as the "Rose of Sharon," after actually purchasing for a small sum a false "Rose of Sharon"--after having been given a common little garden rose as the true rose, she does at last find a real "Rose of Sharon,"--the Rose of the Ancient Hebrew poets, dry and withered, and unpoetical to the eye, but doubtless possessing that soul of perfume which made its rarity


and its charm. The quality of the translation was very fine possessing all the warmth and richness of the original. This fact was noted by Mrs. Latimer, who came in during the reading. Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer], herself an admirable translator, said that she had not supposed the article was a translation.

The third article on the Programme was called "The Charm of Gorgenali," and was by Mrs. Pearce Kintzing [Theodora Kintzing], from the German of Leo Frobenius [ethnologist]. This was the old, young immortal story of man's and maiden's love, and of the choice of the one out of many. The hero is a young painter who can paint every one save his beloved, and yet gives to every one unconsciously, a look, a trace of the maiden he loves. This significant truth is discovered by his old mother, and she plays the part of Eros in the story, and helps on the course of her son's true love. The story is full of the German feeling for the forest, for Music, for all the more emotional, less strenuous, side of life, and all this was charmingly given by Mrs. Kintzing.

The 4th article on the Programme was called "The Land of Jews," and was translated by Miss Marie Perkins from the Italian of Mathilde [Matilde] Serao. Miss Perkins' paper was divided into two parts, one descriptive of the Holy Scripture,


the other descriptive of a night spent in the Sepulchre. The author spoke of the flight of the birds round the Sepulchre, of the two chapels into which all Hebrew tombs seem to be divided. The walls of the Tomb are covered with white marble to preserve the original rock from being carried off by relic hunters. The narrator spoke of the 40 ever[-]burning lamps which are kept within the Tomb, and of the ever present devotees. Men out of every nation who gather there to offer their devotions. It is the Latin race, she said, which is the most easily swayed by emotion. Of all pilgrims, the Russian is the poorest and most readily known. The Greek peasant is quickly noted with his toil hardened hands, the color of the soil he works in.

The night spent in the church of the Holy Sepulchre was very impressive. The eastern day does not glide into twilight, but seems to be suddenly snuffed out, and then the darkness appears to rise from the ground. Those who linger, and so desire, may then be shut into the Tomb. The description of the place, of the pilgrims, of the impressions wrought upon a thoughtful and devout mind were very beautiful. They brought out the truth that the life of the spirit is the one thing needful


and that part of that life consists in sympathy, pity, and love for all God's creatures.

The Committee on Translation was thanked for, and complimented on, its work.

The meeting then adjourned.

Meeting of December 3rd 1901.

The 10th meeting of Woman's Literary Club was held on Tuesday, December 3rd at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Sts.

The day was particularly stormy and but twelve members were present. As only one or two of the ladies who were to appear upon the day's programme were present, and the Programme, under the Committee on Translations, being a very fine one, it was unanimously resolve[d to] the postpone the Programme for December 3rd to December 10th, so that the great majority of the Club might not lose the pleasure and benefit of so excellent a programme.

Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, and the other members present then spent a very agreeable hour in the discussion of Club affairs, after which the informal meeting adjourned.


Meeting of December 17th, 1901.

The 12th meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday December 17, in the Assembly Room, Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President presided.

Mrs. Wrenshall announced the Programme for the coming month; also that, as Tuesday, the 24th, fell on Christmas Eve, there would be no Club meeting on that date; and, as Tuesday, the 31st, fell on New Year's Eve, there would be also no meeting then.

We had expected to be in the New building of the Academy [of] Arts and Sciences, Mrs. Wrenshall said, by the New Year; but owing to delay in repairing and alterations, we could not occupy our new quarters until some time in January--about the 14th probably.

Mrs. Wrenshall also announced a special Club Meeting, and entertainment to be held on "Old Christmas," January 6th, in the Assembly Room. A special Programme had been prepared for this occasion--an evening Reception--and as the Programme would begin promptly by 8:15, the members were asked to be prompt in their attendance. As this


Reception is to be an "open" Meeting, every Member is allowed one guest, lady or gentleman. The Regular Programme was then taken up.

The first article on the Programme was called "Waits." "Waits" or "Watchers" are those who at Christmastide, and especially on Christmas Eve, go about the streets and from house to house, singing Christmas Hymns and Carols. The custom is an old one, and has come down from ancient times. In the north of England it does not seem to have been so common as in the South; but it was a common custom in Shakespeare's day, and in the out-of-the-way country parishes, has continued to our own. Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese] gave fine specimens of the Wait Songs. Some gathered from the lips of those now living, others having become Classics, and having been preserved in Literature. In conclusion, Miss Reese read a fine poem of her own, "The Little Jesus," written in the spirit and with much of the quaint grace, of the early "Waits."

The next article on the programme was a Poem by Miss Maria Middleton, and was called: "Christmas." It was read by the author. The joyous and


religious nature of the festival was very feelingly dwelt upon in the poem.

The 3rd article was by Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall], and was called "Christmas Cheer," A Paper. Miss Duvall spoke of the origins of our Christmas festival, how the Church in early times took over with is Pagan converts, as many of their customs, habits and traditions as could be adapted to Christian life and teaching. She showed the close connection between the Winter Solstice with its universal custom of lighting fires and lamps, and candles, and the Christmas lights,-- the connection between the "Roman Saturnalia," the time of peace and good will, and our own Christmas feeling and teaching; --the kinship between the Scandanavian [Scandinavian] customs and some of the Christmas ones. Miss Duvall spoke of the old customs of having a "Lord of Misrule," or "Abbot of Unreason," whose rule lasted from Halloween until Candlemas,--of the jollity and feasting, the songs of merry making, the Boar's Head, Peacock, Plum Pudding and Mince Pies.

Then on the religious side Miss Duvall spoke of the Carols, old and quaints, and gave specimens of some of them.

The 4th article was a poem by


Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud]. Miss Cloud gave two stanzas of this poem called "On a Judean Housetop." The poem appeared in its entirety in the Christmas Number of the Century Magazine.

The last article on the Programme was Milton's Hymns on the Nativity read by Miss Belle Brooks.

After the Programme hot tea was served, and the remainder of the afternoon was pent in pleasant social intercourse.

The meeting then adjourned.

[following article transcribed from Baltimore Sun January 7, 1902]

Merry Twelfth Night.

Woman's Literary Club Celebrates

In Old English Style.

Old Christmas Twelfth Night was observed last night by members of the Woman's Literary Club in most artistic and quaint fashion. A genuine English merry making with a strict observance of all the picturesque details made familiar to Marylanders through their ancestor, the early settlers of the State.


The affair was also the last formal entertainment to be given by the Club in its home of so many years, corner of Franklin and Cathedral streets, and hence a double effort was made to make the occasion memorable in the minds of those present.

The assembly room of the Club was hung in hemlock and holly and lighted exclusively by wax tapers. Tall pedastals [pedestals] twined with evergreen and surmounted by cathedral candles were grouped about the stage, while all about the room were gleaming silver candlesticks, with lighted tapers and old-fashioned crystal lusters, whose prisms reflected hearth fire and tapers' gleam with all the tints of the rainbow. All present were in evening toilet, which added to the brilliancy of the occasion.

Guests were welcomed by the President, Mrs. John C. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] [description of dress and jewels omitted]. Assisting Mrs. Wrenshall in her duties as hostess was Mrs. R. King Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] , first Vice President of the club. The Chairman for the literary and musical programme was Miss L. C. O'Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], while the hospitality of the occasion was directed by Mrs. John M. Carter, 2nd Vice President.


The programme was opened with a New Year's greeting by the President, who spoke of the religious significance of Twelfth Night, and also of the masques, pantomimes, and songs of the waits that custom has long ascribed with the closing night of the Christmas holidays.

With Mrs. Wrenshall's closing words the voices of the Christmas waits broke the silence, and the programme continued. It included a chorus by Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, spoken Miss May Haughwout; recitations from "The Messiah," Mrs. William Gibson; poem, "The Lost Song," Miss Virginia Cloud; chorus, Miss L. May Haughwout; cradle song [Miss L. May Haughwout].

With the bringing in on a sled of the Yule log adorned with mistletoe and holly, the real merry making began. The Yule log poem by Herrick was sung to the merriest college glee tunes, and as it was cast on the glowing coals, red witch lights were lighted on the hearth.

When the log was well ablaze the Twelfth Night feast began. First came a huntsman with sash of green, bearing aloft the roasted boar's head on a silver salver; next came the chef carrying in state the stuffed peacock


in a nest of Christmas greens; last came the second chef, with the plum cake glowing with flame and hiding within it the articles essential to a Twelfth Night cake--a scissors, a thimble, a bean, a ring, and a piece of money, each article presaging some special luck to befall the person finding them in his or her portion of the cake.

When this procession had made the circuit of the room to the waits singing of the old, old song, "The boar is dead, for here's his head,"--a bountiful supper was served in the Botany Room of the Academy of Sciences Building [under the direction of Caterer Allan Griffith].


Twelfth Night Programme.

January 6th 1902.

A Twelfth Night Festival

Miss L.C.O. Haughton, Chairman. [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton]

New Year's Greeting: Mrs. J. C. Wrenshall. [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall]

Adeste Fidelis: The Waits.


The Waits:

Messrs. Reginald Baugher,

Cyril Baugher.

Newlson Gerard.

Dr. Hugh Bond.

Edwin Newbold.

William Scott, Jr.

Charles Leimpert.

Howard May.

Miss Stieller, Contralto.

Miss Ruth Cowdray, Violinist. [Ruth Cowdrey]

Chorus: Miss L.W. Reese. [Lizette Woodworth Reese]

Spoken by Miss L.M. Haughwout [L. May Haughwout]

R.S. Willis. "It Came Upon the Midnight Clear." The Waits

Handel. Recitations (from the "Messiah") Miss William Gibson. Accompanist, Mr. Frederick Wolff.

"Hark the Herald Angels Sing." The Waits.

"The Lost Song." A Poem. Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud.


Chorus. Miss L.M. Haughwout.

Hayden. "Silent Night." The Waits.

Bartlett. "Cradle Song." Miss L.C.O Haughton.

"Three Kings of the Orient." The Waits.

Herrick. "The Yule Log." The Waits.

"On your psalterier [psaltery] play.

That good luck may,

Come while the log is attending."



13th Meeting of January 7th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held at the Academy of Arts and Sciences, in the Assembly Room, on January 7th, 1902. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

The first announcement made was that this meeting was the last which would take place in the building now occupied by the Academy and the Club, and that the next meeting would be held in the new building recently purchased by the Academy, 115 Franklin Street.

It was then announced that L' Alliance Francaise would hold a meeting in the new rooms of the Club, on Saturday, January 18th, at 8:30 p.m. Monsieur Lance would make the address.

It was further announced that arrangements had been made by the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore and the Lend-a-Hand Club, through the respective Presidents and Boards of Management, by which the Lend-a-Hand Club would hold its weekly meetings during winter months in the new rooms of the Woman's Literary Club.


A graceful note of thanks from Mrs. J.T. Grisham, President of the Lend-a-Hand Club, to Mrs. Wrenshall, President of the W.L.C. of Baltimore, was then read. An invitation was give to the members of the W.L.C. of B. to meet the Lend-a-Hand Club, "over the Teacups," on Monday January 20th.

The regular Programme was then taken up, it was under the care of the Committee on Colonial and Revolutionary History. Mrs. Thomas Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill] being the Chairman.

The first article called "Colonial Maryland," was given by Mrs. John M. Carter [Florence Carter]. Mrs. Carter said that it [was to] Chalmers [George Chalmers, antiquarian], the annalist of early Colonial history, was she indebted for much of her information. Maryland, she said has the distinction of being the first Colony which was erected into a province of the British Empire. Patriotism, she thought, is something to be fostered, and we ought to be more familiar with notable Maryland worthies. William McSherry, a young Jesuit priest, studying at Rome, found there the letters of Father White, S.J.--letters concerning the early settlement of Maryland. Cecilius Calvert, Second


Lord Baltimore was granted a Charter by James I, confirmed by Charles I in 1632. On February 22nd, St. Cecilia's Day, 1634, Leonard Calvert, his brother, set sail from the Isle of Wight, with the Ark and Dove, two small vessels, for the Western Continent. They encountered some storms; but finally reached the shores of Virginia, landing at Port Comfort. The Virginia colonists regarded the voyagers of the Ark and Dove with suspicion, and they were unwelcome. Letters from the King and High Commission satisfied the Virginia colony, and the new comers were hospitably treated. Then they set sail again up the Chesapeake, and finally landed at St. Mary's, 27th [25th] of March, 1634. Our pilgrims placated the Indians by fair treatment, and raised an altar of religious liberty. It is somewhat difficult to reckon the exact dates; because of the different modes of reckoning time. For some of the English, Russians, and Swedes took the 1st of January as the 1st of the year:[;] others reckoned from the 25th of December, Christ's Nativity, as the first, and others again reckoned from the 25th of March.

Calvert's first grant of land was in Nova Scotia, and was called "Avalon,"


after the English "Avalon," near Glastonbury, where the early Roman missionaries first began their work.

Leonard Calvert, Lieutenant Governor, died in 1647. His affairs were administered by Mistress Margaret Brent, who, as attorney, claimed a seat in the Assembly, and a vote. Her claim was disallowed, as a matter of gallantry merely, it being thought a want of delicacy to inflict upon one lone woman the necessary company of so so many men, and to oblige her to enter in debate. Matters were not peaceful and harmonious in the early colony. William Claiborne, Member of Virginia Assembly, had established lucrative and flourishing trading posts with the Indians, on Kent Island, and on Palmer's Island, at the mouth of the Chesapeake. As he had established himself before the granting of the Maryland Charter, and the coming of Calvert's Colonists, his resistance to what he considered unjust authority was long and stubborn. Then the Maryland colony was made up of many men of many minds. Catholics, Anglicans, Separatists, Covenanters, Friends, and their religious discussions were deep & many.


After Leonard Calvert came Charles, 3rd Lord Baltimore, then his son Benedict Leonard, then his son Charles, 5th Lord; then Frederick, weak and vacillating, whose natural son, Henry Harford, inherited the province by will.

Mrs. Carter touched upon the settlement and building up of Annapolis,--first called Providence, then Anne Arundel Town, and finally Annapolis.

The 2nd article on the Programme was by Mrs. Thomas Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill], and was called Martha Washington. Mrs. Hill began by saying that last year she had had the pleasure of speaking of Washington's Mother;--today she would speak of his wife. We are glad, she said, to have a glimpse of the domestic life of one so near and dear to the American heart. The 6th of January being the anniversary of General Washington's wedding day, she would commemorate it by a little sketch of the lady whom he had married. Martha Dandridge--the eldest child of Colonel John Dandridge and Frances Jones, his wife,--was born in 1731 at Pamunksey, New Kent County, Virginia. She received the usual schooling of the young gentlewoman of that day, and generation, and seemed from an early age


to have shown unusual discretion and good sense. At the age of sixteen she married Colonel Daniel Parke Custis, who died ten years later. At the age of twenty-six, therefore, she was a handsome, rich widow with two children. She had many suitors; but from the time of their first meeting, Washington ardently pressed his suit, which was successful.

Mrs. Hill gave pleasant little side glimpses of social manners and customs,--of the wedding cavalcade, the merry-makings afterwards and the open-handed free hospitality.

There is but one letter extant of General Washington's written during the time of his brief courtship. This letter Mrs. Hill read.

The musical part of the Program then followed, consisting of Solos and quartettes [quartets], and one instrumental piece, by Miss Rouss [Rouse].

The singers were:

Miss Murray, Soprano. [Edith Murray]

Miss Stowe, Contralto. [Edith W. Stowe]

Mr. F. Supplee, Tenor.

Mr. Malcolm W. Hill, Bass.

Mr. Harwood Knight, Accompanist.


One of the songs was "I love and the world is mine." The words are by our honorary member, Mrs. Florence Earle Coates; and the music is by Mr. Clayton Johns, a great nephew of the Bishop.

After the music, the Club members sang "Auld Lang Syne," for good fellowship sake, and as a parting song to their old, much regarded room, and the meeting adjourned.

14th Meeting of January 14th, 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, January 14th in the new rooms of the Club, Academy [of] Arts and Sciences, in the new building 115 West Franklin St. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, presided.

The first announcement was one concerning "White Label Goods," as they are called,--that is a card or circular may be had which certifies that certain goods are not made in tenements, nor by the sweat shop system.

The second announcement was of the scholarship of $500 offered by the Baltimore Association for the Promotion of University Education, to College Graduates of Maryland and the South. Full


particulars may be obtained from Mrs. McLane.

The third announcement was of a Course of Lectures on the English poets to be delivered by our Honorary Member, Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer]. The Lectures, 14 in number, will be given on Saturday mornings at 11:30 a.m. at 13 W. Franklin St., the residence of Mrs. Alan Smith.

The fourth announcement was to the effect that through Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], Chairman of the Twelfth Night Festival, Mr. Frederick Wolff, tendered to the Members of the Woman's Literary Club and their friends, an Organ Recital at Grace Church, at 3 p.m. on Friday afternoon, January 17th.

Then was the first Programme given in the Club's new home, and it was in charge of Mrs. Jordan Stabler [Ellen W. Stabler], Chairman of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records.

Before beginning the Programme, the President made a few remarks in which she gave a brief historical sketch of the home the Club is now occupying. She congratulated the Club on the success which has crowned its efforts, a success due to the Club's adhesion to its principles and its ideals. The first article on the


Programme was by Mrs. Thomas Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill], and was called "The Mother Chatauqua." Mrs. Hill prefaced her remarks, by a statement regarding the dates of her address on "Martha Washington,["] the address given on Tuesday the 7th. Owing to the difference of reckoning in time, George Washington's wedding-day fell upon the 17th of January, but this date according to our present reckoning falls upon the 6th of January. The two dates, are however, one and the same.

Mrs. Hill then took up her article proper. The original Chatauqua, she said, has been the model of some 100 younger like associations, and its influence is as varied as far-reaching. She had spent three weeks at Chatauqua in the summer of 1899. The weather was perfect and all arrangements were specially conducive to both intellectual and physical well being. The town is unique, and is beautifully situated upon Lake Chatauqua (which is in the S. Western part of the State of New York) 1400 feet above sea level. The spot was originally a Baptist Summer Encampment. The school was founded and organized in 1874, and the conception of it is due to two men. Bishop John Vincent,


and Mr. Louis Miller. The purpose of the purpose of the school is both education and social, and its scope now goes far beyond the dreams of its founders and early promoters. The school, intended first for study and improvement during the summer months, has greatly enlarged its original intention and "Spheres of usefulness." Some of the most distinguished men in the country lecture there, men famous in every department of learning--as for instance, the late well-known Dr. John Fiske [American philosopher, historian]. Mrs. Hill gave a pleasant description of the Geographical features of the place, of the arrangements for students, and spoke of the stimulating social and intellectual intercourse to be had there.

The 2nd article on the Programme was by Miss Mary Dorsey Davis, and was called "Santa Fe, and the Santa Fe Trail." In touching upon this subject one opens a door upon both history and romance. The old town of Santa Fe originally Indian--then Spanish, now American, is a wonderful picturesque spot, and takes us easily back to the early days of the country, and to the strange tales of the Spanish Conquistadores [Conquistadors]. Miss Davis had an interesting picture, done by herself, of the Governor's Palace, formerly so called at Santa Fe. This building, built of adobe brick


is said to be the first residence of the white man in this country. Santa Fe is the oldest town in the United States, as it antedates both Tucson and St. Augustine. Its church Rosario, stood on the spot where once offered the offerings of the Pueblo Indians, and probably the terrible human offerings of the Aztecs themselves. When, in 1680, the natives rose against the Spaniards, the Indians drove out the hated conqueror, and put to death many persons. The natives burned the Church, many valuables, and vestments, but spared the palace. They also destroyed the archives.

The Santa Fe Trail was that which led both North and West, and was the one over which the mule caravans used to pass. That part of the country teems with memories of the Spaniard and Spanish occupations;--the names are Spanish, and no picture can surpass in vividness the actual history of this Western part of our land. The horror of the old Trail has been a theme for many. Miss Davis touched upon Helen Hunt Jackson [poet], her work for the Indians, her strangely fitting tomb, and upon Zebulon Pike [explorer], and his pioneer work. The Trail too, bears testimony to General Kearney's [Stephen W.] early work,


and to the scenes of Geronimo's outbreaks. This old chief, now 80 years old, has just been granted his liberty.

The 3rd article on the Programme was by Miss Middleton, and was called "Stonehenge." Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] began by saying that there was one thing more rare than a June day, and that was a September day in England, and on Salisbury Plain. Miss Middleton spoke of the aspect of the country about "Stonehenge" or Hanging Stones, and then passed to the Stones themselves. Their origin and their builders are alike unknown. The Druids used them as a temple, but the Druids found them there; and it is now evident that these builders and makers were Sun worshipers, who must have lived unknown years before the Christian Era. Stones like those seen in Stonehenge, are not to be found anywhere in Britain, and the question is, where did they come from, how were they brought. The height of the tallest stone is 30 ft.--22 ft. above ground, and 8 ft. below. The stones are jealously guarded from the vadalism [vandalism] of relic hunters, and Miss Middleton spoke of being closely watched when she plucked a simple yellow daisy. The President,


Mrs. Wrenshall, spoke of "Stonehenge," as particularly interesting to her in its now well-ascertained character of an ancient Sun temple. There is still visible an earthen avenue, a central stone, and a stone beyond. The Solar movement is now slightly different, but more than 3000 years ago, exactly at the Summer Solstice or longest summer day, the Sun rose directly opposite this avenue, directly opposite the outer and inner stones, and doubtless, the outer stone was used to reckon by. The Avenue of Stonehenge suggested the avenue of Sphinixes in the Temple of Luxor.

Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock] spoke of the universality of Sun Worship in early times, and of people even in our own day, rising early on Easter morning to see on the rising Sun, the face of the risen Lord.

The 4th article on the Programme was by Mrs. Jordan Stabler [Ellen W. Stabler], and was called "Six Days in the Tyrol." Mrs. Stabler had with her interesting photographic views to show the nature of the country, and the route of travel which she followed. The objective point was Ober-Ammergaw [Oberammergau] with its world-famed Passion Play. Mrs. Stabler gave an interesting account of the town, and an


excellent idea of the inhabitants,--their daily lives and occupations, and dwelt particularly upon those who took prominent parts in the play. The "Christus," and "John," she said were very striking, and the solemnity of the parts they play, seems reflected back upon their ordinary every-day life. She spoke too of the "Judas,"--slight, wiry, nervous, and of his little son, a child almost the counterpart of his father. Mrs. Stabler brought vividly before the mind's eye, the people, the place, the extraordinary value of the Play, and its reactionary effect upon them in a dignifying and uplifting of their lives. She spoke of the primitive customs, the meagre [meager] accomodations, the plain living, the simplicity--the family cow stabled upon the first floor.

Mrs. Stabler dwelt upon the wonderful pains which this quiet people take to produce impressively this play, and spoke of their artistic taste as shown in the colors of the chorus. The music she said relieved the intensity of feeling produced by these terribly painful scenes. After seeing the Play, she drove to the Benedictine Monastery, built in 1335. From there she had traversed


the country coming at last to Innsbruck, where stands the wonderful tomb of Maximilian. Of this too, Mrs. Stabler had very fine views, including separate ones of various parts of the tomb. Mrs. Stabler took her hearers with her on this pleasant journey, made them see and realize the beauty of the country, the peasant life and costumes, in all their picturesqueness. She spoke of Andreas Hofer [leader of 1809 rebellion], idol of the Tyrolese, and of all those whose work is part of history.

At the conclusion of the Programme, the meeting adjourned.

15th Meeting of January 21st, 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, January 21st, at 105 Franklin Street. The members being called to order by the President, the minutes of the preceding meeting were ready by Miss Duvall, acting Secretary--and approved. The President announced that on Thursday the 16th, she had received an invitation for the Club, to attend a reception of the Charcoal Club, to be held on the 17th, too late to be acted upon. But the invitation was also extended for the exhibition


in their rooms from the 18th to the 24th inclusive. The President said she rarely allowed herself to advance the claims of any special school, but she desired to call attention to the Bard Avon school of Expression, 2221 N. Charles Street containing many departments and of which Miss Haughwout [L. May Haughwout] is Principal, who gave Miss Reese's [Lizette Woodworth Reese] poem so exquisitely at our Twelfth Night entertainment--rendering it simply--yet giving the whole beauty of the poem.

The programme for the day was then given. Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud], Chairman of the Committee on the Drama prefaced it, by paying a deserved tribute to the fame of our honorary member, Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer], who would give some of her interesting reminiscences, and also saying that Miss Malloy's [Louise Malloy] personal interview with Mr. Percy Winter, took added interest from the fact that he is the son of William Winter, the eminent Drama Critic.

Miss Malloy following first upon the programme remarked that this interview--Mr. Winter's view of the Drama relating to the Press--was really written by himself, and he regretted that lack of time, forced him to send the paper,


in what he considered an unfinished condition. His opinion was not, however, shared by the members of the Club. His views upon the Press and the Stage, were clear and these mutual relations expressed in terse, crisp English. He remarked concerning these views, that that portion of Ecclesiastes should be recalled, which stated that there was "nothing new under the Sun," and that more would not be expected of him, than was of Soloman [Solomon], that wisest of men.

Mr. Winter said "The Press shows the picture of the moment! The Stage a view of human life! ["] Both should aim to minister to the best happiness of the human race. There should be no antagonism. The Dramatic Critic plays an important part. He should depict the Play as it was--at its correct value. Thousands were affected, in manners, and life by plays they see, especially young people. Hence the influence of the Press should be against the performance of those which are inimicable, specious[,] sophistical. Love sick plays were advocated, reasoning that by portraying immorality, they taught its opposite! As well say, that a drain must be opened to avoid a bad odor. Life is full of trials. The Press should cheer


the conscientious actor, in the theatre, or out! It is easy to find fault. It is hard to praise. Mr. Winter spoke of the tattle and gossip and interviewing following the actor of the present time, as belittling the high position of the stage, and said that the influence of the stage when rightly directed was a beneficent factor in human society.

Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] then read a joint dramatization by Miss Malloy and herself, the 4th Act of the Play in which Esmond and Castlewood pursue the Prince to the country where he has followed Beatrix. The supper scene was well rendered, with the Prince's advances and love-making and Beatriz acting that coy and apparently artless part which spurs the Prince on, in his unworthy aim, before Beatrix locks the door between them, and he betakes himself to inditing love sick verses, in which the words "rebelle," & cruelle," "Madame" & "flamme," "ammi" & "joui" [?], express his rhyming passion.

The dialogue between Esmond and the Prince is most spirited as the former reproaches the latter for his amatory trip into the country. "When[,]" as he says[,] "The council was met, a new treasurer was


appointed, the troops were devoted to the King's cause and fifty loyal gentlemen of the greatest names of the Kingdom were assembled to accompany the "Prince of Wales." Who unjust has been the acknowledged heir to the throne, or the possessor of it by this time had your Majesty not chosen to take the air, --we were ready-- there was only one person that failed in your Majesty's gracious--"

"Marblew!" [Mon dieu?] Monsieur! You give me too much majesty." "We shall take care not much oftener to offend in that particular." "What mean you my Lord," says the Prince, & mutters something in French about a "Snare." The "snare" sire, was not of our laying. We came to avenge, and not to compass the dishonor of our family." "Dishonor! Marblue![Mon dieu?] There has been no dishonor--only a little harmless playing." "That was meant to end seriously." "I swear upon the honor of a gentleman, my Lords." That we arrived in time.

In another apartment, Colonel Esmond burns before the Prince's eyes, the Patent of Marquis sent to his father, by the exiled King--the certificate of marriage of his father and mother, of his birth, and christening--lays the inestimable yard of blue ribbon" at the feet of


Prince and stamps upon it, and renounces his allegiance. "Thus to lose a crown," says the Prince. "To lose the loveliest woman in the world, to lose the loyalty of such hearts as yours--is not this--my Lords, enough of humiliation?" After the semblance of a duel, the Prince returns to London. Castlewood takes Beatrix to her mother, and Esmond is left to find a kinder fate in the new world.

Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer] said, prefacing her Reminiscences, that she always had a fancy for placing a motto at the head of each chapter of a book. And if she were to take a motto for Reminiscences for the afternoon, it would be from this story, of a letter from a little girl, which began.

"Dear Grandma,

I promised to tell you everything that has happened, but nothing has happened." So as regards my Reminiscences of the Drama, I have none." Mrs. Latimer said that her father when in England, was very fond of the acting of Miss O'Neil (who afterwards was married to the Earl of Essex) and went to hear her 100 nights running! He once took John Randolph of Roanoke (when he was our Minister to Russia, and some what out of his mind)


to see John Kean act Richard III. In the midst of the play, Randolph suddenly arose, and pointing his long finger at Kean, said in a loud voice, "Come away Kinsman, come away! Any negro boy from Virginia would play the part better." Captain Latimer, fearing violence, hurried him from the theatre. The first play Mrs. Latimer attended was at the age of 7, at Ipswich, when Americans were severely caricatured, amusing her father, but rendering her mother highly indignant. At eight years of age she saw Fanny Kemble in London, and the "School for Scandal" in which appeared Mautlens, the great ventriloquist. He often came to America, and had letters to J.M. Ticknor. Mrs. Latimer went to Astley's [Amphitheatre, London] to see "Mazeppa," and a neighbor in an adjoining seat thrust upon them ginger beer and crackers and informed them that "Mazeppa" was by Walter Scott. Byron had been forbidden, but one day, at the age of ten, Mrs. Latimer found a copy of Mazeppa, and took it up to a room the read, from which a beautiful landscape could be seen, which Constable painted, and which is now in the Walters Gallery [Walters Art Museum]. When she was 13, the family moved to London, & about 1836, there was a great Evangelistic


rising in the Church of England, headed by Wesley, and on Mrs. Latimer's mind the desire took firm hold to keep herself "Unspotted from the World." Her father being devoted to the theatre, she composed these conflicting duties by going to balls and the theatre, only when he desired. She saw Taglioni's [Marie, Italian ballet] wonderful dancing. Heard Mario [Giovanni Matteo, Italian tenor]-Grise[Giulia, Italian soprano], and other great lyrics in opera, and was present when a certain singer whom she considered to be the original of Hans Andersen's "Improvisatore," break down completely. Her father had a great fancy for Edwin Forest [Forrest, American Shakespearean actor], who, with Mrs. Forest [Forrest] often visited their house. She spoke of Forest's [Forrest's] superb Moorish costume in which he acted Othello. Returning to America, they arrived about the time Forest's [Forrest's] jealousy of McCready's [William, British Shakespearean actor] acting in the "Covlin [?]" caused riots from which McCready was forced to fly to Boston, where he soon embarked for England. After Mrs. Latimer's marriage, and her life in Baltimore began, she decided, being free from her father's wishes to give up the theatre. She regrets now that she did not attend it, and induce her husband to go, as a relaxation from businesses cares. She feels that this was a mistake in her life.


Mrs. Reese [Elizabeth Reese] followed giving a poem "Esther." The characters are vividly depicted. Deborah, an old nurse, Esther, a young girl, and maid who sings, and a lover, the young Squire Roger. The scene is laid near two Colonial homes, with garden and gate between.

The poem begins with a conversation between Esther, and her old nurse, regarding the death of her mother. "It seems but yesterday she died,"--and Esther says she remembers well how she came out to find Deborah "tending the bees," and she suddenly burst away from her weeping, to go to seek "Mother." Deborah comforts her and says now all is bright again in her love for the young squire--and adds, "And here am I plucking lavender for your wedding day." Some one is observed in the field belonging to the other house, and Esther says--"Is that a maid, or Rosalind? Think you Rosalind, Roger's cousin is fair?["] "Nay" says Deborah. "I like white maids like you." Esther says. "Take my lavender not yours." She goes forward to hear the singing maid and haply sees Roger, as Deborah exclaims, "We are young but [nice?]."

The second scene shows the end of the garden, with fence and gate. A maid is bleaching linen and singing. "All in an April


Wood, Dark Grief I met." Esther notices a scarlet ribbon lying on the grass,--sees Roger coming, and says," We'll hide and surprise him." He spies the piece of ribbon, takes it up--and kisses it, saying, "Rose of the world! 'Tis Rose of the World! Then to the maid, "Sing! You suit in my mood."

Esther opens the gate. "You love her more than me," she says. "You may pluck your "Rose of the World." She gives him back the ring, and returns to the garden, where she finds her faithful Deborah, and tells her all, as the maid sings. "All in an April Wood. Dark Grief I met."--and sympathetic, impotent Deborah exclaims. "I could choke that singing maid."

Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall] then read a paper upon "An old Testament Drama," first quoting Aristotle's Definition. "A Representation of Life, by Speech and Action." She said, all through the Bible were to be found these Dramas. For instance, when the children of Israel bring the Ark to Jerusalem, and David dances before it, the whole scene partakes of a Religious Drama. Continuing, she said, "It would be interesting to trace its development changed from its Hebraic inspiration--that of the Praise of God--to the Greek idea --the theme of the Gods, made manifest in


the flesh. The Drama reaches the depths of man's nature. The celebration of the Mass, reaches the heights of Christian drama. To trace the development of the Mystery, Miracle, and Morality Plays of the Mediaival [Medieval] centuries, would require more time than allowed in one paper. In potential Dramatic energy, and Dramatic form, the Hebrew nation excelled. The Book of Job, however, is not a drama--although written by a Dramatic poet. But there is one, that story in the II Book of Kings, which is in itself, a complete example--falling naturally into the fine arts, required for the perfect form.

The principal actors in the play are Naaman, the Syrian Ruler, the little maid, the servant Gehazi, and the King of Syria. In a graphic way, Miss Duvall portrayed the Oriental Atmosphere, which envelopes the tale--the harem, the pomp of the Syrian court as the various acts and scenes, into which the story naturally divides itself are revealed until at last reaching the healing of Naaman, they tell us that there the story naturally would cease, but not the Drama! This goes on to the tragic consummation, where Gehazi goes forth. "A Leper, as white as snow," thus illustrating the


difference between the story and the Drama. The story has an End--the Drama--a consequence. A story might have avoided the tragedy--stopped short of it! The Drama would have been incomplete without it. The Drama leads up through expectation to the point when the sense of Justice is fully satisfied. A great Hebrew dramatist lived centuries ago in that far off land--and wrote the story of the "Healing of Naaman."

The meeting was then adjourned.

16th Meeting of January 28th 1902.

The Monthly Salon of the Woman's Literary Club took place at 115 Franklin St. on January 28th. The minutes of the previous meeting were read by Mrs. Jordan Stabler [Ellen Austin Walker Stabler], Secretary Pro tem---and approved.

The President gave notice of the meetings of L'Alliance Francaise, to be held in the Club Rooms, at 8:30 on January 31st & February 1st--the lecture to be given by Mr. Adolph Cohen--of the University of Columbia--on the Literature of France, on the eve of the Revolution.

The President read the Programme of Club work for the ensuing month, and then referred to the fact, that one of the


papers to be read this afternoon was from the pen of Miss Trail [Florence Trail], an absent member. She recalled the enjoyable afternoon we had spent listening to Miss Trail's resume, of the first part of her work on Italian Literature. A letter from her had been received, stating that she completed the second part of the work, but had little hope of a publisher, and proposed using the material for lectures. The President desired that we might have another afternoon listening to the product of this later effort.

The programme of the day, under the chairmanship of Miss Zacharias [Jane Zacharias], was then given. Miss Cone and Miss Coulson rendering on harp and piano, Handel's Largo. Miss Trail's paper on the "Harmony of Theme and Form in the works of the Great Masters," was read by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner]. Miss Trail introduced her paper by speaking of certain conditions favorable to the development of musical taste, saying that, in some musical centers it is possible to institute Festivals--sometimes devoting an entire week to the rendition of 1st class compositions.

Music--pleasing, delightful--has also its serious side. Melody is music


in its simple form. Harmony is complete. Music was the latest in time of developments of all the fine arts, and is the complex product of creative genius. The insistance [insistence] of the Human Race to hand down recurs [records] of itself, resulted in Literature. The desire to perpetuate the images of the heroes of Politics, and War, produced Sculpture. Northern Barbarism clashing against the Latin Church made Architecture possible. The instinct to portray the Divine, brought painting into being, and it was not, until after the French Revolution, that music refined itself besides the Sister Arts. Of course, Music had existed in archaic form. The Hebrew making us wish we knew after what fashion the Psalms were chanted-the Lydian, that of St. Ambrose, St. Gregory in the chants of the early Christian Church. In 1067, Guido invented the staff notation, a great stride. Then was evolved the science of music. In 1563, Palestrini wrote his great mass. In the latter part of the 18th Century, came the discovery of the Dominant Chord, afterward the development of the Theme--question and answer--the fuge of Bach's--whose Sarabands [Sarabandes] and preludes have never been surpassed. The invention of the harpsi-


chord made possible pieces suitable for it. Then came Handel with the Messiah and Israel in Egypt, which have never been surpassed, comparable to the Paradise Lost of Milton, and the Campanile of Giotto. Then came Hayden with his "Creation" the element of finality, rather than moral beauty, dominant. In the Oratorio, words appear to govern music. In the Symphony, the words are out of our view. Mozart wrote 48 Symphonies, with their discerment [discernment] of grand plan, fantasia, and final movement. Without Mozart, we could have had no Beethoven, with his 9 Symphonies, 6 Concertoes, and different musical movements. Mendelssohn, Schubert, Spohr, Schumann, Brahms, Cherubino [character in "Marriage of Figaro"], must all be mentioned. To Chopin, Laine gives great praise. Disraeli says that the 19th Century is Music's Century. For Weber, Gounod, Liszt, Dovrak [Dvorak] are recalled, and Wagner, the great Master in the infinity of his art.

Romance No. 6, by Parishaless [Wagner, "Parsifal"?], was then played upon the harp by Miss Cone.

Mrs. J. Elliott Gilpin followed, reading a personal interpretation of Ballade No. III by Chopin. She spoke of Chopin, the Poet-


Musician who put the best of himself into his music. Melancholy pursued his soul owing to the unhappy state of his country--dismembered Poland[.] Outwardly calm, never allowing his inward thought to oppress those about him, his soul burst forth into glorious music--or, despondent, into a tone prayer--the mind in music. Ballade No. III is better known than many of his works. ["]May I tell what it means to me?["] Then in poetic language, Mrs. Gilpin gave what the music suggested.

A lovely Spring day. The soul delighted to exist--that God has created it--going out into the words. Shades of grass shouting forth their tender spires--the birds in their nests. The feeling that one must give forth the poetry within one--cannot remain silent. Tones draw one on! Then comes the rest on Mother Earth, who whispers secrets of the delicate melody of Nature. Angel voices are heard. The song becomes glorious! The soul bursts its bonds, and speaks face to face with angels. In the second theme, all is changed. The sun sinks out of sight--leaving the soul lonely--doubting--hopeless. It wanders on aimless! In the midst of this chaotic suffering, a whisper comes leaving a Heavenly message. It grows clearer


and clearer. All is made plain, and now all sadness disappears. Then the return of the first theme, like a prayer. brings back to the spirit, peace, and reveals the sure foundation, upon which the soul rests. Mrs. Gilpin afterward gave the musical interpretation of the Ballade upon the piano.

Mrs. Pearce Kintzing [Theodorea Kintzing] then read an amusing letter written by Johan Strauss of Vienna to his friend Latinzski--who had asked him for an autograph. It was styled--"A Concert Tour under Difficulties." It was in the year 1849--Herr Strauss, with his Orchestra had been playing successfully in Breslaw [Wroclaw]. Consulting with his Secretary, Strauss decided to leave Breslaw--but where to go? Money was needed. A rich Pork dealer, rich in pork and Gold, came to their rescue. He advanced the money needed, and advised them to go to Warsaw. Here he was convinced they would be successful. On reaching the Border-line without special permits, they were not allowed to pass over. Here they remained, miserably housed. Passes were at length obtained for Strauss and his Secretary to go on to the city to endeavor to arrange for the orchestra to follow. A music dealer


upon whom they called, sent them to the General Commandant for permission to give concerts. Unprepossessing, sun burnt, with wild rolling eyes, he utterly refused to grant their request--calling them imposters and robbers, and threatening Siberia! A second time Strauss ventures with the music dealer, to meet the same rebuff. Desperate, for the third time he goes. The General then demands "Proof," that the members of the Orchestra are not robbers. Some are brought into the Railroad Station to play--and played well--never better! But the General roars out that they are well travestied [practiced?], but that they are robbers.

At last a note is brought from the Grand Chamberlain of the Empress, summoning the "Hof Kapelle Meister [Hofkapellmeister], Johann Strauss," to her presence. He goes at once, and arranges for her concert. The orchestra are released from their unpleasant situation. (The pork dealer has long since ceased to give them of his gold.) Their woes are over. The Empress attends their rehearsal--they give concerts at court and at some houses of the aristocracy, and then in the Imperial theatre, for which they are well paid. Strauss sends the pork dealer the money advanced--fearing if he did not--the advance of the pork


for poor families, and ends by referring facetiously to "His Stranded Robber Band."

Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] then read the first part of Miss Zacharias' paper "The Symphony," which began, describing a walk in the open air--through large fields--shaded by tall Juniper trees--to find, if possible, the spirit and letter of a message, a message from two great masters--Beethoven and Wagner. Widely different were they in nature, and widely did they differ in the art form of their expression. Beethoven expressed himself in the form of a symphony. Wagner, in that of the Music Drama. Beethoven wrought himself into the great forms of musical expression. His great Orchestral Symphonies are held together by unity of idea, in which each of the instruments express some different pain, passion, anxiety, hope & despair, are woven together into a grand harmony, expressing a world of feeling and thought, too deep for speech--which music alone can express.

In his 5th Symphony, in C Minor, the depths of despair, a grapple with fate is portrayed. A catastrophe in his own life--giving blindness [hearing loss]--is the suggestion. Fate knocking at the door! Again and again! The strife of emotions--the soul stifled by the demon of fate--a sombre picture—


a sickening warfare--hope and anguish. At length the foe is down--is crushed, and a stream of joyful exaltation breaks forth finally--in its wake following pure serenity. A series of tone pictures--the ideal meaning, readily grasped. The dominant theme--"Fate knocking at the Door."

Miss Coulson [Elizabeth Coulson] and Miss Kintzing followed with piano rendering of this portion of the symphony.

Mrs. Cautley then read the second part of Miss Zacharias' Paper "The Music Drama." Wagner as a personage is a unique genius. He has created this music form--the music drama--in which alone in duality--can be expressed the strenuous force of his soul. With quaint grasp, he mastered early in life, Theology--philosophy--science--& politics. He was heir of all the ages. Poetry had gone no further than Shakespeare, Music, no faster than Beethoven. Wagner's giant mind considered both music and poetry, incomplete by itself. He must join them indissolubly, in the union of the Music-Drama. These colossal ideas, emanating from that unique personality--resulted in Bayreuth--to which Pilgrims go, and see the results of his mighty efforts--of this marriage of the arts! These may be seen and heard all


the convincing effects of architecture, scenery, decoration, instrumental and stage effects, declamation and singing--a moving, speaking picture. For example, of Wagner's power to give effects from music alone, is in the "Fire Motif" from the Valkyrie.

Brunhilde has offended Wotan by befriending Siegfried--and he has fastened her to a pillar, and invoked the sacred fire to play around her in a circle, from which she can only be rescued by enchantment. The "Fire Motif," in its evolutions--its movements, its rising and falling of tones in a circle, its enveloping, brings to the mind in a absolutely vivid form--motion--color--rhythm.

Miss Coulson then gave the leading "motif," and followed by playing the beloved "Fire Music" of the Great Master.

The "Evening Star" from Tannhauser was then rendered upon harp and piano, by Miss Cone [Selma B. Cone], and Miss Coulson.

Mrs. Pleasants then sang Hawley's "Awakening of Spring" and Miss Coulson gave us Schumann's "Nachstuck [Nachtstuche], and the[ "Vogilal's?] Prophet."

After the serving of refreshments, the meeting adjourned.


17th Meeting of February 4, 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday February 4th, at 105 Franklin Street. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. R. King Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], Chairman of the Committee on Current Criticism.

The President announced a course of three lectures,--subjects--"The Marble Faun" by Hawthorne--"Romola" by George Elliot [Eliot]--and "The Last Days of Pompeii" by Lytton [Bulwer-Lytton], to be delivered by Dr. Mary Jeffers of Bryn Mawr College--on February 11th, 25th, & March 11th respectively at the Woman's College at 5 o'clock, and requested they were to take place on Tuesdays.

After the reading of the President, of the subjects for the ensuing weeks in February, the Programme for the day was given, under the Chairmanship of Mrs. Cautley, whose Committee that of Current Criticism at short notice took the place of that upon Art.

The first paper was by Mrs. Early [Maud Graham Early], upon "The Furnishings of Fiction," and was read by Mrs. Cautley, who prefaced it by saying that she took pleasure in reading this first, as it served as an introduction to


what followed. Miss Early's paper, first referred to the fact, that the "Furnishings of Fiction" corresponded to the stage properties of the Drama. In former days, the [Dragon?] was an indispensible [indispensable] propriety [property?]. A stage coach was a necessary adjunct, to the success of the novel. To the modern novel, the name Elizabeth, seems to be a furnishing which assumes popularity.

The sun dial, moss grown fountain, and old Indian cabinet of teak wood, filled with curios, heirloom jewels--the mysterious chest with spring lock, the secretary with secret drawers--all these were used in the novels of an earlier period. Mrs. Sherwood [Mary Martha Sherwood] gowned her heroines in satins and gauzes, and the young girls were always dressed in simple yet elegant white muslins with blue sashes! Mrs. Early had never been able to believe that the definition in the dictionary of "Samite," could be correct. "A species of taffeta silk." Then the cloth of gold, the sprigged muslins, the embroidered crepes of those old days! She particularly enjoyed shopping under the tutelage of Mrs. Sherwood. What beautiful things were purchased for Ellen by her mother! Merinoes [wool] (dark in color) the plaited


silk bonnet of sombre hue relieved by a lining of pink!--the gold watch and chain, giving the finishing touch of luxury and elegance. In modern times, the tea gown, pale in tint, and covered with "billowy lace["] takes the place of the former accessories. Even the bon bons of former days--silver coated--some of them--the edibles of Mother Goose, curds & whey, plums in Christmas pies, Hot-cross buns--all aroused interest! and then the cold venison pasty! Mrs. Early's mother once had one made for her! It tasted very like cold mutton! One of the chief delicacies of the feast Leister [Robert Dudley, Earl Leicester] gave Queen Elizabeth was march pane [marzipan], but a resusitated march pane made after a supposedly ancient and reliable receipt, proved a grave disappointment--very apples of Sodom!

Mrs. Early then quoted that entertaining description of a parlor closet which Dickens gives in Edwin Drood--a rare chest--with lock in the middle of its sliding cover, revealing deep shelves filled with pickle jars, blue and white vessels containing ginger, walnuts, gherkins, cauliflower of masculine derivation--while feminine jams of raspberry, gooseberry, apricots and plum rallied gallantly to their support. The Japanned Ginger


box must not be forgotten, nor the receptacles of home made biscuits, plum cake, and the ladies fingers to be dipped into wine and then kissed!

The old fashioned home had closets with marble panels! Plumbing and gas were not needed! The paper appropriately closed with a poem entitled "With Weyman in Old France." [Richard Stittman Powell]

A series of papers reviewing recent names of Fiction was then given by the ladies of the Committee. Miss Reese's [Lizette Woodworth Reese] subject was "The Portion of Labor" by Miss Mary E. Wilkins. In this work Miss Reese considers Miss Wilkins to be at her best. As a novel it is largely a series of episodes, with the characters clearly brought out. "The Brewsters"--a poor and homely New England family--the patient father, the loyal but hot blooded mother, Ellen, the delicate blossom grown from such unpromising soil--all are depicted with life-like fidelity. Ellen's childhood is most deliciously treated. Her uncanny childish beliefs in regard to the trees seen from her window--the Norway Spruces so distant from their far away Western home! The cherry trees, as they put forth their spring blossoming. Ellen's


flower like nature grows into warm feeling for her kindred and sympathizes with them in their rude work! She listens to the discussions of the social group of factory hands, which nightly gathers in her father's kitchen, and later leads them with brave and undaunted speech as they advance to the factory and demand their rights, as they so regard them. Miss Reese reviewed with discrimination the salient-points of the various characters, adding that "Cynthia" was past unbelief. She reminds us that this book did not settle the labor question, but is far from sentimentality. It shows a whole sameness of fellowship, possesses an atmosphere of loyalty and love, and leaves one with a good taste in one's mouth.

Mrs. Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner] then spoke upon the "Master Christian" by Marie Corelli. She referred to her experience reading her "Romance of Two Worlds" enjoyably, but was afterwards thoroughly disappointed in "The Sorrows of Satan," afterwards quoting a favorite saying of hers. "It is easy to get things into one's head. It is hard to get them out." She was reluctant after this experience to take up another work by this author, but it having been strongly recommended by a friend, she did so, and not only


appreciated it herself, but desired others to read it. Its style is fascinating, so that once having begun, it is impossible to lay it down, or resist one page of it. Mrs. Turner then gave a resume of the story--describing the character of the lovable Cardinal who hears in the night a child's crying, as he knocks at the inner door of the closed Cathedral. With this, the allegory begins. The Cardinal takes the child, Manuel to his home, and keeps him with him. As the story goes on, the child is revealed as the embodiment of the Holy Spirit, a miracle is performed, the healing of a lame child by the Cardinal's prayers, and the touching by Manuel of the afflicted one. Through this healing, persecution of the Cardinal follows, he is robbed of his hat, and all worldly honors. At the end, the Cardinal perceives the Blessed Child at the font of the cross from which he ascends transfigured into the air.

Mrs. Turner then quoted the story of a certain lady, who after reading "The Marble Faun," wrote to Hawthorne what the story meant to her, and Hawthorne replied, "You have read out of my book, more than I have written into it." This perhaps had been her experience with the "Master Christian."


Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] then spoke of a contribution to Scribner's December number "The Turquoise Cup," by Arthur Croslin Smith, prefacing, that she rarely read short stories. This could be read in a half hour. It is full of character and incisiveness. The two pictures by Max Parish [Maxfield Parrish] of St. Mark's and the Grand Canal are interesting. The outlines of the story are simple. An English Lord, loves a young girl of great beauty, whose heart responds to his fervid protestations. She desires, however, proof of this man and his devotion, and gives him tasks, equal to those of Hercules. He fails, not in courage, but principle. It is a story of jealousy--in some regards of tragedy. The heroine is charming, bright, piquant, womanly. A young Irish man is cleverly drawn, so skillfully sketched as to bring out all the salient and delicious features of the irreconcilable characteristics of the the race. Miss Middleton then added a word of criticism of Mr. Smith's treatment of characteristics of the young girl--saying, that with but one comparatively slight offense, she drops suddenly into such an example of slang, as seems utterly impossible to come from the lips of one supposed to be a lady. She then quoted the heroine as saying--


"Bobby, I know you are a fortune hunter. I think I should be one myself, were it not for the beer (referring to the business which produced her father's fortune). But for you, with my face and figure, I might marry a Duke, an old Duke perhaps, but still a Duke. However, Bobby, you are jolly and wholesome. Auntie likes you, and I'll take you." Could anything be more vulgar! It can only be accounted for by judging it to have been introduced as a concession to the modern inrush of slang.

Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler] then reviewed "St. Lazarus," by Mary Hartwell Catherwood, saying that it had to do with the history of Louis XVII, who by most people is considered to have died in the tower, when as dauphin he was imprisoned with his unfortunate parents. This story represents him, as having been taken to America, and brought up among the Indians (Iroquois). A blow upon his head had taken away his memory, but afterwards his mental power gradually returns, and the sight of a missal formerly belonging to Marie Antoinette, brings back recollections of his life in France, and he desires to go back and make known his rights to the throne. He goes during the reign of Louis XVIII, and is recognized by his sister.


In an interview with the King, he loses consciousness--all mental excitement bringing on such attacks. He returns home, marries, and partly through discouragement, partly through love, he resigns all desire to regain the throne of France. By many he was regarded as the rightful heir. As to the story, its style is elevated and pure, it introduces situations, and characters of interest;--for example the career of "Appleseed Johnnie" and as a kind of biography, it was specially interesting to Mrs. Uhler. It tells the story of an interesting personage, in an interesting way, and gives a picture of the fresh, out of door life of the 19th century. The President remarked that many persons had strongest faith that Williams [Eleazer Williams, Wisconsin missionary] was truly Louis XVII--his remarkable personal resemblance to the Bourbons, as well as many other particulars going to prove his identity. Friends of hers had seen him, and were convinced of the truth of his claims.

Miss Whitney [Anne Weston Whitney] introducing her remarks, said that the book she wished to speak of was not properly a book of Fiction, though it contained many stories. "Zuni Fold Tales," by Frank Hamilton Cushing, who had been adopted by the tribe.


These stories had been collected by him, and published since his death. Some of them seemed similar to the Arabian nights as they are divided, and portions are ready every night. They were many of them like Fairy Tales. One is of a warrior, who after many adventures tries to jump over a canyon, misses, catches by his fingers and is about to let go. A squirrel calls to him to "stay up there," and says "I am only a squirrel, but I can think." Sends his wife away who brings back a hemlock seed. They plant it, dance around it--the tree miraculously sprouts, and grows--the hero is reached, and comes down in safety. Miss Whitney noticed the resemblance between these fold tales, and those of the [N]egro race Uncle Remus! In the Indian tales, the heroes adventures generally eventuate in some good for mankind. One, cuts a boat from a log, (the first canoe) goes across the water, steals from an island fire--the first fire. She gave an amusing instance in which a giant is condemned for his meanness in regard to tobacco, to take the form of a grass hopper, and always to show traces of tobacco about his mouth. She spoke of the aptness of description


in these tales, especially as regards motion--instancing that of the coyote who smelt blood pudding--"whose hair stood up--the tips of his ears--the point of his tail--"and gave the undeviating conclusion of the adventures. "Thus shortens my story." Recalling Miss Whitney's statement that these tales were not as well known as the Negro[e]s, Miss Middleton referred to the fact of the Indians' strange objection to relate them, and his natural suspicions, as to their use.

The President cited a note from Miss Fletcher, who obliged to break an engagement to be her guest, gave as explanation, the coming of some Indian chiefs to give her their rituals, and spoke of the fact, that, after coming all that long distance, in order to do it, it was difficult to obtain the information, owing to their reticence, desire to conceal, and readiness to take offense. Miss Whitney spoke of the fact, that in the Navajo and Iroquois tribes, the coyote takes the place of the rabbit.

Miss Reese beginning her paper upon Children's Fiction, modestly adverted to the fact, that she wondered she should have been selected for that specialty--never having put "plough to the furrow"


Her effort showed it was quite time to begin! She spoke of two essentials to success in Children's Fiction. First, absolute simplicity of style--the use of words quite understood. Second, the use of the dramatic style. Small children showing delight in dramatic situations or plot. Without this they grow restless and uninterested. What a master in this art, was Grimm, whose stories, old, yet ever new, never fail to entrance. For instance (Regard the [?ll] used in the beginning of one of his stories taken at random. "A long time ago there lived a tailor with three sons and only one goat"! Why one goat? and the child is spell bound, until he holds the key to this remarkable situation! Again a story begins giving several particulars regarding an old man, none so thrilling as that he spilled his cup! Wherefore did he spill his cup! Grimm always rewarded virtue, and rebukes what is mean and cruel! The child is taught to despise weakness and wickedness, and to admire deeds of generosity and kindness. Jacob Abbott in his Franconia stories is another example of leaders in the realm of Child's Fiction. His Beechnut with his dramatic situations thrilled Miss Reese's childhood, and continues to attract, as read in later years.


Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall] reviewed Gilbert Parker's "Right of Way." She said--"Three questions, What, Why, and How, must be answered in the description of any work of fiction.["] The question "What," as applied to the subject of the work is, "The Natural Operation of Law." If a novel, having this in view, appealing to the reason, succeeds in convincing the mind--it is a success,--if not--it is a failure, in all its parts, or in detail. Upon the lives of Charles Steele and Rosalie Van Torelle, the story hinges. Charles Steele, a lawyer, clears one who has been accused of a crime--clears him, when all the chances, as shown in the court, are against the one arraigned, and his counsel. After the freeing of the accused, Steele turns to him, and tells him, he is as guilty as Hell! He has cleared him just to show his mental acumen and skill--as a simple tour de force. For the same reason showing his normal self, he marries, not because he loves the woman, but just to show his power over her. Intemperate, he is attacked in a drunken row, and thrown into the river, is rescued by the man he saved from the clutches of the law, and taken to [Chanmerie?]. He reads in the paper that he is supposed to be dead, and a defaulter. His


wife, not waiting for the proverbial year and a day,--has married. Time brings to him, and to one who loves him--unholiness of life. As the Magdalene of a Passion Play in their village, modelled [modeled] after that of Oberammergau, the young girl realizes all her unworthiness, and confesses to the Priest, who is one of the best drawn, and the loveliest character in the book. To analize [analyze] it, is to be convinced that the fates depicted art, the natural outcome of the characters drawn, and that the author simply uses new terms for very old things.

Mrs. Beebe [Mary H. Beebe] then spoke of "Sir Richard Carmody," by Lucas Mallet, a love story, the motif--the ardent devotion existing between a mother and her afflicted child--a picture of brooding tenderness and loving care, a love which thinketh not of its own. A delightful picture of an old English manor is given--"Brockhurst." Years ago a great [ruing?] had called forth fierce denunciation and the pronouncing of a curse upon the house,--fortelling [foretelling] sudden death for its members, until through a certain marriage by a Lord of the Manor the curse should be removed. For years this had held sway. An infuriated buck, a drunken brawl, the sudden opening of a wound--battle,


duelling [dueling], lightning, even the waters of Brockhurst lake--all had brought death in their wake to the Lords of Brockhurst. At length his horse throwing Lord Richard Carmody, eventually caused his death, after the loss of his limbs. Sad it was for the young wife, and sadder still, when the little boy, who came to share her loneliness, bore always with him in his malformation his father's fate. He, however, is tenderly guarded from any thoughtless word or act, which should reveal to him his difference from others. This cannot always last, and he goes forth into the world,--treads the hard and bitter ways, and comes back at last, to his mother, saying "I'm only broken hearted!" Happiness comes to him at last, in the love of a noble woman, and he reads at length, the patient purposes of God, in those gifts, hated of all men--Sorrow--Pain, and Death. He sees the necessity, that only the Man of Sorrows can truly become the Son of God. This book has power of fascination, in its delicate treatment of details, and the knowledge it reveals of the human heart.

Mrs. Cautley then reviewed "Among the Hills["] by Melville Post, saying that like Miss Middleton, she was in doubt, whether it was written by a man or woman.


was recommended to read it by a friend who said the scene was laid at Gorley Bridge, Virginia, near which place, at one time, he had lived several years. She was[,] however[,] quite unable to verify the scenery as being that at Gorley Bridge, or else where. For the rest, the book is admirably written. Its descriptions of scenery are excellent. All through it, is woven the thin thread of a love story. The theme of the book is certainly original, and has never before been touched upon; that is, the driving from one part of the state to another of 600 wild cattle. One scene well given is the crossing of a swollen stream by this mob of cattle.

Mrs. Cautley thanked the Committee for rallying at such short notice to the needs of the day.

Mrs. Early [Maud Graham Early] called the attention of the Club members to the fact that one additional furnishing of fiction, belonging to the Modern Novel, is the "Cardinal," who figures so extensively at the present time.

The President then pronounced the meeting adjourned.


18th Meeting of February 11th, 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, February 11th in the Assembly Room 115 West Franklin St. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President presided.

After calling the meeting to order, the President announced a course of Lectures to be given on "Laura Graham Cooper Foundation["] at the Woman's College. The Lecturership was founded by Miss H. Frances Cooper, our fellow member as a memorial of her sister. Mrs. Wrenshall read the name of the lectures--the subjects of the lectures, and the dates the lectures would begin.

The regular programme of the afternoon was then taken up. The programme was in charge of the Committee on Modern Poetry. Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, being Chairman.

The first article on the programme was by Miss Reese, and was called "Three Young Poets." These three poets were, Miss Anna H. Brach, Miss Josephine Preston Peabody, Mr. William Vaughn Moody. The two latter are teachers, Miss Reese spoke of them in the order named. From Miss Branch, Miss Reese read


an interesting letter descriptive of the writer's old home in New London, Connecticut, the house and home of her Mother's people. The house, of gray stone, long and low was built in 1640, and is full of old quaint things. Old guns hang on the walls, walls in which are the loopholes through which the guns were fired, when in former days the Indians were aggressive. In front of the house is an old-fashioned "pray[er] garden," and behind is an old apple orchard. Miss Reese read a fine Poem of Miss Branch's, called "Forgetfulness."

Miss Peabody lives in Boston, and in her letter said, that though sh had always written, she had never had any particular desire to be a writer. Her life was quiet and uneventful, nothing to made a "Life" of. The Drama appealed to her more than anything else, and her recent play, "Marlowe" was written, not for the closet but for the stage. Miss Reese read two of Miss Peabody's poems; one, a [love-lamb?] of the poet's own; and the other, a favorite of Miss Reese's called "When I Arise."

Miss Reese said but little of Mr. Moody, save to praise the high


excellence of his work, and as evidence of this she read a part of his ode--"In a Time of Hesitation."

The second article on the programme was by Mrs. J.D. Early [Maud Graham Early], and was called "Christina Rosetti." Mrs. Early spoke of Christina Rosetti as being characterized by her filial devotion and piety. Her Mother and her religion were the two poles of her life. She came of a gifted family, and her talent was early recognized, appreciated, and fostered. The mystical element in her poetry, as in her brother's paintings, is marked and strong. Mrs. Early gave various specimens of Christina Rosetti's poems, her valentines to her Mother--her love poems, and the one best known perhaps, "Does the Road Wind Uphill All the Way?" Christina Rosetti must be classed among the religious poets of England, and this religion is deeply tinged with mysticism. She thought of herself as having a message, and delivered it, and Mrs. Early said that Christia Rosetti's poems reminded her of the Apocalypse--the Vision of St. John the Divine.

The third article on the programme was a dramatic poem


by Miss Virginia Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud], a poem called "The Bauble," which was read with excellent effect by the author. The scene is the presence chamber of the King. Sir Robert, a rebel is to die that day, at four, but Fleury, the Minister warns the King not to be too sure of his bold and daring foe, so long as women are, men, even Kings, may not be too sure of any thing. Whereupon, the King gives the warrant for Sir Robert's execution to Fleury, and the Minister quits the chamber. Then the Queen enters, and from the King's greetings we know that she is royally fair, and almost a child in years. The King had hung round her neck, the evening before, a glittering bauble, and he asks her what she has done with it, but immediately answers his own question, that it must be lost. Fleury re-enters, disordered--wild. He has found the jailer drugged, the cell empty--the captive gone. The King, furious, declares that the traitor who set Sir Robert free, shall die in Sir Robert's stead. At this moment the fool enters. He held in his hand the glittering bauble which he has found in the


prisioner's cell. The Queen swoons, the scene closes.

Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] being ill, the fourth article on the Programme was omitted.

A Discussion on the Decadence of form then followed. Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall] spoke of Form as being essential to poetry and gave various illustrations. Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] spoke of the vagueness of idea with regard to poetry. "Verse" she said, is the word to apply to much we see nowadays, but "Poetry" should be reserved for what has Rhythm, Melody, and Beauty of Idea, the three essentials of poetry. Our poetry comes to us from the past, and we should compare the new with the old. It is important too, to say what we think, and not to follow the multitude in matters of bad taste and poor judgement.

Miss Reese then spoke of the "Genial Critic," and of the havoc he makes by his non-critical good nature. He is so busy taking care of the feelings of the would be poet, that he lets poetry take care of itself. We should get better poetry when we had better, that is truer, criticism.

Miss Woods [Katharine Pearson Woods?] then spoke of American Poetry as a promise rather than a performance. Our poetry is yet bound up with


traditions, is taken largely at second hand, is a matter of inheritance. We have, however, a right to form our own values on our own forms and style, and we shall at length have our own distinctive poetry. Some English critic has said that America has one poet and a half. Poe being the one poet, and Whitman the half. The question was then asked why the ordinary reader cannot understand poetry. It may be doubted whether the ordinary reader reads poetry.

Mrs. Morgan, appropos [apropos] of the poets spoke of Timrod [Henry Timrod, poet laureate of Confederacy] and Lewis. Mrs. Wrenshall thought we had lost a great poet in losing Sidney Lanier.

Miss Cloud then said that she doubted whether there was decadence in form. Style is progressive, a matter of evoluton. Style or form changes from age to age with the requirements of the age. Poe himself cannot be accounted for; he is a changeling.

After a few remarks from one or two of the members, the meeting adjourned.


19th Meeting of February 18th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, was held on Tuesday, February 18th in the Assembly Room 115 Franklin St. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] presided.

After calling the meeting to order, the Programme for the afternoon was taken up. This programme was given by the Committee on Education, Mrs. Walter Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock], being Chairman. The programme was devoted to the consideration of the subject of "Manual Labor."

The first article on the programme was by Mrs. William C.A. Hummel [Bertha B. Hammel], and was called: "Manual Training in Maryland." Mrs. Hummel [Hammel] began by calling attention to the advance in the conception of Manual Training. The pink paper box and nick nacks [knick knacks] stage is happily over, and we have now such training of the hand as will enable the learner to understand the use and reason of things. Most of the great educators, from Comenius [John Amos] to Pestalozzi [Johann Heinrich] and Frobel [Friedrich], have agreed that a child in order to think must do,--thought superinduces work, and work gives use to


thought. The question then, has been how to realize an educational ideal. This is partly done in the introduction and successful carrying on of Manual Training. The Polytechnic School, now the Baltimore Manual Training School, was the first effort of this kind in Maryland. No attempt is made to teach specific trades or definite handicrafts, the aim being to develop the eye, the hand, and the mind correlatively. But, of course, manual training does fit a boy to take up any handicraft for which he may, by means of manual training, develop an aptitude, and in so doing, simplifies the ultimate and burning question of a necessary livelihood.

The object, however, of manual training is educational, not commercial, it seeks to call for the powers of the mind by means of regular, progressive, work. The results of manual training, so far as it goes, here in Maryland, are excellent; though manual training is, as yet, in its infancy.

Mrs. Gilpin [Mrs. J. Elliott Gulpin] then asked the question Is Drawing necessary to manual


training? or is it an adjunct to manual training? Mrs. Hummel thought that while drawing is not in itself, of course, manual training, it is necessary to it. A child goes from what he sees--to what he does, from the appearance of a thing to the thing itself.

Mrs. Bullock said she thought that drawing might be considered part and parcel of manual training; although, of course it had as much a place in art as in manual training.

Mrs. Stevens [Mrs. Francis P. Stevens] then said that mechanical drawing was surely the basis of much manual work.

The second article on the programme was by Mrs. Shattuck [Mrs. George B. Shattuck], and was called "St. Louis, Toledo, and Boston Schools." Mrs. Shattuck gave a resume of the history of manual training in these three cities. In St. Louis, manual training was established in 1879, in connection with the Washington University. Manual training is held in Boston in connection with the Institute of Technology; in Toledo, in connection with the High School. The "Sibley School" at Cornell University likewise offers a course of Manual Training. In St. Louis,


Manual Training School, boys under fourteen years of age are not admitted. They work both in word and iron, the principles which underlie the work being explained by the Instructors as the children advance. After six months practice, the pupil ceases to make his own drawings, and is furnished with blue prints. Since the late war with Spain, Spanish has been introduced as part of the curriculum.

In Toledo, the Manual Training School, one hour and a half weekly, is diverted to the work which is found to aid greatly the mind in its academic work. A four years course is offered, architecture being one of the things taught.

In Boston the Manual Training School was opened in 1893. Pupils are admitted from the Grammar Schools. Drawing and the elements of the mechanic arts are taught as part of the course. Diplomas are awarded at the end of three years. Pupils are obliged to inspect their own work, and the self-critical faculty is developed. In lieu of the academic thesis, the pupils are, for final work, expected to prepare "Projects"


Dynamos, steam engines, steam--perhaps are among the "projects" thus undertaken. Mrs. Shattuck quoted from Professor Eliot of Harvard to show that the indirect benefit of manual training is very great.

The 3rd and last article of the Programme was by Mrs. W.R. Bullock, and was called, "Moral Aspects of Manual Training." Mrs. Bullock said that the three ends of manual training are Self-expression, Character, Success. Emerson, she said, calls man "the tool making animal." The thought of some sort of tool must precede the thing made; but only the thing made completes the thought. Hence tools and the things made are necessary to full self-expression. "Things that have to be done should be learned by doing them." The Scholar is often alone; but the skilled hand confers benefits on others. The gain to character in Manual Training is the love of truth, accuracy, self-reliance. The simplicity, too, of mechanical devices are a great gain. Slow boys are particularly benefitted [benefited]; and they return to abstract studies quickened and refreshed. Home, too, is more appreciated by both girls and boys; they see the importance of home, and gain better and higher ideals


of home life and work. As well power is chiefly showed by the disposition to under take and do hard things, so Manual Training is greatly instrumental in developing this needed power, and tends to bring about general success in life. Not the finished model, but the complete boy is the end aimed at. Manual Training cannot but raise the level of general intelligence, and by furnishing the material out of which both scientific men and artisans can be formed, may go far in the days to come in helping to settle the vexed question of capital and Labor. The plantation life of former days furnished something of a Manual Training School; but in the day when every branch of learning is becoming so highly specialized, new methods have to be applied to the needs of life. School attendance has increased and lengthened since the introduction of Manual Training. It does well in the present, and promises excellent results in the future.

At the close of the Programme, the meeting adjourned.


20th Meeting of February 25th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, February 25th, in the Assembly Room, 115 West Franklin Street, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

The President announced the Programme for the coming month. The President also announced a series of Lectures, begun on February 17th, and continuing on successive Mondays until March 24th inclusive. Lectures on Maryland Colonial History by Dr. Hall. The foundation for these lectures was given by the "Colonial Dames." The President also announced that an illustrated Lecture will be given at the Academy of Sciences next Monday evening at 8 p.m. To this lecture all members of the W.L.C. of B. are invited; the subject of the lecture will be "Neolithic Instruments of Jamaica." There will be a meeting of L'Alliance Francaise on Friday evening, February 28th. Mdle. Meilles will read.

The programme for the afternoon was then taken up. This programme was given by the Committee on Translation,


Chairman, Mrs. Frederick Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson]. The first article on the Programme was called "A Reminiscence," translated from the German of Theodor Storm [German realist], by Miss Anne Cullington. It gave a description of an old man walking sedately along the street to his abode. He goes in, goes to his room, but instead of making a light, sits quietly in the moonlight, and falls into a revery [reverie]. His eye chances to rest on a small picture, and, like a talisman, the picture recalls not only the original, but a wide vision of the past. He sees himself and the little girl playing. He tells her stories, and makes her promise that she will go with him some day to India. Then they are no longer children, but boy and girl, and still thinking of one another. Then they are youth and maiden, and we learn from a letter of the young man's mother, that the maiden yielding to pressure and persuasion, has been induced to give her promise and hand to another, and that the marriage will take place soon. The old man's revery [reverie] is broken here, for the door opens, and a lamp is brought in. Whereupon, he rises,


takes up his book and buries himself in it.

The second article was called "Ghosts," translated from the German of Leo Frobenius [German ethnologist], by Mrs. Pearce Kintzing [Theodorea Kintzing]. There was a description of an old building which had once been a Monastery. In the crypt or cellars, were the remains--skeletons, of the monks. The inscription upon the Monastery had been, "We poor, and in near poverty happy, praise Thee, O God." Opposite the monastery, where now stands the palace, had once been the Gallows Hill. The daughter of the Hangman, a beautiful girl named Theodosia, was loved by the Monastery Gardener, Friedel. She had had a vision or dream, in which she was promised great riches, and because Friedell feared the prophecy, she scorned him. So Friedel donned the monk's habit, and Theodosia became a fortune teller. But fortune telling in those days was perilous, and as her repute grew, so grew too a belief that she practiced magic. Finally, Friedel, though torn with anguish, was moved by the piety to denounce her early love. She was arraigned,


found guilty, and condemned. But Friedel, while he cursed her sin, prayed for the sinner and offered to bear the punishment--the curse, in her stead, so that though the body should perish, the soul might live. And he dies feeling that he has saved her. All these old stories, legends, traditions of the past, come up before the mind of the teller of the tale.

The third article was "The Death Scene," from Atala, [novella] from the French of Chateaubriand, translated by Miss Hopkins [Virginia Hopkins]. This fine French Classic, was admirably given, and in places was judiciously compressed in order to make the narrative more effective. Atala, her young savage lover, and the good missionary, are the personages. Atala shows signs of illness, finally she confesses that fearing lest her growing love for Chactus will cause her to break the vow she had made to her mother, she has taken poison. All attempts to save her are unavailing. She dies penitent and absolved after giving her sole possession--the crucifix--from her neck, to Chactus.

The fourth article on the programme was called "Auntie Dear," translated from the French of Henri de Forque, by Miss Mullin [Elizabeth Lester Mullin]. "Auntie Dear" was


an exquisite little old lady, the soul of gentle unselfish kindness with a memory of wonderful length and tenacity. She could remember the "Little Dauphin [Louis XVII]," with the order of the Holy Ghost pinned upon his gray silk suit; and she could remember Napoleon both as Little Corporal, and as the much more Corpulent Emperor. "Auntie Dear" was so old, no one knew how old, and none knew whether she was a one great, or a great great. She never went out, and the fashion of her dress never changed. Her hobby was match-making, but she only united those whose dispositions and hearts were truly harmonious. After "Auntie Dear" was dead, and three of her young kinswomen were, according to directions, burning "Auntie Dear's" possessions, in burning a packet of letters, Auntie's secret was revealed. She had loved, but the one she loved was not true to her--he had married another. So she had spent her life in bringing to others the joy which had been denied to her.

The fifth article was called "Adolphe," from the French of Jacques Nourmand [Normand], translated by Miss Nicholas [Elizabeth Cary Nicholas]. Monsieur Riboulet, a retired paper maker, and his wife, are equally devoted to a pet dog,


"Adolphe." Adolphe accompanies M. Riboulet in his walks, and as the time is during the siege of Paris [1870], Adolphe, by his fat, well kept condition excites suspicion. So M. Riboulet decides that Adolphe must die. But as neither he nor his wife can bear to be the executioner, they decide to leave to Rose, the maid, the sad duty. M. and Madam go out at six o'clock and do not return until near twelve, when Rose will have breakfast for them. Notwithstanding their sorrow, they are hungry when they sit down to table, and Rose brings in a savory-smelling steaming hot ragout. Incautiously M. Riboulet asks what the ragout is, and Rose intimates that it is Adolphe. The consternation of the two is beyond words which Rose perceiving, she asks angrily why Adolphe was killed if not to be eaten. M. and Madam are transfixed, but hunger finally gets the better of first one, and then the other, and Madam Riboulet, the repast over says looking sorrowfully at her plate with its neatly arranged little bones. "Poor Adolphe! He was so fond of them!"

The meeting adjourned.



21st Meeting

Meeting of March 4th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, March 4th in the Assembly Room, Academy of Arts and Sciences, 105 W. Franklin Street, the President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall]presided.

Announcement was made of a forth coming novel by our honorary member, Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer]. Mrs. Latimer said that her publishers were sending out notices of the book, "The Prince Incognito," as being her first novel--whereas it was in reality her seventh or eighth. Mrs. Latimer, by request, gave a brief outline of the plot of this story. The hero is Hernhs [Ercole] 3rd [Duke] of Modena, who, to every one's mystification, disappears from political and social view, and is finally discovered living in Martinique. He under goes various adventures, and finally returns again to Modena.

The Programme for the afternoon was given by the Committee on Fiction, Chairman, Miss Ellen Duvall.

The first article on the Programme, was a story, "The Station Master's Daughter," by Miss Anne Weston Whitney. The story described a dark, tempestuous night, and a grief distracted girl, trying


to make her way through the night and the storm to a certain rock overlooking the railroad track,--a rock from which she could signal the fast Express. Train workers have drugged her father, whom, from his appearance, she believes to be dead, and have fixed the already frozen switch so that the train will surely come to harm. The girl struggles on, filled with a desire to do her duty in her father's stead. She gains the rock,--has been able to wave the red lantern, but a few times, when it is dashed from her hands by one of the watching train-wreckers. However, the signal has been seen by the Engineer. He stops the train; a dog escapes; the animal finds the girl, who is unconscious; she is carried aboard the train, and it goes on. The Engineer, however, feeling that something is wrong, notices that the signal, made by the supposed Station Master, is right-handed, instead of left--stops his train when it is fairly bumping against the fatally closed switch. The story ends with the Engineer's comment upon what even a mere girl may do.

The 2nd article on


the Programme was by Mrs. Julius Thruston [Lucy Meacham Thruston], and was a Reading from her forthcoming book, "Jack and His Island."

Mrs. Thruston prefaced her reading by some remarks. The scene of the story is laid in Southern Maryland, in 1812, and takes place partly on an island at the mouth of the Patuxent, and partly in Baltimore. The part read by the author dealt almost wholly with description--the manifold aspects of nature; the autumnal woods; the fox-hunting party gathered on its edge; the peaceful garnered fields--the wide shimmering waters. "Rousely Hall," well known in Maryland history, figures in the story, and the hero is described when detailed to remain (after the hasty departure of the family, on hearing of the threatened approach of the British) to shut up the Hall and put out the fires, all of which he does. The reading closed at the moment when the hero, unexpectedly discovers the British sailing up the Bay.

The 3rd article on the Programme were two sketches for very young children. They were read by the author,


Mrs. Percy Meredith Reese [Elizabeth Reese]. The first was called "The Squirrel's Front Door," and told of a little boy's stay in the country, and of how he, in play, one day, put a chip for a front door, over a squirrel's hole. In the night and the dark, the little boy awoke, and thought of the shut out squirrel. He heart smote him, and despite fear and darkness, he got up, went down stairs, and made his way to the tree, and snatched away the injurious chip. Then he found himself overtaken by his grandparents, and heard to his surprise that it was but eight o'clock,and that theirs were the voices he had heard on the Porch and had thought might be Robbers.

The second sketch was a Boy's letter describing a visit to Washington, on the 4th of July. The boy and his brother, or friend Guy, watched over by an indulgent and fond Grandmother, visited the Capitol, and Washington's Monument. Heat and fatigue were never thought of in the manifest pleasure of the steps climbing, unlimited peanuts, bananas, chance edibles of almost every kind, and, as a


grand finale, Lunch at Harvey's. The point of view of a boy was well kept, and the things seen and described were just such as would appeal to the boyish mind.

The fourth article of the Programme was a story called "A Question," by our honorary member Miss Grace Denio Litchfield. The scene of the story opens in a sick room, where a sick man his [is?] fever stricken, ill indeed but not unto death, provided he will keep perfectly still. The Doctor perceived that there is something on the patient's mind, but the man's wife who is questioned, can give no information. The sick man insisted upon writing a letter, and, to ally agitation, the Doctor consents. The letter is written, the Doctor mails it; the sick man waits feverishly for an answer. The answer comes, is read, and the Doctor, obeying an imperious command, burns the answer just as the wife enters the room. She demands from her husband an explanation, but none is given. The Doctor, on his next visit, tells the wife that she must calm her husband's excitement,


or mischief will ensue. She does, and her husband entreats her to say whether she loves him as much as she had loved another--one from whom she had been parted. The wife tries to speak, but she is true to the truth, and cannot. When the Doctor, hastily summoned in the night, reaches the house, the patient is dead. Five years later, the Doctor, suppressing names of course, relates the story to Dalrymple, author and journalist. When he tells of the mysterious letter, Dalrymple starts and exclaims, and supplies the withheld names. When he declares that the letter had been written to him, that Fayre, the writer, declared himself to be dying, and asked Dalrymple to say honestly whether he still loved the woman who was now Mrs. Fayre, as he once had loved. Dalrymple, supposing Fayre to be dying, answered that he did. Sometime after Fayre's death, he had tried to see Mrs. Fayre, but without success. She had entered a Sisterhood. Then Dalrymple asked the Doctor, with horror, whether he thought Fayre had died naturally, or had been instrumental in causing his own death. "That," said the Doctor, "is the question.["] The meeting adjourned.


22nd Meeting of March 11th, 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, March 11th, in the Assembly Room, 105 West Franklin Street. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

Announcement was made of an invitation (which unfortunately, had come too late) from the Lend-a-Hand Club, to attend an Organ Recital given to the Lend-a-Hand Club, at Grace Methodist Church.

Announcement was also made that Monsieur Mabillean, who had come here under the auspices of L'Alliance Francaise, will deliver a Lecture next Friday afternoon at 4 p.m. in McCoy Hall, Johns Hopkins University.

Announcement was also made that the Club will hold its 12th Anniversary Meeting on next Tuesday the 18th, instead of the 19th--on the Club's birthday eve, instead of the birthday proper--since next Tuesday we shall have with us Miss Fletcher, who will speak to us on a special subject.

The programme for the afternoon was then taken up, the programme


was in charge of the Committee on Letters and Autographs, Chairman, Mrs. J. D. Early [Maud Graham Early].

The first article on the Programme was by Mrs. J. D. Early and was called Francis Brete [Bret] Harte. Mrs. Early began by giving her own experience of the "Argonauts of '49," which consisted in hearing that the cousin of a friend was going to California to dig gold, the impression being that the lucky friend would doubtless have quarters where others had only ["?ips."] For was not the shining metal to be dug from the soil as one turns up earth? First one, then another, set out to seek his fortune in the West--until the "Gold fever" had fairly set in. Then came the chronicler and poet of that search, and of the hard, denuded life which it demanded. But Harte has given a true picture of that life, of its hardships and privations, of its "longing for those homes women alone can make." Mrs. Early spoke of the brilliant success of the "Luck of Roaring Camp,' of the ballad of "Truthful James," and of the famed "Heathen Chinee," Ah Sin. Mrs. Early spoke of the Golden hopes which sustained the miners in all


their squalid lives, and of the vivid reality of Bret Harte's portrayal, and, finally, to illustrate his work and manners. Mrs. Early read part of a favorite story of Bret Harte's a story called "Baby Sylvester."

The second article on the Programme was by Mrs. R.K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], and was on John Randolph. Mrs. Cautley began by saying that Randolph of Roanoke [Congressman], like other great men, is better known, perhaps by caricature than by true characterization. The best life, an old one, was written by Hugh Garland. But Garland, not having had the advantages of a training in the W.L.C. of B. lacks method, needs pruning. Randolph's life, she said, is dramatic and tragic, and unfolds itself naturally in dramatic situations. For "we make plays not out of words but out of situations." We first see Randolph at three years of age, when his childish beauty brightened his young mother's charms, and seemed to help draw to her numerous suitors. She married for her second husband, St. George Tucker. Randolph, though a very delicate child, was sent to boarding school when only six years old.


Strange to say, he survived. He went to College, and studied and practiced law. His first notable effort was a speech at the age of twenty-six in opposition to Patrick Henry. Time had softened the extreme radicalism of Henry's views, and Randolph opposed his seemingly timorous conservatism. Randolph spoke for three hours with great success, and was commended by Henry himself. The next dramatic situation of Randolph's life is the breaking of his engagement with Maria Ward. No reason was ever given, but it is supposed that ill health was the cause. The next incident is the duel with his friend and political comrade, Henry Clay. The duel grew out of the election of [John Quincy] Adams over [Andrew] Jackson, an event which was supposed to be due to party disaffection on Clay's part. Randolph fired into the air, Clay missed his aim. Then the two opponents shook hands. Randolph was devoted to his family, and seems to have cherished a tender feeling of friendship for his old love. He failed in his mission to Russian, but only because the diplomat who preceded him had blundered, and Randolph


had to bear the brunt. He returned home broken in spirit and virtually a dying man. He made his will, freeing all his slaves. Then he set out for England, but got no further than Philadelphia, where he died. He would not let the Doctor who attended him leave the room, because, according to Virginia law, the Doctor who attended a dying man must testify to the patient's sanity, and must not leave the room till after the patient's death. Randolph wished his will to stand; and died, with his hand on his faithful slave Juba's head. The will was contested.

The third article on the Prgramme was by Mrs. Randolph Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer], and was called, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe. Mrs. Latimer said she first met Mrs. Howe, then Julia Ward, in Boston, in 1842. Mrs. Latimer was spending the winter with Miss Anna Ticknor; it was, she said, the halcyon moment of her life. Julia Ward had an indescribable effect upon her, and was most attractive. She had reddish hair, was very attentive to her dress, and was very musical. The young girls


played various pranks and succeeded [in?] piquing or offending Charles Sumner. He condemned them to write him each a sonnet. So they wrote the three sonnets. Then Miss Julia Ward wrote one for her private satisfaction giving what she believed were Mr. Sumner's true feelings with regard to his stay in England. [?] he took an infinite pride in his social successes while abroad. The Ward family--the younger members--consisted of three brothers and three sisters. Two brothers died early. Louisa Ward married Crawford, and was the Mother of Francis Marion Crawford the novelist. Dr. Ward, the father of Julia, was interested in the development of idiots, and Julia, who was singularly ready and very willing would be as brilliant when with the idiots as she was elsewhere. Once when her young brother cried because apple-pie was denied him, and comment was made, she said, "Well, my dear, God often takes our under done pie-crust out of our hands." Once, when Mrs. Latimer had listened to Margaret Fuller and others talk high transcendentalism on the question, "What is Life?" meeting Julia Ward later the young lady readily answered the


question by saying, "Life? Life's a [demnition?] grind." The triumph of Dr. Ward's life was his treatment of the case of Laura Bridgeman. Mrs. Latimer gave an interesting account of this celebrated case and showed a cursive autograph given her by Laura Bridgeman in 1842.

The 4th article on the Programme was by Miss Maria H. Middleton and was on the late Richard Malcolm Johnston. Miss Middleton began by speaking of the notable short story writers, Mary Wilkins, Thomas Nelson Page, Bret Harte. R.M. Johnston, whose stories vividly portraying the life of different sections of the country, gave the effect of distinct nationalities. Richard Malcolm Johnston was born in middle Georgia in 1822. He was a graduate of Mercer College, Macon. He studied and practiced law. When 22, he married the beautiful Miss Mansfield, she being not quite 16. He was offered a Judgeship but declined. He was for years, professor of Belles Lettres in the College, but resigned to establish a boy's school of his own. During the Civil War he was aid to Governor Brown. After the War he came to Baltimore and again opened a boy's school.


Here he wrote his "Georgia Sketches" and "Dukesborough Tales." Sidney Lanier, who was teacher of mathematics in Colonel Johnston's school, saw and appreciated his work. From this time on his work was sought for and his success assured. He collaborated with Mr. William Hand Browne, a life of Alexander H. Stephens, and wrote an "English Literature" which is still used in certain High Schools. Once when Colonel Johnston and Mark Twain gave a reading together, Twain declined to take any of the proceeds saying, "It is such an honor to know a man like you, that the debt of gratitude is on my side."

The 5th article on the Programme was by Miss Anne Weston Whitney and was on Edward Everett Hale. Miss Whitney spoke of Mr. Hale's labor for the betterment of mankind, saying that he is a beacon light showing what a man with high ideals of life and work may do for his fellows. Liberty, Justice, and brotherly love have been the things hoped for of his life and work. Edward Everett Hale was born in 1822, and his memories stretch back to the time when Lafayette visited the country, and when [those? illegible] men living whose recollection of the


Revolutionary War was as vivid as that of the Civil War to-day. Miss Whitney read Mr. Neale's account of early Boston in 1809, of the founding of Faneuil Hall by Peter Faneuil, son of a Huguenot--who gave the Hall to the city on condition that the lower part was used as a market and that 50 citizens, if they so desired, should have the privilege of meeting there. Boston then had 20,000 inhabitants. Life was simpler then and easier, and some of the richest men in the city purchased their day's marketing under Faneuil Hall. Hale had seen Lafayette, in 1824, but did not remember his appearance. He had also seen Melville, one of the heroes of the "Boston Tea Party," and gave a description of how the "Tea Party" came off. He had also seen vials of the tea taken from mounds upon the beach. Washington, the year after Braddock's defeat, came to Boston; but Washington's diary of that year, 1776, had been stolen, and so far, never traced.

Mrs. Wrenshall said it was a pity some tea from the "Peggy Stewart" had not been preserved. She had met Hale years ago. He had then just returned from Spain, and was full of the glories of the Alhambra. Asked why he did not remain longer, he said, "Because I had spent all my money."

The meeting adjourned.


23rd Meeting of March 18th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday March 18th in the Assembly Room 115 W. Franklin Street. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

As the anniversary of the Club's founding falls upon March 19th, and Tuesday the 18th was the eve of the actual day, it had been decided to celebrate the day on Tuesday. The room was handsomely decorated with plants and flowers in honor of the occasion.

There were no announcements. Mrs. Wrenshall made a brief address of welcome and congratulation to the Club. She congratulated the Club upon its vitality, its unity, its singleness of purpose, and its consequent success. Adhesion to its original principles, continuous effort, lofty ideals, and singleness of aim, had brought increased results with the increasing years. She wished the Club a long and useful life and persistence along the lines it had itself laid down.

The President then introduced our honorary member, Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Fellow of Harvard University, who gave the one address of the afternoon. The address was called "An Ancient Ceremony of the Mississippi Valley." Miss Fletcher


partly read from advance sheets of her forthcoming boo on Indian Life, Beliefs, and Customs. Miss Fletcher began by speaking of the difficulty experienced by one of an alien race when approaching on the religious side, a primitive and partly savage people. Like all such, the Indian jealously guards the secrets of his religion; indeed, it is part of religion so to guard its secrets that they shall not become common property, much less the property of a stranger. The Indian's Religious Lore is held by the chosen Chiefs, and is orally transmitted from those who guard to those who are chosen to guard. The Rite which she would speak of is called "Hako," is an intertribal [inter-tribal] one, known to have existed among the Indians of the Mississippi Valley for more than 200 years. It points back to still older rites and beliefs, and these in turn, to others older still, for the chain of tradition is long and winding. Miss Fletcher had been working upon these Indian Religious Rites for 20 years, but not until within the last 2 years, and then through the friendship of an old Indian Chief--a Pawnee, 75 years of age--had she been able to complete her work, and to learn all the details and meaning of the ritual. This rite


of the Hako is, with slight variations, common to the Indians of the Mississippi Valley, and is observed from the foothills of the Rockies to the slopes of the Alleghanies. Miss Fletcher's knowledge of it is partly due to Mr. La Fleche, son of a Pawnee Chief, and to Mr. James Murie, (?) the son of another chief. But her immediate instructor was an old Chief and Keeper of priestly things. Sunatchi, who, despite his 75 years, is quick, mentally alert, never forgetful of his dignity, deeply serious in his religious faith, and absolutely to be relied on. His statements cannot be questioned. He it was, who, when invited to ascend the Washington Monument, declined, saying, "I have ascended the mountains made by Taraeva," and that while it might be good for the white man to live in a high, piled up dwelling,--it was better for the Indian to live in an earth-lodge, and the sacred things of his religion must also be kept always in an earth lodge.

Miss Fletcher dwelt upon the difference of mental attitude between the white man and the red. We feel ourselves above life, and look down on it. The Indian feels himself


a part of life, and looks out upon it and around. We are its master; he is its brother. It is hard for us, therefore, to appreciate and understand his point of view.

The word Hako means not only the mere ceremony proper, but all that concerns it, all that it symbolizes. The word itself signifies Breath, by which man communicates his feelings and thoughts to men, a Beating of the lips; and the Breathing mouth of word, which means the drum. The Rite itself is a long symbolic prayer, for the gift of children, for plenty, and for peace; that is for individual and tribal life, and that condition which is most conducive to life. The Rite is therefore, individual, and tribal, and also a social bond. The chief symbols used are the eagle and the ear of corn. The eagle is masculine; the ear of corn feminine; the eagle means the sky, masculine; the ear of corn, the earth, feminine. The eagle's feathers are white; the feminine feathers are brown. Thus are signified the two principles; the father, the defender and provider; the mother, the nest maker and arranger. The two principles are also signified by the pipe-stems—the famous Calumet. A green stem streaked with white


means the masculine principle;--a blue stem streaked with brown, the feminine. With the Indians, descent is generally traced through the mother. An Indian woman, unlike a Roman, does not belong to her husband and his family. Thus wherever among the Indians exogamy is practiced, we find two political groups—the Clan and the Gentes. In the Clan, descent is derived from the Mother; in the Gentes from the Father. Thus the Hako as a social bond was wide-spread and most essential. In 1672, Marquette, the Missionary, received the sacred peace pipe-stems, and they enabled him to perform his journey in safety.

Old as the Hako is, and older as are its symbols, they are founded upon rites yet older, and point to the growth of political and social ideas and ideals among the hunting tribes. In all these symbols, meanings are, in a sense reversed; and the things strongest in flight are here turned to peace. A long red [g?] symbolizes life and right doing. The Woodpecker's Head—re-crested, is one symbol; the upper mandible is painted blue, turned back over the crest, and signifies strife held down by peace. The wild duck's head is also used. The


Wild Duck knows earth, air, water, hence is the Unerring Guide. If the stem is painted Green and decked with brown feathers, it is feminine, and conserver; if decked with White feathers, it is masculine, and defends. Man is outside to protect—woman is inside to preserve. Four lines are on the ear of corn, four paths and powers descends [descend] to minister to man. The gourd rattles, that is gourds dried, emptied of seed, and having gravel inserted and a stick thrust through, are used in prayer. For the gourd thus used represents the woman's breast, and so used is a prayer for offspring and for sustenance. Miss Fletcher said that this information had never before been given to one of another race. Another thing used in the Hako is the Wild Cat skin. The Indians look at an animal's essential characteristics, its true quality, and value, and admires accordingly. The Wild Cat never misses his prey, works quietly and easily, and has mental capacity, since it does all with tact. The Wild Cat skin, with head and claws intact, is spread upon the ground, and the scared Hako symbols are laid upon it, and are kept rolled up in it. For peace, as well as war, requires such powers as the wild cat possesses.


Only a chief may carry a Wild Cat's skin and the Wild Cat is one of the four Indian Shrines. The things required for the Hako, whether used as a family or tribal rite,--only skilled hunters and thrifty housewives could supply. In the processions the chiefs walk first, then comes the Doctor with eagle feathers; then the singers with the drums; then the rest of the band with ponies and gifts. When the ceremony took place in a lodge, and all were gathered together, the ceremony once begun, no one was allowed to leave the place. Three men were sent out to cut ash sticks for stems. Smoking began, for smoke ascends to Taraeva. Power, Immanence. Therefore Taraeva made the lesser powers to watch over men; and the sacred songs speak of these lesser powers. Three songs are all strictly rhythmic and are in lines of 4-6-7. Rhythmic blows or beats sometimes accompany the songs or hymns. To simple minds rhythms assist the litanies or prayers. These hymns are to these lesser powers which watch over men, and the lesser powers are deputies or attributes of Taraeva—like the North Star, the Eagle. After describing a perfect square, or man with arms outstretched,


16 feet north, south, east and west, the songs are sung, the singers turning to each of the four quarters respectively, since particular gifts and blessings descend from each quarter. One of the rhythms runs thus. "Otaho heed, as on thee we call, Otaho, giver of breath, Help us, O send us thy strength, Power that comes near unto men." The beginning of rites is the setting up by man of a holy place where he can be quiet and think. The Lodge represents this earth; Sky is the stretch of abiding-place. Flame is the word of the fire. The localizing of holy place and rites is the scheme or bond which holds the Indian community together. The stir of the dawn, is the breath of day. Night is feminine, moon is feminine. But through all the rites and symbols run three ideas, Children, Sustenance, Peace or Perpetuity for the individual and the race.

After the address, refreshments were offered.  Later, the meeting adjourned.


24th Meeting of March 25th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, March 25th in the Assembly Room, 105 West Franklin Street, the President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], presided. There were no announcements—save those of the Programmes for the coming month. The Programme for the afternoon—which was in charge of the Committee on Drama, Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud, Chairman—was then taken up.

The first article on the programme was a "Selection from Stephen Phillips' 'Ulysses,'" this selection was read by Miss Cloud. The portion of the poem chosen was the scene of parting between Ulysses and Calypso. The fiat having gone forth that Ulysses shall at last return to Ithaca, provided he traverses Hades to win his home again;--remembrance stirs in Ulysses and he awakens to a consciousness of the present and the past. He desires to depart, and Calypso seeks to retain him, and she asks bitterly, "How shall my heart contend against his brain?" "The love that does not weary must be art," she declares, and tries all her sweet wits to detain Ulysses by her side. But he remembers Ithaca,


his wife, his son, his defenceless halls, his little sea-girt kingdom, and, memory growing stronger and sweeter, he avers that though his homeward way lay through hell itself, yet would he venture thither, and on this avowal, Calypso is forced to let him go.

The second article on the Programme was a "Paper on the Character of Lady Macbeth," this article was by Mrs. William C.A. Hummel [Bertha B. Hammel]. Men, Mrs. Hummel said, seek happiness through power;--women seek happiness through affection. A man's ambition is direct and personal;--a woman's ambition is indirect and is for the creature she loves. Hence the keynote of Lady Macbeth's character is her overwhelming love for her husband;---to see him great, to see him King, and she will dare all and do all. She is very far from being either a cruel or vindictive woman. Indeed, she is really tender-hearted, and becomes a criminal only through her affection. Macbeth has informed her of his meeting the weird sisters, and of the veiled prophecies,--of their part fulfillment, also of his own guilty ambitions, hopes, and all this so works upon Lady Macbeth's mind and heart, that she then thinks


an overt act by which Macbeth may achieve the desired crown. But she cannot herself strike the blow, and she was unhappily unable to conceived that Macbeth, once committed to evil, would surely evil pursue. Hence [,] she faints at the news of the murder of the [Grooms?]. She had not thought her loved Macbeth could be so swiftly bloody. Hence, Macbeth's downward course in evil, finally drives him mad.

The third article on the Programme was a translation and adaptation from the French of Alfred de Musset's "Three Steps of Pink Marble," by Miss Marie Eulalie Perkins. Miss Perkins preserved admirably the spirit and bouquet of the original, the delicate perceptions, the touch of wit, the indirect description and allusion by which all the pageantry and glory and gallantry of much French history are made to pass before us. We too, saw not only the old garden of Versailles, but those famous men, and dear dead women who have made the spot immortal.

The fourth article on the Programme was a story by Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall]. This story was of the funeral of an ExConfederate soldier, Colonel Browne. From the talk of the


relatives and friends, we learn that the Colonel has been rather lost sight of of late years; that his handsome, dissipated son, Rupert, who had married deplorably, had long since disappeared, and that the old Colonel and his sister, Honoria, had been living alone in New York. Just as the funeral procession is about to form, a little boy enters. He asks whether this is the place where the funeral is to be; and when several persons question him, he answers that he is the Colonel's grand-son, John Cecilius Browne; and that he has come to attend his grandfather's funeral. He also incidentally reveals the true state of his father—the gay, handsome Rupert, now a semi-imbecile, and that he, the son, helps the mother to take care of the family. The boy acts child's parts, and is known as "Master Cecil." The boy attends the funeral as chief mourner, and is taken in charge by his kinsfolk and his Great-Aunt Honoria.

The fifth article on the Programme was a story by Miss Cloud. This was one of the [C'?] Farah Stories, and is told by Moira, Teddy's wife. Like Keat[s], I should only mar a good tale by telling it, so I will not spoil this one. It had best linger


in the minds of the auditor, as it was read by the author. It had the wind and the stars and the soft glamour of night in it; life's sore burden, and life's deep joy; love confessed and unconfessed; a woman's wisdom, gained through pain, coming to the rescue, and setting all right again. So as I should never dream of shooting a humming bird, or of attempting to put shackles on Ariel, I will leave this tale to its hearers.

The sixth and last article on the Programme was a brief one—act Drama by Mrs. R.K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley]; this drama was called "Open the Door." The time was 1794, a few hours before the fall of Robespierre; the scene was in a garret of Paris. The Dramatis Personae were, Marie, an old servant; Bellaise, a washerwoman, who is secretly protecting and hiding the Countess de Beaujolais, and Diane de Beaujolais, her daughter; the old Vicomet de Beaujolais, father of Diane; M. Louis de Beaujolais, of the younger branch. The dramatic plot is exceedingly strong and simple, and turns upon the enforced choice of Diane de Beaujolais between her father and her lover. She must identify one or the other, as each claims to be the real and only Vicomte de Beaujolais. The signal agreed upon [by]


Bellaire and the agents of the Revolutionary Tribunal, is the opening of the door. The dramatic moment of suspense is thrilling: but just as all seems lost, shouts are heard outside, Robespierre has fallen, and both the Beaujolais are safe.

At the close of the Programme, the meeting adjourned.

25th Meeting.
Meeting of April 1st, 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, April 1st in the Assembly Room, 105 West Franklin Street. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], presided.

The course of Lectures for the present year on the Percy Graeme Turnbull Foundation was then announced; and in order to give the members an opportunity to attend promptly, it was announced that the meeting on Tuesday, April 8th would begin at 3 p.m. instead of 3:30 p.m., the usual hour.

Announcement was also made of a Lecture to be given at the Friend's Meeting House, Park Avenue, on Thursday, April 2nd at 3:30 p.m. The Lecture is in behalf of the educational work among the Kentucky Mountaineers, work done by Miss Store and Miss Pettigrew.

Announcement was also made of a


concert to be given by the Musical Art Club, at the Music Hall, on Tuesday, April 8th at 8 p.m. One half the proceeds of the sale of tickets sold by those interested in the Locust Point Social Settlement, will go for the benefit of that settlement.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. This Programme was given by the Committee on Unfamiliar Records, Mrs. Jordan Stabler [Ellen Austin Walker Stabler] being Chairman.

The first article, or address, was by Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner], and was called "A Look or Two Backward." Mrs. Turner said it was always well to recall the past, both for correction and encouragement. Men were not very different from what they had been, and there was always room for improvement. She showed a copy of the celebrated "Cromwell's Bible," published at London in 1643. Such a one as was actually worn by the soldiers of Cromwell's [Oliver Cromwell] command. This short compilation of Scriptural Texts, suitable for a soldier's guidance, was made by the Lord General himself, and was supposed to give comfort and sustenance to the Inner Man. Before the fight, in the fight, and after the fight, Mrs. Turner quoted from the compilation many texts suitable to a soldier's life. But Cromwell's Bible is significant in its


mission [message?] of the one text which all who advocate war would do well to remember, "All they that take the sword, shall perish with the sword." Mrs. Turner also showed a copy of the "Baltimore American," published February 24th 1821, and she read extracts from it. Advertisements of slave-sales, and runaway slaves; Robinson's Library; a notice that "Kenilworth," a new novel by the author of Waverly was shortly expected. That a stage would leave the "Fountain Inn" for Annapolis, and that the fare was ($3.00) three dollars.

The next article on the Programme was by Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], and was called "Tombstones that I have Known." Mrs. Cautley began by saying that she had always found epitaphs cheerful reading, and sometimes more than cheerful. One of the most beautifully complete and pathetic monuments she had seen was that of the Litchfield children, two sisters, of 14 & 5 years, respectively. Another handsome tomb was that of the Princess Charlotte [daughter of George IV]. Another was that of the Prince Imperial, who was interred in St. George's Chapel by the Queen's special request. Mrs. Cautley dispelled any idea that the unfortunate Prince had been a "toy soldier, or unduly considered; in truth, he lost his life just because he


had insisted upon being treated like any other young subaltern. Mrs. Ewing's [Juliana Horatia Ewing] tomb, too, was very beautiful, with its appropriate inscription; "Until the day break, and the night is gone."

The tomb of General Gordon is always adorned with fresh flowers. In old St. Paul's a notable tomb is that of Doctor Donne, Preacher, & Poet. In Westminster, the tomb of Dean Stanley is memorable, as is also that of Duc d'Anjou. Queen Elizabeth's tomb is superimposed on that of Mary Tudor. From the time of Henry VI, until George IV, a wax effigy of the deceased monarch was carried in the funeral procession; from these effigies, the marble form was sculptured, so that these sculptures are really portraits. That of Mary Stuart, is very beautiful.

The third article on the Programme was by Mrs. Vanderpoel [Adaline Vanderpoel], and was called "Bermuda, Past and Present." Mrs. Vanderpoel began by saying that Devil's Island, as it was called, was the terror of all mariners. In 1609 some sea-adventurers were wrecked there. 150 were saved, and these saved the ship's rigging and stores. The Island was explored, and found, not dreadful, but delightful. Sir George Somers founded a colony, but without success. In 1611, Sir Richard Moore


visited the Island, and it was a rallying point for the Spanish Buccaneers. To this day, notwithstanding the climate, provisions are exported to Bermuda. A causeway of stone connects St. George and Bermuda. Halifax in the north, and Bermuda in the middle Atlantic, are England's chief fortifications and base of supplies. Hamilton has one of the finest dock yards in the world. There is not a poisonous plant in Bermuda, and Bermuda Onions are called "Bermuda Violets." The Boer Prisoners (about 200) in Bermuda, excite much sympathy. They are treated exactly like the British soldiers, and are allowed to make and sell whatever things they can, and they sell a great deal to visitors. The roads in Bermuda are admirable, and life out of doors there is a prolonged delight.

The fourth article on the Programme was by Mrs. Julius Thruston [Lucy Meacham Thruston], and was called "The Red Brick Church in Smithfield." This old Red Brick Church is the oldest in America, save those of the Spanish Missions build in 16--? And is mentioned by both Bishop Meade, and Professor John Fiske. The Church stands on the South side of the James in Isle of Wight County not far from Whitemarsh. The early record of the Church


were almost entirely destroyed by Tarleton [British General] in the War of the Revolution. A few were preserved. But these were used in 1812 for cartridge paper. The Rector from Smithfield, preaches in the church once a month and in this old church there is a handsome memorial window to Captain John Smith.

The fifth article on the Programme was by Mrs. Wrenshall, and was called "A summer day in Colonial Newport." Colonial Newport dates from 1635. Canonicus and Miantonomoh, powerful Chiefs of the Narragansetts, owned ground here, some of which they sold to the first English settlers. The Narragansetts were far in advance of the savage Pequots. Monogamy prevailed among the Narragansetts. They were religious, and measured time by the moon. The first English house was built in 1639—it is low, the rafters being easily touched. Then Mrs. Wrenshall sought, but found with difficulty the old bury-place where lies in one grave Mary Dyer, and her child. The unfortunate young Quakeress, persecuted, whipped for conscience sake, was banished to the "Providence Plantation." She ventured back to see her sick mother; and then came the end. Not so very far away, stands the "Horseman's Tower," and here was found the Skeleton in Armor.


Mrs. Wrenshall touched upon much that was of interest in Newport. Spoke of Governor Arnold, of Damaris, Goulding, of the tomb of Edward Pelham, gentleman, of stately "Old Trinity," with its walls covered with inscriptions. Of the dance given by the Indians to entertain the French, and the entertainment given aboard ship by Comte de Rochambeau in honor of the Indians.

In reviewing the history of Newport in the now last century, it is interesting to note that a Baltimorean filled for some years an important part in her story. The Mayor of Newport, in 1853, was a man of letters. Devoted to literary pursuits, he wrote a life of Rubens, Goethe, and a fine sketch of Shakespeare, biographically and esthetically considered. He was born in Baltimore in 1803. Was at one time Editor of the Baltimore American. His name was George Henry Calvert, being a great great grandson of Sir George Calvert, and was thus a relative to our prized member and Chairman to day, Miss Emma F. Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent].

At the close of the Programme, the meeting adjourned.


26th Meeting of April 8th, 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday April 8th in the Assembly Room, 105 West Franklin Street, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

Mrs. Wrenshall read two notes, one from the Corresponding Secretary of the Lend-a-Hand Club, the other from its President, Mrs. J. F. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham], thanking Mrs. Wrenshall and the Woman's Literary Club for its courtesy in extending to the Lend-a-Hand during its sojourn in the city, the use of the Woman's Literary Club's Rooms. The Lend-a-Hand Club also expressed the hope that the W.L.C. of B. would, at some time, enjoy the hospitality of the Lend-a-Hand Club by using its rooms at Mt. Washington.

Mrs. Wrenshall read a note from our honorary member Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer], in which Mrs. Latimer presented to the Club a copy of her just published novel, "The Prince Incognito," and thanked the Club for its ever appreciative kindness.

Mrs. Wrenshall gave notice that the Programme next week would be given to her paper on Rock Tombs of India, illustrated by stereopticon views. The Programme for the afternoon, which was in charge of the Committee on Archaeology, Miss E.F. Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent], Chairman, was taken up.


The first article called "A Lady of Ye Olden Time," was by Mrs. P.R. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler]. Mrs. Uhler began by saying that heretofore savants and scientists have looked for the beginnings of civilization in the East, that civilization has been supposed to flow Westward; but in the latter half of the nineteenth century, scholars began to look for the beginnings of civilization on the continent, and to study the records of the past here. The result is that some scholars hold that the earliest civilizations began here, in Central America, and that Egypt derived her beginnings of law and religion from the Mayas of Yucatan. And Mrs. Uhler called attention to the lately published book of Mr. Le Plongeon [Augustus] called "Queen Mu and the Egyptian Sphinx." The word Maya means Power, Wisdom, Learning. The Empire of the Mayas, or Mayacs, whose center was Yucatan, covered an area of 13,000 miles. Today, vast forests, filled, however, with marvelous ruins, covered what must have once been the region peopled by an almost forgotten race. The chief ruin is supposed to have been built by Queen Mu to her husband=brother, Ko. The Wall paintings in this ruined palace are symbolic, or ideographic and show affinity with the symbolic paintings of Egypt. So close is the resemblance between Ancient Egypt and this more ancient Maya


that, according to one M.S.S. [manuscript] (all that is left) Queen Mu is declared, after the death of Ko, to have travelled afar to the Maya colonies on the Banks of the Nile. Here she founded a kingdom and gave a religion; for Mu of the Mayas is the Isis of the Egyptians, Ko being Osiris, and their son Horus, similar in power and dignity to Hoor, son of Mu and Ko. The serpent is the emblem of royalty with each people, blue the color of mourning, yellow the color of royalty, and red the color of those who followed royalty. The first of November with both Mayas and Egyptians was the time for offerings, prayers and gifts for the dead. One of the emblems erected by Mu to her husband Ko, was a leopard with a human head. This, Mr. Le Plongeon thinks may have been the origin of the Sphinx. All analogies and points of resemblance were carefully and convincingly noticed, Mrs. Uhler said, but the book was too comprehensive to be other than touched upon.

The second article on the Programme was by Mrs. J. D. Early [Maud Graham Early], and was called "When Cortez came to Mexico." The government of Mexico was in transition from one party to another, Mrs. Early said, when Cortez first landed. Matters were unsettled,


and the people first regarded him as a saviour, an impression which his terrible cruelty soon dispelled. We have to rely for our information on the accounts of the conquerors, for the bigoted and benighted conquerors destroyed a civilization older than their own, and finally wiped out records which would have been of inestimable value to modern students. The Mexicans, however, buried their Maguey parchments with the Priests, and as these ecclesiastical tombs are made and sealed up in solid rock, it is hoped that some day M.S.S. may be discovered which will throw light upon the past. Mrs. Early spoke of the wonders which the Conquerors destroyed. The great Pyramid in the City of Mexico, twice the size of that of Cheops, and of innumerable temples and shrines, scarcely a trace of which is now left.

The third article on the Programme was by Miss Nicholas [Elizabeth Cary Nicholas], and was called "America—The Old World." Miss Nicholas began by saying that on the principle that "great minds think alike," she and Mrs. Uhler had unwittingly covered something of the same ground. Miss Nicholas spoke of the interest shown in the study of American Archeology—and of the French and Continental Societies organized for that purpose. The time


might not be far off, when America, the oldest continent, might prove also the parent continent in civilization. Miss Nicholas spoke of the reign of Diodorus Siculus [Greek historian], who lived hundreds of years before Columbus, and yet who described accurately a land and people lying west of Lybia [Libya]. This people had magnificent cities, wealth, learning, and even not unskilled in the arts. The Phoenicians had voyaged thither and had seen them, and scholars are now tempted to think this old tale true, and this Western people, the Maya of Yucatan, and it must have been through these voyagers that Solon revived accounts of the lost "Atlantis."

At the close of the Programme, the meeting adjourned.

27th Meeting of April 15th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, April 15th, in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences; in the absence of the President, the First Vice President, Mrs. R.K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley] presided.

After the reading of the "Minutes" of the two previous meetings, Mrs. Cautley announced two Lectures to be given


on the 16th and 18th of April, by Professor James Shouler. The subject of the Lecture was "The Life of the People during the American Revolution."--the place of their delivery "Levering Hall," Johns Hopkins University.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. There was but one paper which was by Miss Emma F. Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent], Chairman of the Committee on Archaeology; and the paper was called "A Strange People." The subject of the paper was in line with that of the papers read the week previous. Miss Brent began by saying that the old feeling of dislike and distrust towards the strange and alien had entirely given way to a feeling of intense and sympathetic interest; and the study of comparative religions, of comparative history, all went to show how nearly we are all affined, that we are, at certain stages of our development, of our feeling and of our thought. Miss Brent then called attention to the recent works treating of the remains of ancient civilization in Central America. Chief among which is the civilization of the Mayas of Yucatan; the wonder of whose ruins is not surpassed by that of the Peruvian Incas, or the Aztecs of Mexico. The peninsula of Yucatan


lying well within the Tropics holds many questions which are still unanswered. Who were the Mayas? Whence did they come? Is their civilization, whose ruins are so marvelous, indigenous, or was it derivation? How old is their civilization? And is there any possible connection between it and the civilization of Egypt and Assyria? Here is a vast field of possible knowledge for those who care to study. Mr. Le Plongeon assigns a vast age to these ruins of [Mayapan?]; but this from the nature of the climate and the soil seems improbable. There are the ruins (in various stages from fairly good preservation to great decay) of 62 of these Maya cities in Yucatan, and more are supposed to be hidden in the dense forests to the West, North West, and South-West. Among these ruins are vast temples, shrines, pyramids, friezes, bas-reliefs, and other figures, which throw light upon the past. Of Manuscripts in the Maya tongue and writing, there are extant only about three. Diego de Landa, first Bishop of Yucatan,--a terrible fanatic—having taken pains to destroy everything in the way of writing he could lay his hands on. And it is not certain that these few M.S.S. have even yet been correctly deciphered. Among the most


remarkable monuments of the Mayas, are their wells, reservoirs, and artificial lakes. The construction of these required unusual mechanical knowledge, and great skill in masonry. The present Mayas have lost this knowledge, and the Spaniards never acquired it. But one of these wonderful wells has a depth of 450 feet, and the passage leading to it is 1400 feet long. Among the most remarkable pyramids are those of Ake and Chichen-Itza. That of Ake (unlike all others) is approached by an immense flight of steps, and is surmounted by the ruins of a temple or shrine, possible, consisted of pillars 4 feet square from 14 to 16 feet height, and arranged in rows 10 feet apart.

The ruins of Chichen-Itza—rich in friezes, temples, statues, and reliefs, are all grouped around the wonderful pyramid, known as the Castle, from the beautiful structure surmounting the top. Chichen-Itza was a populous city at the time of the Conquest, and the Spaniards were eye witnesses of its wealth and beauty. These temples are rich in hieroglyphic inscriptions which still remain to be deciphered, while the sculptures and reliefs throw much light upon the life, domestic and social, of this


strange people. Their evident knowledge of architecture and astronomy, and of mechanics seems to link them with Egypt and Assyria, and some students would find some connection between these early Americans and China, Korea, and Japan. But there is nothing as yet to show that the civilization was not indigenous. To this day the Mayas of Yucatan are the handsomest of the American aborigenes. They have the straight black hair, but their skins are fairer, their features aquiline and regular, their mouths smaller, and the expression of the face frank and refined, showing unmistakably that they are the descendants of a cultured and highly civilized race. Miss Brent quoted a Maya Father's advice to his daughter. "Preserve simplicity, modesty, neatness, obedience to husband." Then the Mother's advice. "Preserve calmness and measure; be not too fast nor too loud; do not hasten, do not run, turn not the head; if compelled to jump, do it with decency.

Unlike the religion of the Aztecs that of the Mayas was free from gross ideas. There was no shedding of blood on their altars. Persons killed by lightning were supposed to be beloved by the Sun, who thus called them to felicity.


[Ilelre or Ililca?] the Rain God, was the oldest of the Gods. There were 4 elements, 4 winds, 4 elements in man, and 7 senses. The Maya Cross is like the blunted Greek Cross, and is not unlike the Symbol of Thoth, the Egyptian God of Wisdom. Priests were held in high esteem among the Mayas, and deserved the respect they received. Polygamy was forbidden.

Miss Brent drew a contrast between the civilization of the Mayas and that of the wild Toltecs and fierce Aztecs, these latter having used human sacrifices and indulged in a sort of sacrificial, religious cannabalism [cannibalism], partaking of the heart of an enemy after it had been offered up in sacrifice,-- presumably to acquire, by eating it, his courage.

Miss Brent had pictures with which to illustrate her paper.

At the close of the paper, the meeting adjourned.


28th Meeting of April 22nd 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, April 22nd in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided. As the Programme for the afternoon was unusually long, no "minutes" were read, and no announcements made. The Programme, therefore, which was in charge of the Committee on Fiction, was immediately taken up.

As the 22nd of April is the eve of Shakespeare's birthday, and the eve of St. George's Day, the programme had been arranged with special view to a Shakespeare celebration. Ten of Shakespeare's songs were sung, and three stories by different members of the Committee were given. It had been agreed upon by certain members of the Committee that Shakespeare himself should appear in the stories as one of the dramatis personae, hence the motto at the head of the programme very appropriately read—

"Pardon, gentles all,

The flat unraised spirits that have dared

On this unworthy scaffold to bring forth

So great an object."

(King Henry V)


Three songs were given first. "The Fairy song," from Midsummer's Night's Dream by the Quadriga Quartette—Mrs. Belding, Miss Delano, Miss Phelps, Miss Stowe [Edith W. Stowe].

Then, "Where the bee sucks, There suck I." Ariel's song from "The Tempest," given by Miss Thomas.

Then, "Under the Greenwood Tree," from "As You Like It," given by Mrs. Kentewell [Miss Kettlewell?].

The first story called "A Prophesy, Its More Strange Fulfilment," was by Miss Anne Weston Whitney. Miss Whitney had deftly woven into her tale much of the folklore and superstition of Shakespear's day. The story told of a lover and his lass, and of the father of the lass, Avon's village grave-digger, who, has been firmly persuaded that he must die before the year is out. Groaning and moaning and believing himself already half-dead, because the daughter's lover has seen his future father-in-law, (supposedly in a vision) rising out of a new made grave on Hallow Eve Night, the father refuses all comfort and cheer. A wedding party passes outside the cottage window. A Coventry play of


"The Flood" is given on the Green, an old Harper or Minstrel comes in, but the sick man cannot be disabused of his fixed idea. Finally Shakespeare himself enters the room, and relieves the sick man's fear by telling him that the ill-omened sight and prophesy are easily explained, since he, Shakespeare, needs the services of the grave digger to carry out a Churchyard scene in the play which is to be given that afternoon at the Inn. The Gravedigger revives, and is willing to do his part; while the daughter admits that she, having tried her fortune on last All Hallow Eve, has had proof that she and her lover, the illadvised prophet, were destined for each other, so that no matter what happened, or what she did, destiny would surely be fulfilled.

Then two songs were sung: "Who is Sylvia?" From "Two Gentlemen of Verona," sung by Miss Stowe, and "O Mistress Mine,["] from "Twelfth Night," sung by Miss Thomas.

The second story was called "St. George's Day," 1602, and was by Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall], and read by Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley]. The story is told by an elderly man, steward of the College


of "God's Gift." It is a tale of his youth, when he, a boy of fifteen, protégé and page to the Countess of Yaneham, on St. George's Day, 1602, helped to escape the Countess' grand-daughter, Mistress Elizabeth Bonhage, who is, that night, to be forced into a marriage she revolts from. Lady and page wish to find Sir Gilbert Bonhage, lover of the lady, and they make their way to Blackfriar's Stairs, to go thence, or send thence to the "Globe," where Sir Gilbert may possibly be found. After a long uncertain waiting, they chance to encounter Allyn Burbage and Shakespeare, also the Watch who is already sent out to apprehend the lady. By Shakespeare's instrumentality, the lady is saved, however, the lovers brought together, and all ends well.

Then came three songs: "Hark, hark, the Lark," from "Cymbeline," sung by Miss Thomas.

"Blow, blow, thou Winter's Wind," from "As You Like It," sung by Miss Stowe;--and "Fear no more the heat o' the Sun" from "Cymbeline," sung by Miss Stowe and Miss Kentewell [Kettlewell]. The music of this exquisite song and dirge was composed by Miss Cloud, and was played by her.


Then came the third Story. "The Reed and the Oak," by Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud. The story told in 1640, by one Hurley Battle, an old man of four score years. He had been the Champion wrestler of all England in his younger days, but was now come to grave-digging for a livelihood. Born and bred at Stratford-on-Avon, Battle had known Shakespeare well and intimately. Battle's only child, "Bethel," a daughter, grows up as a reed by the river, and shows rare gifts of body and mind. She can sing like a lark, and as she has always closely followed her father even to the theatres where his calling of wrestler took him, she has picked up from her infancy, the "play-words" of the players. Singing and repeating a part, she is seen one night by Shakespeare himself. And when misfortune falls heavily upon Battle, so that he is lowered, and so prevented from following his calling. Shakespeare proposes that the daughter shall go to London and sing the songs of his plays behind the scenes. The sex of the singer is of course known, but protected by an order of the King. Bethel sings at court as well as at the theatre. The characterization and the story go[es] on from there,--the artist nature of the girl is wrought upon fully by her love for her father,


and the great dramatist, though she is understood by him only. When she has made money enough to keep her father and herself, she returns to abide at Stratford with her father, and Master Will, and declines all offers of marriage. Shakespeare is stricken down with what proves his death illness, and the girl--as if the life of the reed were somewhat dependent on that of the oak—pines and fades, until she too, passes away.

A foolish gallant and rhymster, coming from town to find out whether Shakespeare really did write his own sonnets, is the cause of Battle's outbreak upon the gallant, and results in the telling of the tale. For was not that exquisite girl as truly the rough old man's child, as are the plays and sonnets the work of the supreme poet?

Then followed the concluding songs:

"It was a Lover and his Lass," from "As You Like It," sung by Miss Thomas,--and "I Know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows," from "Midsummer Night's Dream," sung by Miss Delano and Miss Phelps.

The accompanists were Mrs. Pearce Kintzing [Theodorea Kintzing], and Miss Jessie Armstrong.

At the close of the programme, the meeting adjourned.


29th Meeting of April 29th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, April 29th, in the Assembly Room, 105 West Franklin Street. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President presided.

As the day was the last Tuesday of the month and a "Salon," it had been arranged that the meeting should be an "open one," and every member should have the privilege of asking one guest, either lady or gentleman.

Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] having arranged to give her illustrated paper on "Buddhist Architecture in Eastern India," the afternoon was particularly memorable, and was looked forward to with much interest. Minutes of previous meetings were omitted, and there were no announcements. Mrs. Wrenshall began her lecture by some general remarks upon the Ethnological condition of India at the time of the use of Buddhism. Geographically, India is isolated, and not until the year 327 B.C., during the Greek invasions of Alexander the Great, was India brought into contact with Western Europe. Consequently, we must look to India herself for her history. Ethnologically India is occupied by three peoples, the Aryan, or Sanscrit [sanskrit]- speaking race, was the only one which kept records. The Aryans came from Westward, from the high lands of Central Asia, crossed the


Himalayas, and so passed into India. Of the original aborigines, the Daysus, nothing is certainly known. The Aryans are supposed to have come into India in the year 300 B.C. The people they found in a low state of barbarism, having no records, with a religion chiefly of Tree and Serpent worship, and an EarthGod to whom they offered human sacrifice. The Aryans did not drive out the Daysus, but reduced them to a state of serfdom, made of them herdsmen and tillers of the soil; and named them "Daysus," or "slave population."

The Aryan invasion, however, had been preceded by the Dravidian. These people, supposed to have been originally of the lower caste in Babylonia, had early penetrated into the southern part of the Indian peninsula. They had forgotten their history, and no traditions even of their journey, but the structure of their language, points stubbornly to their origin; as a branch of the great Turanian family; and Bishop Caldwell believes them to be allied to the Finns. Though inferior intellectually, the Dravidians ultimately adopted the religion and language of the Aryans; but the student has little difficulty in distinguishing the monuments of the respective people. Little is known of the Dravidian religion before they fell under the Brahmin


influence, but the worship of the god Siva, is believed to have originated with the Dravidians. The Aryans were a literary people. They reared no temples; their buildings were of wood of which nothing remains, and they relied upon their writings for perpetuation. But in the study of these writings many difficulties arise. Chronology is unheeded, and myth and allegory abound, so clothed in flowery language that plain truth is hard to discover. The religion of the Aryans, first comparatively pure and elevated, came ultimately to be its own victim in the iron bonds of its self-imposed caste. Then came the note of freedom and reform sounded by a high-caste Brahmin, a King's son, the Buddha of history and story, one of the world's greatest reformers. Naturally the Brahmins ignored Buddha so that it is to the Buddhist Scriptures especially the Book of the Great Decease, written within a century of Buddha's death that we must have recourse. In the seventh century, A.D. Chinese pilgrims journeyed through India, visiting all spots made sacred by Buddha's teachings. They kept a journal of their pious wanderings, and this journal greatly aids the modern student. With Buddha therefore, in the sixth century B.C., begins the story of religious architecture in India.


Mrs. Wrenshall then went on to speak chronologically of the temples, shrines, and carvings made in Buddha's honor, and illustrative of his life and influence. The story of Buddha's life is well known, and the striking points of resemblance between Buddhism and certain later developments of Christianity, are also well known. The site of Kapilavastu where Buddha was born has only recently been discovered[.] 322 years after the death of Buddha, the Emperor Asoka, was converted to Buddhism, and made it the state religion. Now were founded the great monasteries, the shrines were built for holding relics, and the great stupas, or mounds, were raised to commemorate the spots visited by Buddha. Monumental pillars with inscriptions encouraging the people to follow the new faith were also built.

The first of these shrines is a rude cave near the ancient City of Ragger, the capital of central India. Here Buddha often rested. In front of this cave is a rough tower built of rude stones fitted together without mortar. The tower is 85 feet square; 28 feet height; and within are 15 cells just large enough for a man to go into and lie down. This was the first Buddhist monastery.


The oldest caves after this, are those that lie near the Ganges. They are small, but the interiors are highly polished. All have inscriptions which declare that the caves were excavated in the twelfth and nineteenth year of Asoka's reign. In Asoka's time there was a passion for inscriptions. And a peculiarity of this early stone work is its imitation of wooden buildings. This stone work in imitation of wood is peculiar to Eastern India. Passing south and east along the coast and the Mahanada River, the hills are full of caves, of no architectural value, but curious in themselves. Two of these are known as the Tiger Cave and Serpent Cave. Among the many caves of these hills that of Ananta is a perfect specimen Buddhist symbolism. It is small, but rich in these symbols, and its date is fixed at 150 years B.C. Passing still southward to Krishna River, we come to the Eastern Ghats where in the hills are structures which are spoken of by the seventh century Chinese pilgrims. These buildings were then large monasteries. One is a five[-]storied cave, probably later than the Chinese visit, but one of the most remarkable of the Buddhist works in India.


Here too, in south eastern India, 35 miles south of Madras, near the sandy beach at [Maharallipin?], are great detached boulders lying about on the shore. Nine of these have been carved into small temples or shrines of great beauty of workmanship. As this has been done on very hard stone, nothing has been dimmed or lost even after the long interval of 1200 years. One of these stones, shrines, or Rathas, is thought to be a model of the wooden halls of assembly used by the Buddhists. Of all these Rathas, that of Sahadara (?) is the most interesting. It is a model of a Chaitya, or Church cave, and is so ornate as almost to defy inscription [description]. The great archaeological value of the Rathas is that they show the entire wooden building copied in stone, and show both external as well as internal architecture. In western India there are magnificent specimens of the interior of the Church caves, but of the exterior there is nothing. But here we have everything: Halls of Assembly, Monasteries, hermit-cells and Chapels. The temples of Western India outshine those of Eastern India; but the latter are of more historic value. Here was the


cradle of the Buddhistic faith, and to Asoka's care and interest are due these well nigh imperishable works. One of the most famous of these Church caves, is that at Karli. It is now in a very ruined condition, but enough remains to show its former grandeur. It is lighted by a single opening, through which the light pours and falls upon the altar and shrine. There are three aisles; the centre one 25 feet wide; the side aisles narrow. The length of this temple is 186 feet, width 45 feet, height 45 feet from floor to apex. The rafters, entirely for ornament, are made of teak wood, and are almost indestructible. They have been there, possibly 2000 years. This temple shows no trace of the corrupt legends of Brahmanism, or of the modern Hindu faith. All is pure Buddhism, and the architecture is in keeping with the loftiness of the thought. It is a far step from the small natural cave where the weary Buddha rested, to this great rock temple excavated in the solid hillside to his worship and honor.

Mrs. Wrenshall's lecture was


admirably illustrated with stereoptic views. At its conclusion, a basket of roses was presented by Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley], on behalf of the Club, to the President; a slight expression of our affection and appreciation for the earnest work the President has done for the Club. The President expressed her loving thanks.

The rest of the afternoon was passed in social intercourse, and the meeting adjourned.

30th Meeting Meeting of May 6th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, May 6th in the Assembly Room of the Club. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

The meeting being a purely business one, no guests were present. The afternoon was devoted to the reading of Reports by the Chairmen of the Various Committees. Out of the fifteen chairmen, 5 were unavoidably absent. Reports, however, of these Committees were given by the respective members present.

Before the regular business of the afternoon was taken up, three sets of


minutes were read and approved. Apropos of the minutes on the Archaeological Papers, Mrs. Wrenshall said that she had seen in Washington, a set of the Ten Commandments given in the old Mexican or Aztec character, a kind of ideograph writing. Mention was also made of certain marked features of the close Club year. The Twelfth Night Festival, and the Organ Recital which had been tend[er]ed the members of the club by Mrs. Wolff, organist of Grace Church.

The meeting of the afternoon was informal after the reading of the Reports. It was agreed by all, however, that no meeting of the year is pleasanter in certain ways that this, when the Reports are read. For by means of those Reports a more complete and comprehensive idea is gained of the entire work of the Club than by any other means.

At the close of the afternoon, a short Board Meeting was called, after which the meeting adjourned.


31st Meeting of May 13th 1902.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, May 13th in the Assembly Room of the Club. Being the second Tuesday in May, it was the day for nominations for officers and 3 Directors of the Board, hence was a strictly business meeting. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

No minutes were read, and no announcements were made. The President appointed the Committee on Elections. Chairman Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall]: Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler], Mrs. McGaw [Margaret Ann Worden McGaw], Miss Nicholas [Elizabeth Cary Nicholas], Mrs. Stevens [Mrs. Francis P. Stevens].

The Corresponding Secretary, Miss Whitney [Anne Weston Whitney], called the roll, and it was found that a quoram [quorum] was present. Nominating Ballots were then distributed. After some little time they were collected. The Nominations stood thus.

President, Mrs. Wrenshall,

First Vice President, Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley],

Second Vice President, Mrs. McGaw,

Recording Secretary, Miss Duvall,

Corresponding Secretary, Miss Whitney,

Treasurer, Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton]


Highest three Directors.

Mrs. Uhler,

Mrs. Carter [Florence Carter],

Mrs. Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson],

Next Highest.

Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock],

Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud],

Miss Crane [Lydia Crane].

The Nominations for the Presidency, First Vice Presidency, and Treasurership, were unanimous. Some few scattering names were withdrawn.

Mrs. Wrenshall appointed Mrs. Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill] and Mrs. Hammel [Bertha B. Hammel] auditors of the year's account.

After the business of the afternoon, the meeting adjourned.


32nd Meeting of May 20th 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, May 20th in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall, the President, presided.

As it was the day appointed for the annual election of the Officers and Three Directors of the Board of Management, the meeting was a strictly business one and no guests were present. A delay was caused by a thunder-shower, so that the Club was late in beginning the afternoon's work.

The Treasurer's account was audited and approved by Mrs. Hill [Harriet Louise Wescott Hill] and Mrs. Hammel [Bertha B. Hammel], the duly appointed auditors for this year; and Miss Middleton, the Treasurer, read her Report, which was highly satisfactory and encouraging, with a comfortable balance in the Treasury for the coming year.

Then the election took place. After duly registering, the ballots were distributed to the ladies, and they voted accordingly.

The role stood as follows.

President, Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall]

First Vice President, Mrs. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley]

Second Vice President, Mrs. McGaw [Margaret Ann Worden McGaw]

Recording Secretary, Miss Duvall [Ellen Duvall]

Corresponding Secretary, Miss Whitney [Anne Weston Whitney]

Treasurer, Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton]

Three Directors

Mrs. Uhler [Pearl D. Uhler],

Mrs. Carter [Florence Carter],

Miss Crane [Lydia Crane].

The result was announced to the Club, and after some little informal talk and congratulations, the meeting adjourned.


33rd Meeting of May 27th 1902

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday May 27th in the Assembly Room, Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humpreys Yonge Wrenshall], the President, presided.

As it was the final meeting of the season, the occasion was a "Salon." In the absence of Mrs. McGaw [Margaret Ann Worden McGaw], Second Vice President, Chairman of House Committee, the decorations were in charge of Mrs. Hammel [Bertha B. Hammel], and the room was charmingly decorated with daisies and peonies.

The programme was a musical one, and was in charge of Mrs. J. Elliottt Gilpin.

All "Minutes" were omitted. After calling the meeting to order, the President made a little address of welcome and of goodbye. She congratulated the Club upon its unity, its concentration of purpose, (without which nothing is accomplished,) upon its growth in intellectual power and power of expression. The life of the Club, its working power, lies in the Committees. A glance at the programmes showing the year's work done by, and through the Committees would be proof positive, were proof needed, of the deep vitality of the Club's life.


We were also congratulated upon our pleasant relations with sister-bodies, upon the interest which the Literary Club takes in all associated effort for any good whatsoever, no matter how much the end and means may differ from our own.

The President also spoke of the new members, of their quick absorption into the Club life, and their valuable assistance during the past year.

In referring to the List of Officers and Directors for the coming season, the President said that some changes were noticeable. The Recording Secretaryship, so long and admirably filled by Miss Crane [Lydia Crane], was now filled by another. Miss Crane having been obliged to forego that part of her work. Miss Crane's place could never be really taken, nor her excellent services equaled. What we owe to her sense of duty and her ability, only those who have been so long associated with her, fully know. We are not to be deprived of her advice, however, since Miss Crane will continue a Member of the Board.

Mrs. John M. Carter [Florence Carter] too, so long our Second Vice President, Chairman of [the] House Committee, to whom we are indebted


for our pleasant "Salons," and social arrangements—this year retires from her ably filled office, and appears as a Director on the Board. So that we have our old and valued friends still with us, even if in new places. In conclusion, the President wished the Club a pleasant summer, and renewed vigor for the coming season of 1902-03.

The Programme for the afternoon was then taken up. The first number on the Programme was a piano solo:

Pastorale, Scarlatti

Scherzo, D"Albert

Miss E. Coulson [Elizabeth Coulson]

The second number was a song,

"Avis a la Bugere," sung by Miss Pangbourne, accompaniest, Mrs. Gilpin.

Third, a violin solo—

"Berceuse" played by Miss Marie May.

Fourth. Harp Solo—Hasselman's "Gitma" played by Miss Selma B. Cone.


Fifth. Songs: Nevin, Rogers.

Sung by Mrs. J.W. Henderson.

Sixth. Violin Solo-Wieniawski Played by Miss Marie May.

Seventh. Song with Harp Accompaniment,

Gounod's "Ave Maria"

Miss Pangbourne

Miss Cone.

Eighth. Harp Solo: Oberthur

Played by Miss Cone.

Ninth. The last number was again a piano solo, an "Etude" by Hanselt, played by Miss Elizabeth Coulson.

At the conclusion of the Programme, the President said a few graceful words of acknowledgement to those, not members, who had assisted in the programme, and offered her best wishes to the Club and its guests for the coming summer and year.