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1900-1901 Meeting Minutes

OCT 2, 1900-MAY 28, 1901 


MS 988 Box 3, Book 5 (Oct. 2, 1900-Feb. 12, 1901)


Meeting of October 2nd, 1900.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, October 2nd, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This was the opening meeting of the season of 1900 and 1901. The programme was under the direction of Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman of the Afternoon.

The President, in calling the meeting to order, gave an appropriate greeting to her fellow members. She spoke of her pleasure in calling us together in the eleventh year of our literary work--now resumed under happy auspice. What we have already done has gained wide recognition. Professional authors are well represented among us. She congratulated us on the influence we have exerted, and she felt sure we will stand steadfastly by the best standards, and that each one of us will do her best in the coming year.

The Recording Secretary read the minutes of May 1st, 22nd, and 29th. The first of these being mainly of the Reports of Committees, was a review of the work of last year.

The President then said she must present to the Club some beautiful flowers, as the gift of our dear Ex-President, Mrs.


Turnbull. They were accompanied by a note expressing warm greetings, and best wishes for the Club on its opening day.

The President announced the subjects of the meetings in the month of October. She called the attention of those members who have friends desiring to join the Club to the desirability of presenting their proposals at the beginning of the season. She also spoke of the Programme of Topics and Committees now ready for distribution to those members who failed to receive them last May.

The first article of the Programme was given by Mrs. R. K. Cautley; and was called "The Glory of the Year." Mrs. Cautley dwelt upon those false ideas that gain credence from assertions which reach our ears but without appealing to our reason. They are often founded on some so-called wise old saw, like "Honesty is the best policy,"--which probably originated in the mind of a rogue,--or in some half truth, more mischievous than an open falsity, or in some shadow of a reality. We are sometimes told at this season that:

"The melancholy days are come, the saddest of the year."

But autumn is not


sad. As we have heard also, "it is the season that seems to promise a new spring." Nature then is beautiful and glad. The sunset promises a new sunrise, the trees and the flowers are gorgeous in color, the birds notes are heard, the blood stirs, there is Thanksgiving, and the coming Christmas good will in the air. The wild creatures leap and fly, and take their share of the unearned increment of the months past, and give occasion for additions to the wisdom of [A]Esop and better philosophers. If there is decay and death, it is only for revival, and we renew our faith in immortality by coming close to Nature in "the glory of the year."

The next article from the programme was by Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, and was called "The Optimistic Novel." Miss Reese gave us the frankly expressed views of a "Cousin Augustina," whose opinions--whether much respected or not--by her hearers, were remembered by them. "Cousin Augustina" liked the stories of Weyman, and others like him,--far better than the "human tragedies" of the strong and vigorous novels. She was tired of going to funerals in fiction. She liked the optimistic novel if even


of a lower grade, if even the every day devoted lover wants to marry the good little daughter of the manager of the circus. The pessimistic novel is not so near to real life,--in which there are lights and shadows,--sorrows and joys for most of us. The persistent strain of strenuous despair is not the general rule of life. many people, she reminded us have courage to bear their burdens, and we have known a villain to find his right place. Virtue can find its reward, without our having to pull virtue up by the roots to see if it is alive or growing. She spoke of the hero formed for the great emergencies of existence; and she said, "if I were to marry such a man, I should hate him in a week."

You cannot get a good meal out of a pessimistic novel. The other kind have a good hold on life. I smell coffee, and eat seed cake. I like to feel sympathy and walk in pleasant places--where our friends look kindly at us, and do not fall into pits, or slip off walls. The grand heroine of the gloomy novel is often untrue to herself. I prefer the good little daughter of the circus rider to Marcella--and I hate Dorothea "making religion of her devotion to her


professor." Let us continue to believe in the compensations of life; and not deny that the good outlives the ill, when such can be our reading of life,--or of some poor little nineteenth century novelist.

The interest aroused by Miss Reese's article was shown by the comments that followed it.

The next article was given by Mrs. Frederick Tyson, and was called: The Festival of "San Gennaro." It was an extract from Mrs. Tyson's own translation of a late Italian book. With regard to this great periodical celebration, Mrs. Tyson told us that all Naples saves up for the festival of San Gennaro, there is nothing like it. No Anglo-Saxon can possibly reach the enthusiasm of these Southern Italians for their patron saint, who belonged to Naples and was poor; was martyred at Pozzuoli, but still the faithful friend of his beloved people, showing his love and protection from earthquake and pestilence, miraculously, as they do not doubt or question. We were told how, at the end of April, Naples bursts forth into flowers roses and carnations everywhere. And when the month of May begins scarce any one is


so poor as to lack a penny for flowers to place before the Madonna. They adorn the churches and the old Cathedral, said to have been built over an ancient temple of the sun. From the palaces and from the old bourgois [bourgeois] houses splendid silk decorations are hung out. The relics of the martyr are carried to the church, where the people wait for the miracle of the uncongealing of his blood. Mrs. Tyson described the gorgeous festival of 1889; the processions with the archbishop and priests, and the statues or silver busts of forty six saints carried through the devout people, who joined in the hymns of praise--till the relics reached the high altar, where all looked for the consummation of the miracle. And in the midst of the outward homage, and universal exaltation of devotion, form the tortured soul of one--who had gone astray--went up the prayer to the saint, that the hard unforgiving hearts of her father and mother might be softened to pity and pardon. Greater miracles, she was sure, the saint had done, could he not do this one? Mrs. Tyson's pathetic description of this miraculous festival of Naples and of the full faith and joy of the people in their recurring miracle, was so vivid,


that we who have heard of it all our lives had probably never before come so near to the Italian point of view in regarding it.

The last article of the programme was "A Poem" by Miss Virginia Woodward Cloud, which was appropriately read by Miss Perkins.

The meeting adjourned.


Meeting of October 9th, 1900.

 The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, October 9th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Waller Bullock, Chairman of the Afternoon.

The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 2nd. The President read a notice of the Lecture Readings to be given by Mrs. Helen Weil, at the residence of Mrs. L. Tyson Manly on McCulloh Street, beginning on November 10th.

The first article of the programme was given by Mrs. Waller Bullock, and was called "An Indian Trail." Mrs. Bullock gave a striking description of the beautiful valley of the Mohawk River, as it appears at the present day. She then took us back


with her to the days when it was the Indian's Trail from East to West, in War and Peace, and his pathway for his journeys of trade or religion. In later times it served the white man for his wagon roads and stage routes, for important water ways, for the railways of steam and electricity, for telegraph poles and wires. On the New Central Railway there is never a train out of sight. She described the old Portages, where now have grown up towns like Rome, Utica or Schenectady, each having characteristic interests of its own.

Mrs. Bullock went back to the early inhabitants of this region, the Indian Six Nations--the powerful Iroquois Confederacy. She spoke of their possession of one of the first developments of civilization on their continent. Their ambassadors maintained their dignity, and were honored among cultured people. The Six Nations, she said, have not passed away, [they] still live on reservations in the State of New York; and are, it seems, more numerous than they were at the time of the American Revolution. She went on the describe the survival of an ancient Iroquois religious ceremony in the tribal "long house." It still begins with the sacrifice of a dog on an altar; which is followed by prayers and thanksgivings for the blessings of Nature.


Though retaining some strange customs, the survivors of the Six Nations are professing Christians,--either Roman Catholics or Protestants. She described the Church of St. Regis on the Canada border. The Onondagas are the most conservatives, and the Mohawks the most civilized of the tribes. She told the tribal legend of the great stone, which moved itself  when the tribe moved from one place to another, and took its resting place where the tribe fired its residence,--a great stone still fired its residence,--a great stone still preserved as a sacred relic of the past.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Anne Weston Whitney, and was on "Legends of the Long House." Miss Whitney spoke of the tribal "Long House" as probably having had its origin in the patriarchal wigwam, to which whenever one of the family was married, a new addition was made, until it grew to be a house in which five hundred people could live. The Cliff Dwellers also show us something of the same kind. Some legends make the "Long House" the emblem of universal peace.

She went on to speak of Hiawatha, the prophet, who taught his people the arts of peace. Miss Whitney spoke of the best known account of Hiawatha, that


of Mr. Longfellow, and also referred to the authorities given by Mr. Longfellow as the sources from which he drew the legends of his poems. She reminded us of the great resemblance which has been found between this poem, and the old Norse legend of the Kalevala. She went on to speak of the earliest legends of various nations, to those of Noah, to those suggesting Prometheus, and all ancient heroes who were inspired to help their fellow men, morally and naturally. She went on to give the best historical account of Hiawatha, giving us some new ideas about our old acquaintance. Miss Whitney told the legend of the great rabbit who lived with Nokomis; and of the great fire that was kept on an island; and of how the Indians gained possession of the fire for their own wigwams, and for the comfort of their lives. She told us of the wolf who was turned into a man, but forbidden ever to cross water,--and, once disobeying, was drowned. She pointed out the great differences in the versions of some of the most poetical of the legends as related in different tribes.

A discussion arose on the question of plagiarism in connection with the very great resemblance between Longfellow's Hiawatha and the old Norse Kalevala,


in which points of much interest were brought out by Mrs. Cautley, Miss Whitney, and the President.

The last article of the programme was given by Miss Emma Brent, and was called "The Quest." Miss Brent brought to our minds the beautiful old story of the seeking of the Holy Grail and the legends that have grown around it. She went over the story of its sacred contents, of its possession by Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea, and of the search for it by the Knights of the Round Table. She told of its place in the history of the Christian Church, of the forms that the story has taken in different centuries,  and of the additions that have been made to it from many sources. She closed with a description of Mr. Abbey's series of pictures illustrating the older tale, in the Boston Library. They seem to have given new interest, and some new artistic treatment to the lovely old legend.

After some appreciative comments on what our President called "our legendary afternoon," the meeting adjourned.



Meeting of October 16th, 1900. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, October 16th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Ellen Duvall, Chairman of the Committee on Current Criticism.

The President, after calling the meeting to order, read a note from the former President, Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull, in replay to one containing a request that Mrs. Turnbull would favor the Club with a reading form her lately published novel "The Golden Book of Venice." Mrs. Turnbull wrote that she would read some selections from her book at the October Salon, on the 30th, and would use on that occasion, the copy of her work designed for her by the library of the Club.

The first article of the programme was "A Talk," by Miss Ellen Duvall, on some of the books she had read during the summer. The first book Miss Duvall reviewed was "Red Pottage," by Mary Cholmondeley. She had heard that the same author had another book in preparation, whose purpose was to show the poverty of all Religions. Red Pottage, she said,  has no purpose at all. The conversations are clever, but the subject is disagreeable, and the story is what the


French call squinting, or looking in two directions. The second book spoken of was "Lying Prophets," by Eden Phillpotts. A tragic tale, though having some fine passages. It reminded her of a poem she had read in childhood, by N. P. Willis, called "Parrhasius," which described an ancient artist who, as a study for a great painting, slowly tortured a slave to see how he would writhe. The third book criticized was "Unleavened Bread," which was, she thought, not worth reading-giving a course side of human life and civilization. She then referred to James Lane Allen's "Reign of Law." This book, she said, was, in comparison with Mr. Lane's former charming works, grander and more far-reaching than they are; yet this one lacks reality. The character of David is unreal, and some of his experiences improbably. Miss Duvall said, that in contrast to the pessimistic literature of the present time, she had found the old tales and novels of Miss Edgeworth very satisfying in the long summer days; they are full of common sense, of life and hope. Lastly she had read "The Puritans in England, and New England." This work, she said, was calculated to clear up misapprehensions with regard to Puritans' life and character two hundred years ago; and to show the


Puritan influence in the development of our forefathers.

The next article was by Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, and was called "Two Bishops." The first work treated was Bishop Whipple's "Reminiscences," lately published. It is related of this Bishop that, when a child, he once came to his mother, disfigured, soiled and disheveled; and on her exclaiming "My dear boy, what is the matter?" the little fellow answered: "I know it's bad, Mother; but you just ought to see the other boy." This militant spirit was, no doubt, useful in his after struggle through the wild wilderness, and among railroad men and wild Indians. His great work, as missionary, physician, philanthropist and prelate--for the souls and bodies of the Red Men, was described, and also his courage and sense of humor. Miss Reese then reviewed the "Life of Edward of White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury," written by his son. His character, his career; and the very entertaining people with whom he was associated in youth, and in elder age; and also his work as an educator, clergyman, and Primate of Church were described We were reminded of his death, on his knees, in Church, just after receiving the Sacrament. His son, in closing his memorial, quotes from his favorite "Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress," the


description of Mr. Standfast's going down through the river of Death in to the Celestial City. "Now there was a great calm at that time in the river."

The last article of the programme was by Miss Laura De Valin, and was a review of the book of Arthur J. Bell of England, called "Whence Comes Man," and of its sequel, "Why does Man Exist?" The sum of Miss De Valin's review was to set forth Mr. Bell's fairness in method, his enthusiasm in investigation, the logic of his reasoning, and the originality of his theories. He reviews the teachings of science to prove by the Creation the existence of the Creator, and his manifestation to his creatures. With regard to the reason for Man's existence, Mr. Bell assures, that God has bestowed on him the power of self-evolution, the creative power of thought, the ability to evolve himself psychologically, physiologically, and morally--to make himself just, holy, and good. Miss De Valin's paper was on profound subjects treated with thoughtful interest.

The meeting adjourned.

N. B. Very full notes of this meeting were taken by Mrs. Jordan Stabler, at the request of the President. These notes were afterward condensed by the Recording Secretary--who had been unavoidably absent from the meeting. Mrs. Stabler had, however read her full notes at the meeting of October 23rd.



Meeting of October 23rd, 1900. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, October 23rd, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. R. M. Wylie, Chairman of the Committee on Art.

The President called the meeting to order. The Recording Secretary having been unavoidably absent from the meeting of October 16th, the notes had been kindly taken,a dn the minutes written by Mrs. Jordan Stabler. Mrs. Stabler read her minutes of the meeting of the 116th, which were unanimously approved.

The President gave notice of the annual custom of the Club to decorate the graves of the Authors and Artists of Maryland on the 2nd of November, All Soul's Day. She announced that Miss Emma Brent, Chairman of the Committee on Decoration would be at the Committee Room of the Club on the morning of the appointed day, before 10 o'clock to receive flowers, and also the cooperation of other members in this beautiful work of remembrance.

The President also reminded us of the notice already given that our dear former President, Mrs. Turnbull, would be with us at our next meeting, and would read to us an extract from her lately published book.

The first article of the programme was


given by Mrs. P. R. Uhler, and was called "Something about Cloisoné." Mrs. Uhler spoke of the processes by which the beautiful enameled ware known as Cloisoné--or enclosed work--was made at Byzantium in the 11th Century. There are accounts and specimens of enamelling of far earlier dates, of course, but this enamel enclosed by ribs of metal, seems to have had its origin at Byzantium. IT was a true glass imposed on plates generally of gold or copper, with the outlines of the figures separated by delicate lines of gold. She told of altar pieces of cloisoné in the Cathedral of St. Mark at Venice bought from Byzantium in 1105. Mrs. Uhler went on to tell of the Chinese work in this department of Art, and to trace the Greek and Byzantium influence even in the development of Oriental proficiency. She spoke of the beautiful specimens of the Art of Japan, which were buried away from the knowledge of the rest of the world in the houses of the nobles of that country, until the Revolution of 1868. caused them to be sent away for safety,--or sold and scattered--and so introduced to the western world. Mrs. Uhler showed us two beautiful pieces of the work she had described, one made upon copper, and the other upon porcelain.

The next article was by Miss Whitney, and was called: "Personal Recollections of Thomas Hovenden." Miss Whitney gave a very


interesting personal account of the artist, whose works and whose tragic death have awakened much interest in this country. Thomas Hovenden, she said, was born in Ireland, and pursued his studies there before coming to this country. He was a devoted friend of the painter, Bolton Jones, well known in Baltimore. Miss Whitney described the frequent visits of these two artist friends to her mother's country house near the Severn River. One night Mr. Hovenden, on his arrival, insisted on going down to the river bank without is supper, to sketch the night fishermen plying their trade, being attracted by the picturesque contrasted effect of light and darkness produced by their torches. We were shown the picture he made on this occasion.

We were told of an Italian whom the two artists once brought with them to improve their French before they went to Europe together. They had picked him up in Baltimore, and his history--which they verified--and hi s subsequent fate made a sad romance. Miss Whitney told of her standing as a model for one of the figures in Mr. Hovenden's pictures representing the cutting of names on a tree, and of the figures, growing tired of the open air, coming in the house and making the edge of the parlor door do duty for the tree. She described some of Mr. Hovenden's most striking works, and reminded us of his "Elaine" now in the Peabody


Institute. She spoke too of his Irish humor, and of his fine manner of reading poetry.She gave bright little items from his letters written in France and Italy. He had said that he would never marry an artist. But there was a young lady fellow student in Paris,--whom he did marry. He and his wife came back to America, and lived in Massachusetts. He met his death in trying to save the life of a child, who had fallen before a railway train. His friends here said: "It was just like him; he was a hero, as well as an artist."

The next article was by Mrs. R. M. Wylie, and was called: "In the Museum at Constantinople." Mrs. Wylie said no empire seems to possess the wide and varied opportunities for collecting a museum of antiquities belonging to that of Turkey--claiming as it does authority over the most ancient countries of the world's history. But the iconoclastic spirit of the Turks has prevented--until comparatively recent times, the collection of the treasures under their control. The Sultan Mamoud II was induced , it has been said, by an Englishman named to engage in this good work. It is now under the direction of Hondi Bey, who has spent some time in Paris, and who takes much interest in the success of the work confided to him. All the results of exploration are, of course, claimed by the government. Mrs. Wylie


went on to tell of the treasures of this museum. She spoke of Egyptian and Greek sarcophagi, of stones with Hittite inscriptions, of one Hebrew stone from the temple of Jerusalem, and of the statue and tomb of a King of Sidon. She told of a mummy who had closed his eyes two thousand years ago, but who looked when found, as if he had done so yesterday. Lastly she described one royal sarcophagus, elaborately carved with the figures of Greeks and Persians, in which the representation of Alexander the Great is so prominent that it has been supposed to be the coffin of the great Macedonian conqueror himself. Of this she showed us a fine picture.

In commenting on Mrs. Wylie's article, the President spoke of having an engraving of the carving said to be a portrait of our Lord Jesus Christ. She reminded us that it purports to have been carved on an emerald by order of Tiberias Caesar, which emerald the emperor of the Turks gave out of the treasury of Constantinople to Pope Innocent the Eighth for the redemption of his brother taken captive by the Christians. Innocent the Eight was Pope from 1485, to 1492. The contemporary Sultan of Turkey was Bajayet the 2nd, who reigned form 1481, to 1512. He was the son of Mahammed the 2nd, conqueror of Constantinople.

After further comment the meeting adjourned.



Meeting of October 30th, 1900. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, October 30th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This was the October Salon,--the first Salon of the season.

The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 23rd. The President announced that we had with us on this afternoon, our loved Ex-President, Mrs. Turnbull, who would give us the great pleasure of hearing her read extracts from her lately published work: "The Golden Book of Venice." "A Historical Romance of the 16th Century." We have read--or heard of the very favorable criticisms with which this book has been welcomed already by the Press of this country. The President also spoke of the new publication of Mr. Edmund Clarence Steadman's "American Anthology." She said he had included in his notices of American Authors some of the members of our own Club, such as Miss Reese, Miss Cloud, Miss Litchfield, and Mrs. Easter.

Mrs. Turnbull began her reading with her Prelude, speaking of the City of Venice--a city of moods--of glamour and glory past, all beautiful to the beauty lover.


She reminded us that her book treated of Venice as it was more than three centuries ago. She then read the first chapter of her book. She told of a festal occasion in Venice in the year 1565. She gave a vivid description of a learned contest, philosophical and religious--carried on in the Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (an historical incident). In this dispute a boy monk representing the order of the Servi, answered all the arguments of the learned doctors of the fraternity of the Frari, with wonderful erudition and wisdom,--speaking too in the Latin language. We were made to feel the suppressed emotion of his mother, who hung upon his words,--which she could not understand, bu t who was already beginning to accept her pride in her boy instead of the happier daily present love she must learn to do without. The uncomprehending loyalty of the boy's former school fellows was described, and also the wondering admiration of the great audience, especially that of the opposing philosophers in the order of the Frari also. But one old Friar who loved him, could not drive away his vision of a hungering mother's face, and said: "Knowledge is a wonderful mystery,"--adding softly to himself: "But love is sweet," and the boy


is very young. After telling something of the story, Mrs. Turnbull went on to that portion of it which brings in the contest between the Republic of Venice and the Pope Paul V, with regard to the limits of civil and ecclesiastical authority. Her hero and heroine, the noble senator, Marcantonio and his wife Marina, have taken different sides in the controversy. She read to us a striking and beautiful scene in which the woman pleads with her husband fo the rights of religion as represented to her by the Church, while the man, in turn, explains the rights--as he believes them--of their native Republic. We were given another heroic scene in which Marina, still further moved by her terror of the Interdict of the Holy See carries her pleading into the Senate of the Republic itself, in the name of the nobles and in that of the people, herself representing both orders,--that the faithful Christian people may not have to suffer the undeserved horror. She pleads with pathetic eloquence for the poor people, that the Senate shall "leave them their heaven, who have no earthly paradise." A further extract showed Marina trying to carry her pleading got the Pope also. But it is pleasant to know that the Interdict was removed, and Venice restored to favor before the end of the book, when Marina


passes like a glorified vision out of our sight.

A vote of thanks was proposed by Miss Reese to Mrs. Turnbull for her charming reading. Our thanks were given unanimously by a standing vote.

Mrs. Turnbull spoke of having just received the new book of her sister Miss Grace Denio Litchfield, called: "The Moving Finger Writes." As Miss Litchfield is, she said, an honorary member of hte Woman's Literary Club, she thought we might be interested in hearing of her latest book.

The rest of the afternoon was passed with conversation, refreshment, and social greeting.

The meeting adjourned.


Meeting of November 6th, 1900. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, November 6th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Whitney, Chairman of the Committee on Fiction.

The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of October 30th.

The Report of Miss Emma Brent, Chairman of the Committee for decorating the graves


of Authors and Artists of Maryland, was read by the President. Miss Brent reported that she and members of her Committee,--Mrs. Early, Miss Whitney, Miss Reese, Miss Nicholas, Mrs. Hill and Miss Mullin, visited four cemeteries and placed flowers and wreaths of laurel on the graves of Mrs. Mary Spear Tiernan, Mrs. Marguerite Easter, Mrs. Almira Lincoln Phelps, Mrs. Anne Moncure Crane Seemuller, Sidney Lanier, S. Teckle Wallin, W. H. Rinehart, Brantz Mayer, Junius Brutus Booth, Colonel Richard Malcolm Johnston, Adam [? Litzel], and Professor Crouch. Donations of flowers were received through Miss Reese, also of laurel from Mrs. George K. McGaw. A letter was read from miss Rabillon, thanking the Club for its remembrance of her father, and for flowers sent to her mother.

The President gave notice of the lectures to be given at the Johns Hopkins University during the coming season. She also announced the election of a new member to the Club, Mrs. Delano Ames.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Whitney, and was called "Juliana's Oath." Juliana's grandfather had in his youth a fight with a rival young man, which he considered indecisive. It had been fought under an apple tree, and he had sworn to me, his opponent on the


same spot, on the judgment day. The opponent had long been dead, he himself had been a helpless invalid for seven years, and the apple tree now stood in the midst of a graveyard. But the old man forces Juliana to take an oath also. That she will see to it that he shall be buried under the apple tree, with his picture of General Jackson, and his hickory stick in the grave with him. If she fails in keeping the oath, destruction, he declares shall fall on her, and on any man she loves. The conflict of love and conscience, terror and tenderness in the girl, and the unrelenting will of the old man, overmastering the wills of others, and his own weak body make a hard warfare. But the love of a true lover, and the love of a true woman are victorious over all power of darkness in the end.

The next article was by Mrs. Percy Reese, and was called: "The Grimshaw Mission." We were told of a Free Kindergarten, in one of the slums of a great city; and also of one little sweet singing child whose mother was in jail, and who feared that when she came out of it, he would not be allowed to come to school any more.He ceases to come, but when the young teacher goes to make her way up to the top floor of a tenement house, she hears thee sweet-singing once more


and the sound of little feet marching in time to it. The child had gathered his playmates into his miserable home, and was giving them the benefit of what he learned to love. And the disreputable mother was pleased to look and listen. And in time life is changed for her as well as for her child.

The next article of the programme was A Sketch by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was called "A Coward." We were told of an engineer on a railway, who had charge of the "locomotive" 189, and whose relations with his engine seemed something like those of a master with a living thing--a sort of centaur or hippogriff. This man of power and responsibility  calls himself, and is jocularly called by others "a coward." In telling all about it to a friend he insists that he was born a coward, that back almost in his "cry-baby" days,  his mother told him that he had inherited cowardliness from her, though he does not seem to have before recognized the heirship. She tells him to do things, and leads him to the hope for a time when the burden would fall off, and out of weakness would come strength. At first he took unnecessary pains and trouble upon himself, but as the mental struggle went on he began to see double, to see himself small and weak, but to see also another self of


a different kind. At last he told of the test that came to him. He was in charge of an engine no. 189, and of a train full of distinguished company. He had a strange perception of danger that no one else suspected, and praying for strength to hold on, and that she lives of others may be saved. He stopped the train in time and safety before a murderous obstruction that had been placed upon it. He rejected praise and reward, but to the question "How did you know?" he answered, "I did not; but I am a coward, and God showed me." And there was a restful look on the engineer's face as he walked down the track.

After Miss Duvall's story--to which it is impossible to do justice in a report--the programme announced a "General Discussion upon the Responsibility of the Author," Introduced by Mrs. Cautley. Mrs. Cautley spoke of the question of how much responsibility rests upon the author. There is Scripture authority on our responsibility for every idle word we speak but what is it for our written words? One of the worst of men made in his book the love of a pure spirit to result form the reading of one bad book. Miss Reese said, in regard to pessimistic novels, that some people are born pessimistic, some achieve pessimism, and some have pessimism thrust upon them. Sometimes this state of mind is due to the lack of the sense of


humor. King Lear, she agreed is tragedy, but it is not pessimism. Mrs. Cautley said that tragedy is like a storm that clears the air, but pessimism is like a dull warm rain that does us no good. After further discussion, Mrs. Bebee said we sometimes ourselves bring into a book what we find in it. Some books may do us good, though we may not like them. She wen ton to speak of Dickens, who she reminded us took the responsibility of attacking old English laws and old abuses, even while amusing us. WE can perceive the changes made by his greatest writings, which were popular, and remain with us. Mrs. Turnbull said every author wished to make his work permanent. But readers differ,--some read for enjoyment, and some take up a book after a weary day--for comfort. She herself read Marie Corelli's Romance of Two Worlds, and wished to read more of it. But she read "The Sorrows of Satan," and did not wish to hear of the author again. She read "The Children of the Mist," and would not lend it to anyone, nor put it where young people could see it. Another book of which she was anxious to know whether it would be permanent was "The Sky Pilot," by Ralph Connor. It is full of forceful life, with a touch of woman's tenderness, with humor and pathos. She


had read it six times. Miss Duvall spoke of having found "Stevenson's Letters," a source of delight, romantically comic, and a treasure house of suggestions for writers. Stevenson tells us to look at life with both eyes open, to look not with the single eye of pity, but with both the eyes of pity and of mirth.

The President spoke of the inspiration of the author as good or bad according to the source from which it comes, a good spirit and good life will give us a good book.

After further comment, the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of November 13th, 1900.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, November 13th, 1900, on the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman of the Committee on Modern Poetry. The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 6th.

The President expressed her thanks for the Club for the work of the Committee on Decoration of the graves of Authors and Artists of Maryland. She spoke of the very gratifying Report of the Chairman of this Committee, Miss Emma Brent, given us at the meeting


of the 6th of November, which detailed the work done on All Soul's Day, November 2nd, the flowers sent to the Committee, the personal efforts of the members, and the graves visited and honored. The President expressed the hope that the beautiful work shall continue under the care of the Club. She spoke of one member of the Club who guards the flowers in her garden until they are given to this memorial office.

The President also spoke of the publication in the current number of the Atlantic Monthly, of stories by two members, Miss Cloud, and Miss Duvall.

The first article of the programme given us was by Miss Anne Cullington, and was on "Old Celtic and Saxon Song." Miss Cullington took us back to the sixth century of Taliesin; called the "Chief of the Bards of Britain" and reviewed what is known of his life and writings. She contrasted critically and appreciatively the poetical description given by the Celtic Taliesin and the Anglo Saxon Beowulf of the battle, the hew, and the mourning that followed a great leader's death. Beowulf shows the greater earnestness in his deep grave sorrow, the Celtic Bard gives us more of the ravings of overpowering grief. The contrast of the great Celt and Saxon poets was effectively shown by the extracts read by


Miss Cullington from their works.

The next article from the programme was "A Poem," by Mrs. R. K. Cautley,--read by the President, Mrs. Wrenshall. Mrs. Cautley's poem told of the betrayal of happy, young love before untold and unsuspected--by the tones of the voice in singing; and after the betrayal of a broken heart by the most eloquent music of the same singing voice.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Maria Middleton, and was on "Moore's Irish Melodies." Miss Middleton spoke of the English residence and English tastes of the two modern poets born in Ireland, Goldsmith and Moore. Moore's words are perfect music, but in comparing them with the old songs of the Celtic bards, we are reminded of the comparison "as moonlight unto sunlight, or as water unto wine." Moore was not without enthusiasm for Irish liberty which might have brought him into trouble if his mother had not come to his rescue in time. But English life suited him, he not only--as Byron said "dearly loved a lord," but all the environment of a lord also.  Miss Middleton went on to speak of Moore's perfect appreciation of the old Irish musical tunes and of his power to give them words in elegant rhyme, sometimes


also composing the music in part,--till words and music can scarcely be separated. She spoke of his association with Byron, Shelley, Rogers and others, and of the pleasure they found in his company, quoting among other comments a letter of Sidney Smith, who it is recorded, took delight in his talking and singing. Miss Middleton closed her article with the appreciative reading of some of the finest of Moore's Irish Melodies.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Lizette W. Reese, and was on "Modern Celtic Poetry." Miss Reese began by reading a poem of her own "Niami," written in an old book of Celtic poetry. She spoke of the Celtic characteristics, of the fancy and imagination which belong to them as much as it does the fervor of their religion. She spoke of their vast store of legends, many of them pagan or half Christian, of the wide spread surviving belief in dreams, in ghosts, as well as in the higher spiritual realities of Christian faith. She ten spoke of a band of contemporary poets who are in some degree holding up the banner of the Irish bards gone before; who have the same gift of words, and to whom words are certain things. She spoke especially of the young poet Yeats, also of Alfred Graves, who wrote Father O'Flynn, and


of several others, and read form their works poems which justified her favorable opinion of them. One of these, by a woman was a sort of peasant song called 'The Sheep and the Lambs," and was poetic, pathetic and devotional.

Miss Reese's article was followed by a discussion of Celtic and Saxon Poetry. Miss Reese spoke of the Anglo Saxon Poets as having wings, but as having feet also, the power to alight is shown in the colonizing Anglo-Saxon spirit. She went on to speak of differences, while doing justice to both Saxon and Celt. Mrs. Cautley spoke of the feminine qualities of the Celt and the masculine characteristics of the Anglo Saxon Miss Duvall spoke of Shakespeare as a true Anglo Saxon, and instanced Mercutio as one of he few of his men who show the well defined Celtic strain. Queen Mab, she said was an Irish Queen, and she gave us an interesting account of her legends. Miss Reese thought Shakespeare's Sons were un-Celtic--that there was but little Celtic strain in Shakespeare.

After further interesting comments, the meeting adjourned.



Meeting of November 20th, 1900. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, November 20th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Frederick Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on Translation.

The President, after calling the meeting to order, read to the Club a notice from our Baltimore paper the "Sun," of the lately published book of our former President, Mrs. Turnbull--"The Golden Book of Venice." She felt sure we would all be glad to hear the favorable judgment of this work as expressed in our own city.

The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 13th. The President made a graceful reference to the invitations sent out for the French Lecture of monsieur Perrault, under the auspice of this Club, and to the general response made to them.

The first article from the programme was given by Miss Marie Perkins, and was of "Selections from 'Le Roman du Roi de Rome,' of Charles Laurent." Miss Perkins spoke of the lately revived interest in the story of the son of the great Napoleon, as exemplified in the drama of the present


time, and in the historical romance, from which she would read her translation of one or two chapters. The first selection told of an old gardener in charge of the flower beds at the Castle of Schoenbrunn. He had--without revealing that he had served under the Emperor Napoleon--secured his position at the castle, because it was the residence of the son of the idolized commander. When at last the old gardener manages to meet the young Napoleon unobserved, in a summer house, we are shown the pathetic secret interest of the son in all that relates to his once imperial father, and also the loyal devotion of the old soldier, which cannot be openly expressed. Once King of Rome, but now Duke of Reichstadt, with the rank of an Austrian Prince, the young man listening to all the old followers of his father has to tell, shows to whom his heart turns, and the former Marshal of France, Marmont, now an adherent of the Bourbons--to the Bonapartes a renegade. But even to this last one the heart of the young prince still turns, as to one who had, at least formerly, served and loved his father. His


scarcely veiled antagonism to Metternich, even when the latter proposes to bring him advantages--and his very different manner to his uncle, the Austrian Archduke--and even to the former Marshal of France, is described with much skill and power.

The next article of the programme was given by Mrs. Bullock, and was called "Scène d'Exposition," by Germain. It tells of a married couple in Paris, who have given up their usual summer visit to the sea-shore, and chose to stay at home, proposing to enjoy the sights of the Exposition of 1900. They receive a telegraphic dispatch announcing the visit of some country acquaintances--which brings the number of their self-invited guests, during the season, up to more than a hundred. The guests--a married couple also arrive, and are taken to the Exposition although their hostess tries to excuse herself, on plea of a headache. But she is not excused, by her husband, who--a provoking creature, occasionally remarks: "We might have been at the sea-shore." The visitors do not wish to see pictures--the husband giving the opinion that "much money is wasted in daubing paint on canvas." They take no interest in the moving platform, nor in many other things, which, they declare will be of no value after the Exposition is over.


But they do wish to see the agricultural implements; and they admire the American plows and reapers very much. Being at last drawn away to some other things, in which they are not at all interested, they propose to return to the plow and reapers. But their hostess after vain attempts to leave the party, threatens to throw herself into the Seine. The threat is taken so cooly by her husband, that she carries it out:--and is immediately fished out of the water by the life guards. The husband cooly remarks: "Tomorrow we will go to the sea-shore. My wife can swim."

The last article of the programme was given by Miss Elizabeth Lester Mullin, and was form "The Banquet of the Life Guards, and the October Days of 1789," by Paul Gaulot. Miss Mullin's translation told of the earliest days of October 1789, when the National Assembly was,--as has been said "engaged in Constitution making." On the occasion of the arrival of a regiment at Versailles, the Banquet of the Life Guards was given to the officers, at the Opera House. There was an outburst of loyalty, and chivalrous enthusiasm, in which the ladies who filled the boxes joined by throwing down flowers and their white cockades,--the symbols of the Bourbon power. It was proposed to send for the King and Queen, who came, and


received the acclamations of their friends. Then were described the rumors that were carried to Paris, such as that the National tricolored cockade had been trampled under foot, by the soldiers. The occasion was found in this exhibition of loyalty for the wildest accusations against the King and his defenders. A fine description was given us of the march of the mob from Paris to Versailles, and the attack on the palace. Then came the dramatic incident of General La Fayette's appearance with the Queen on the balcony, and his kissing her hand, which caused a revulsion of feeling in the wild mob, even bringing out cheers in her favor. Then followed the dreadful journey of the Royal Family to Paris,--as this article said, "the first steps of that mournful road which led them to death."

The President, in the name of the Club thanked Miss Mullin for the fine translation she had given us.

The meeting adjourned.



Meeting of November 27th, 1900.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, November 27th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was the November Salon; the literary exercises were under the direction of the two Chairmen of the Committee on Current Topics--Mrs. Frederick Tyson, and Mrs. Sidney Turner. Each of the Chairmen were to give a review of the Current Topics of interest in the Autumn of 1900, the last autumn of the 19th Century.

The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 20th.

The President gave notice of the next French Lecture of Monsieur Perrault. She also spoke of the second edition of the book of our fellow member, Mrs. Turner. She then read a review of "The Golden Book of Venice," the recently published work by our former President, Mrs. Turnbull. This appreciative review was from the New York Times, and was written by a member of the faculty of the New York University. The President then said we would now have an account of what has been going on in the world this autumn.

The first account was given by Mrs. Frederick Tyson. She reminded us that the current topics


of the season ought to be more comprehensive than those of any one before it. Events pass quickly, and we hear of them immediately. People know more, see more, travel far more rapidly and care for more things than they ever did before. In the olden times people going on what are now insignificant journeys, made their wills, and then took leave of their friends as if they did not expect to see them again. Of current topics in America, she of course took up the late election. She thought that considering the excited feeling and intense interest that preceded it, it was gratifying to know that there was almost no disorder or trouble on the eventful day itself; and that the result was calmly accepted by both parties as the will of the people. As our colored friends say "When we have had our jaw, we subside." And there was a conspicious [conspicuous] absence of abuse or personalities in the campaign. The candidates were recognized as good citizens, pure in private life, Christian men. She recalled the personalities with regard to General Jackson's wife in the campaign of 1828, which President Jackson never ceased to resent. She called attention to the fact that a candidate like Mr. Bryan, who could, from his quiet home in Lincoln, Nebraska, by a simple telegram, alter the apparent determination of the whole Democratic nominating Convention,


the representatives of millions of American voters, was--after the election--again a private citizen, like those who voted for him. And still more, that a President like Mr. Cleveland, who could bully England itself, is now living at Princeton as quietly as any other American gentleman. She gave Mr. McKinley credit for the power of choosing men for responsible positions, very seldom making a mistake, and went on to speak of our excellent representatives in foreign lands, and of the very great improvement in our consular service. The newly elected Vice President she thought a typical American. Our Presidents have all, she said, been highly honored men, and we can regard them with honor. This election she could hardly call a political one; no man had ever before been elected by so large a majority out of seventy six millions of people. She spoke of the changes of parties, of the democratic opposition to expansion,--though in former years, Democrats seemed to have been expansionists. She reminded us that the restriction on suffrage was the same in Massachusetts, and in South Carolina,--the ability to read and write.

Mrs. Tyson spoke of the present conditions in the Island of Porto Rico [Puerto Rico], as described to her by a returned Army officer. She thought them very encouraging, notwithstanding the necessary


changes in affairs, and the devastation of the great hurricane,--after which the greatest means of relief was sent from this country. With regard to Cuba, a she had much information of the work done by General Lee and General Wood, who seem to be the right men in the right place. Good citizens, she said, do not object to the present occupation, though there is a discontented party, largely composed of negroes. She also augured much good from the actions of the present Commission in the Philippines, and gave statistics with regard to the very great increase of schools in those islands since the American occupation. IT would of course take time to educate the densely ignorant rural tribes, who hate each other, but she believed it would be done. After touching briefly on events in outer countries, Mrs. Tyson came back to the progress of our own land, and its outlook for the future--on which she was optimistic and inspiring. She went on to speak of the books that have been lately published. Among others she noticed Lord Roseberry's Napoleon: Mrs. Humphrey Ward's Eleanor (which was, she thought not in her old manner,) The Love Letters of Victor Hugo, which are she said, lovely, Captain Mahan's The Problem of Asia; Theodore Roosevelt's Cromwell, Eben Holden, by Irving Addison Bacheller,


which as had an immense sale, The Isle of Unrest, by Henry Seton Merriman, The Sky Pilot, by Ralph Connor, The Master Christian, by Marie Corelli, (who has a way of writing about the things just when people are talking about them,) and a new story of Indian life by Rudyard Kipling, called Kim, promised in McClure's Magazine.

Mrs. Tyson's review was followed by that of Mrs. Sidney Turner. Mrs. Turner told of the interest she had taken i the names of our fellow countrymen who have been considered worthy to be placed on the "Roll of Honor," recently instituted in New York. So far only thirty have been chosen, and only one of these, General Washington--received all the votes cast y the chosen senate of ninety seven judges. President Lincoln and Daniel Webster received ninety six, Henry Clay, ninety four, Longfellow, ninety four, General Lee, sixty, John Adams, sixty one, etc. A request that American citizens of foreign birth and distinguished services shall be admitted was favorably received, but deferred.

Mrs. Tyson spoke of the present decline of bigotry, the good feeling existing among Christians of different creeds, and even among people of wider differences. She spoke of the late celebration of the Passion Play at Ober-Ammergau, and the reverent sympathy shown


by those who perhaps in former years would have found it uncongenial. She spoke of archeological discoveries, especially the finding of the ruins of a pre-historic wall in Mississippi, which promises to be of great interest to investigators.

She then went on to speak of he new openings in work for ladies. She preferred the word women for all of us generally, but used the other word just now about educated women in homes who have not been educated for business. One of these, she said, has learned to reset jewels, and is sent for by people who have heirlooms of this kind on which they do not wish to take any kind of risks. She sets or repairs the jewelry before the eyes of the owners, and she says there is room for others in this occupation. Mrs. Turner told of one of our members who was lately travelling on an excursion train; and her escort having left her alone for a little while, she was approached by a gray haired lady with the request if she could do anything for her, as she seemed to be travelling alone? adding "I am the chaperon of this train." Another occupation is that of transient nurses, whoa re not graduates of training colleges, but who have taken a minor course, including making delicacies, making beds, and generally ministering to the comfort and well being of


invalids and disabled people--at a charge, she understood, of about seven dollars a week. Once lady who applied to the Chicago Ladies Aid Society was asked if she could darn stockings? She had never tried, but could do embroidery. Her knowledge of the ornamental art was made so valuable in the useful one, that she makes a living by darning the stockings for the inmates of several gentlemen's apartment houses. Lastly we were told of the advertisement of a lady who proposes to give "Cheering by the Hour." She [? cheers] the sick, lonesome or sad grown people or children, at so much the hour. Mrs. Turner thought the best she could do for us would be to give ay of us who wished it, the address of the lady who does "cheering by the hour."

The President in announcing the adjournment of the exercises said, "I hope you feel wiser than before. I do."

The rest of the afternoon was passed with refreshments and conversation.


Meeting of December 4th, 1900. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, December 4th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Virginia Cloud, Chairman of the Committee on the Drama. The


President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of November 27th.

The President gave notice of the subjects for the meetings of the month. She announced that, as Christmas Day will come on Tuesday this year, our meeting for the last week of the year will be omitted; but we will not miss the New Year's Salon--the occasion on which it is customary to invite gentlemen as well as ladies.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was "An Address on the Subject of Beginnings." Miss Duvall spoke of the advice sometimes given to those who aspire to enter the domain of literary art, never to begin a work with the platitude, or the commonplace. It is an old saying that "A thing well begun is half done,"--and this may apply to the short story, and the play. The short story may be any story that is not long; but, as treated by the French writers, it is an episode, a part so handled as to show the whole,--though keeping in view the unities of time and place. English short stories are generally not so careful of the unities, they may cover years. The French writer's success is a foregone conclusion. She spoke of the stories of Maupassant, Merimie and others. Miss Duvall went on to speak of the stories told in the plays of Shakespeare, and of the development


of characters presented in them. In the short story we wait for the denouement, which is gradually evolved to its climax at the close. In the plays of Shakespeare, he takes the reader into his confidence, and we see the coming of the end from the beginning. Miss Duvall quoted from the opening scenes of Macbeth; the meeting of the witches and their prophecy of the battle that is to be lost--and soon; and their interview with Macbeth and Banquo,--who are, the one to win--and lose,--and the other to lose--and really win--the objects of their ambition. In Hamlet the opening scenes bring to our knowledge the Ghost and the key note of the whole story is struck. With the play of King Lear, we have in the beginning, Kent and Gloucester, the King and his three daughters, revealing their natural characters, and foreshadowing the natural development of the story that follows. In the beginning of Othello we have Iago before us, and in one burst, we see his character, as it is afterwards shown in his actions. Miss Duvall traced clearly the development of characters and foreshadowing of plot in the four plays she described.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese: "A Poem" "Written after Reading a Sad Thought."

The next article was "A Recitation" by Miss Marie Perkins,--a translation from the French--called "Oh, Mademoiselle!" A woman


looking over her notebook kept in her girlhood, soliloquizes, while recalling childish pranks and exercises never done correctly, which met form nurse and teacher the comment, "Oh, Mademoiselle!" Then she recalls the convent school where, after recitations, she and her companions sewed upon clothes for orphans, and the day when, as she was masquerading in some orphan's trousers, with a made up moustache and a pen holder for a cigar, the mild face of Sister Placide appeared at the door with the comment "Oh, Mademoiselle!" She recalls her first ball and then the coquetterie and "girlish glee," thorough all of which came the old comment--perhaps much too often. But now, with a home and family of her own, it falls out sometimes that her husband falls into that habit of muttering, "Oh, Mademoiselle!" And, strange to say now,--now--she likes it.

The next article was by Mrs. Delano Ames, and was: "An Address on a more familiar knowledge of the texts of Shakespeare's Plays." Mrs. Ames recalled the statement of the poet and scholar, Coleridge, at the age of thirteen, that he read Shakespeare every day of his life. She told of having herself been taken at six years of age to a matinee performance of Romeo and Juliet, when the Juliet was Adelaide Nielson and of the


family tradition that she had soon afterward apostrophized her four year old brother with the words "Romeo, Romeo a rose by any other name would smell as sweet as you do." She described how later--she and her brothers read, and recited Shakespeare joyously together. She quoted the curious opinion of Rihcard Grant White that Shakespeare is not a woman's poet, he did not pronounce woman any less lovable by liking something on a lower plain, though he made her (it seems) less classical in her tastes. But though Mr. White may think that men appreciate him better, women can certainly find Shakespeare a constant source of pleasure. Mrs. Ames spoke of the unfamiliarity of the young people of today with Shakespeare's text and plots. In a class of amateurs, she found that nearly all knew the names of the plays, and of the characters in them,--and all knew that Shakespeare had once been arrested for poaching. Mrs. Ames earnestly advocated the efforts made to induce young people to read, take notes, study critically, and learn to appreciate the works of Shakespeare, which she thought next to the Bible itself, it would give them better morality, greater poetry, than any other literature, and make for the grace and strength of true manly and womanly actions.

The next article of the programme was "A Story" by Miss Virginia Cloud. Miss Cloud


gave us a story in which humor, pathos, a working day heroine of self sacrifice and faithful love were charmingly mingled, and brought to a happy result in the end.

The last article was by Miss Malloy, a scene from a play by herself: "The Trial of Mrs. Livingston." Miss Malloy's play treated of the Revolutionary War, and described one of the "house of war"-- the trial, by court martial, of a young woman on the charge of being a spy; in which her defense is attempted by a generous enemy.

The President thanked Miss Cloud, the Chairman of the afternoon for the entertainment given us by her Committee.

The meeting adjourned.


Meeting of December 11th, 1900. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, December 11th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. R. K. Cautley, Chairman of the Committee on Essays and Essayists.

The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of December 4th.

The first article was given by Mrs. R. K.


Cautley, and was called "Great Essays of To Day." Mrs. Cautley spoke of this year as having been called "a year of Fiction,"--as if nothing else of note had been published--which is not at all the case. Though the average in Fiction has been very good, she had been struck with one characteristic in the novels of this year, the lame and the impotent conclusions of many of them. Some writers have resorted to the expedient of killing off their heroes or heroines, and the poor creatures have struggled hard for their lives. One very bright man with a serial novel has not concluded his story at all, but has left it off without a conclusion.

Mrs. Cautley then went on to speak of the great essays of today, or of writings of the nature of essays. Among these were Mr. Lecky's "The Map of Life." It is, she said in the main optimistic, but here is one paragraph on "Pure Malevolence," which she quoted as curious and striking. It traces the influence of spontaneous malevolence, in different classes of society, and particularly the press, which is an especial evil, as newspapers form the greater part of the literature of the poor. She then spoke of the "Essays of Dean Robbins" of the Albany Cathedral, saying that they could scarcely be called theological, but that they were certainly religious. She had tried them on three friends of three different denominations


and all had agreed with and enjoyed these essays. She also spoke of hte "Lectures of Thomas Edward Brown," a Marxman, who has been called "a cheerful failure," and whose book she had much enjoyed. She reviewed the "Love Letters of Balzac to Madame Hanska," lately published in Miss Wormeley's translation. She noticed the tendency of late to publish the love letters of great writers after they are dead. She said it ought to be a warning to all of us in view of the fame and importance that the members of such a Club as ours are destined to achieve, to burn up all our letters in time, before we die.

The next article was by Mrs. G. K. McGaw, and was called "A Little Turnpike Journey." Mrs. McGaw gave an account of a very attractive summer journey, taken in the picturesque region of our neighboring state of Pennsylvania. She followed the old road of 1793. Much of her journey was on the old Turnpike National Road, which was eight hundred miles long, from western Maryland to western Indiana,--and which was constructed on the ancient trail from East to West that was long trodden by pack horses and was afterwards rolled over by the great Conestoga wagons, long before the steam railroads existed. She described the Cumberland valley, and the pleasant regions over


which she travelled int eh old leisurely manner, stopping at old fashioned inns. She told of the historical associations of the region, of the towns and villages, and of the people she met. Of one place she spoke as a town of toilers and idlers, no one seeming to have yet won the right to rest. In another, there seemed to be no poor people, the average wages being about fifteen dollars a month, but he women looked old before their time. But she did light upon one little native flower of a girl however. She described Waynesborough, Mercerburg and McConnellburg--the termination "burg" being evidently due to the German ancestry of the first settlers of these towns. She described the small cottage where James Buchanan, who became President of the United States, was born. One tavern in this region, more than an hundred years old, had its traditions of gamblers and murderers, and its own ghost to enliven its guests. Mrs. McGaw's route took her to the well-known beautiful Bedford Springs, before turning her face homeward after her fully appreciated "turnpike journey."

The next article was by Miss Anne Cullington, and was on the "Old English Character." Miss Cullington spoke of the history of the Anglo Saxon race, as showing that the development of character in its people was not the same as the development of character in the French and Italian


races. The old distinctive features are plainly traceable in the oldest Anglo Saxon literature. Miss Cullington quoted an ancient "Lament," showing courage and dignity even in its full submission to adverse fate. She quoted also the words of Beowulf telling that joys are fled, that all is full of trouble under the sky, that man is fleeting; but his last words are of courage, certainly not of kindness. She dwelt on the endurance of these ancient warriors, on their early superstitions, and also of the introduction of Christianity, and of its part int eh development of the Anglo Saxon race. She described the Anglo Saxon's centre of attraction in his duty to his chief, for whom he would die if necessary, and his loyalty to church and state. She gave quotations in striking versions form the old Saxon poems. She traced the development of those elements of character which go to make a race worthy to rule the world. Miss Reese said that Miss Cullington had not told us that the translations she had read to us were her own; and that she had made Anglo Saxon a special study.

The last article of the programme was by Mrs. Sidney Turner, and was called "The World's Highway." Mrs. Turner began with a graceful little poem on the beckoning of Summer to us to "come and see"--her treasure. To vary an old adage she said:


"The proper study of men and women is people." She treated this subject in three divisions: 1st, Character; 2nd, Individuality; and 3rd, Individualisms. The first is the great result of living. She had been interested in her summer retreat in finding out what different people discovered in the beautiful woods she could see form one of her windows, and in the Bay that was spread before another one. One lady saw nothing but birds, and delightedly discovered a new variety of bird by the [? bear]-glass[1] that she took with her. One, on the reposeful pine needle carpet had found rest. Another came in laden with ferns, a new one among them too, and all were eloquent on their findings. One girl found only berries, and a money changer saw fine timber. Some found the gladness of nature, and some who had clasped hands with sorrow found her peace and promise, and these gained the wood's treasures. We often speak of a strong character, of a noble or a weak character, meaning the aggregate of many individual parts. The study of individuality is as old as the creation of men, women, and children, and the individuality of children is a surprising fact. It is the child that makes the school, the tree, the tree, the great forest; each member of the family. If one swallow


can not make a summer, one discontented swallow can break up a whole summer of happiness. The entering into a room of some individualities, can give cheer, and tone to a whole company Mrs. Turner read some striking quotations on that giving out of ourselves that brings rich returns. Individualisms have been likened to the gown that we have worn so often that at last we are recognized by it. She told of an old lady, whose character was strong, literary and religious, her individuality not extraordinary, her individualisms pronounced. At night, she always held her book or paper around the light; so that the children in the room were obliged to study by what light was shed into the outlying radius. Yet she was not a selfish character at all. She always, too forgot to button her gloves, and she is recalled when such things as these are seen in others. Another more amiable soul is remembered for always using the definite article, instead of the indefinite one, and pronouncing her r's as w's. Mrs. Turner thought she would like to live with character, to visit individuality, perhaps, with individualisms. In summing up, she thought: Character is for eternity, the power of all possibilities,


the bud of promise for immortality. Individuality the pronounced power of personal presence. Individualism the track, perhaps we leave behind us on the street, on the train, in the home, on the "World's Highway."

The President said that the next meeting would be the last one of the Century--she hoped we would all be present on that occasion.

The meeting adjourned.


Meeting of December 18th, 1900.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on December 18th, 1900, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Ellen Duvall, Chairman of the Committee on Current Criticism.

The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of December 11th. The President spoke of the French Lectures of Monsieur Perrault, given under the auspices of the Club; and of the high appreciation they had received; Monsieur Perrault having been since invited to lecture in Boston, before the Alliance Française, and in several Northern Colleges. She also gave notice of the New Year's Day


Salon of the Club, to which gentlemen are invited, and hoped the Club and its friends would be well represented on that occasion.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss G. K. McGaw, and was "A Review." The first book noticed was the "Journal of the Countess Krasynska," in the second half of the 18th Century. Mrs. McGaw gave a  vivid account of the life of this Polish Lady, both in her native land, and also at the court of Saxony, after her marriage to a royal duke. Her opportunities for acquaintances and observation of distinguished and historical personages were well appreciated, and also, her accounts of the remarkable and mysteriously symbolical ancient usages and customs of her native land, showing, as has been said, the "very keen eyes" that "see just those details in which posterity is to be most interested." Mrs. McGaw went on to speak of Miss Johnston's book "To Have and To Hold." She spoke of its romantic pictures of life in the early colonial days of Virginia, and dwelt on the literary and artistic qualities of Miss Johnston's style, as shown in this, her second published work.

The programme next called for a double article by Miss Virginia Cloud. She fist gave a review of Anthony Hope's new novel "Quisanté." Miss Cloud spoke of the plot, and of the man portrayed, in this book. She noted the singular


baffling character of the hero, his political and his private life, his power of ruling his adherents en masse; his manner of playing to an audience, even if the audience were himself. She described the lady of fastidious tastes who marries the man who is certainly "not quite a gentleman," though she was not deceived as to their antagonisms of training, instinct, and feeling, and the hold he keeps even through the jarring of every day life on her interest, and even, to some extent on her admiration. She described too, Quisanté's old aunt, who being of his own blood, understood him better than any one else did.

Miss Cloud's second article was on "The Prevention of Cruelty to Literature." Miss Cloud gave the views of a Journalist under the ban of truth, on the treatment of Literature in the present time at the hands of critics. He spoke of the false literature, and the true; and of the assertions that are made in tones, as loud as those of the American Eagle, in the full assumption of pride and patriotism; of the flattering tales that are told, and of the lack of justice, or appreciation. He spoke of the art of discovering--and of distinguishing between--what is a real addition to literature, and what is not. He spoke of some books: as the exquisite "Etchingham Letters," and "Unleavened Bread" as a hard


bitter bread to many who have tried it. The mistakes and crudities of Mr. Paul Leisester Ford were noticed, and in contrast the scenes of real life and the magical gleams of light that the world will always live in the stories of Walter Scott. We were told of a late contest in Poetry, opened to the colleges of the country; in which the highest prize was withdrawn,--no poem offered being considered worthy of it. Miss Cloud closed with a poetical review of those true and essential qualities which will the prevent Poetry form becoming a lost Art among us.

The last article was given by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was on "Woman's [? Hewes]." Miss Duvall spoke of the three great writers who in different times and countries have written with decided depreciation of women, Euripides, Juvenal and Milton. After referring to Milton's opinion as expressed in the poem of Samson Agonistes, she quoted the announcement of a later Englishman, Walter Bagehot, that "Few men have the instinct of truth, and that one entire sex is wholly devoid of it." Some explanation of this unsupported assertion had been attempted int eh statement that women's judgment lean to mercy's side, and that often they do not desire to tell unmerciful truths. Miss Duvall spoke of the manner in which women have depicted themselves in their novels,


giving after instances of different kinds, Mrs. Poyser in Adam Bede, whose pointed speeches we do not forget. After referring to the women painted by men, Miss Duvall then spoke of the fact that women novelists have generally delineated men, not as men, but as lovers, often as the lovers of whom women dream. After dwelling on the tendency to this course, and its effect in the majority of women's novels--she spoke of the exception, shown in the Vilette of Charlotte Brontë, Paul Emmanuel, the man is shown to us, without any lovemaking, though the love the is to come, with all its possibilities, we can see and feel.

At the close of Miss Duvall's article, the President declared the meeting adjourned and wished all her fellow members a very happy Christmas.

The following Tuesday being Christmas Day, no meeting of the Woman's Literary Club was ehld.

On Tuesday, January 1st, 1901, a Reception was held by the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. It was attended by the members and their friends, ladies and gentlemen, and seemed much enjoyed by those present.



Meeting of January 8th, 1901.

The Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, January 8th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Whitney, Chairman of the Committee on Fiction.

The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of December 18th, 1900. The President in greeting her fellow members on this first regular meeting of the year,--and the century—congratulated us on the work done in the past, and on the prospects of the future; especially on our continued adherence to the aims which have form the beginning of the Club claimed our allegiance.

She announced a communication from the Woman’s Club of Roland Park, inviting our attention to the notices sent out by the “Consumers’ League,” an association to encourage buying of articles of clothing not made in the slop shops; but, so far as can be ascertained, by fairly and honestly paid labor. Cards presenting this subject were sent to us for distribution.

A note was also read form Mr. Ross Jungnickle, announcing a concert to be given on March 14th, in which will be presented the musical compositions of women exclusively; showing


the original work they have done in music, a subject of much interest, of course, to a woman’s Club.

The President announced the presentation to the Club of several new books, by their authors. The first “A Beautiful Life” from Mrs. Wilson Marriot,--being the Memoir of her mother, Mrs. J. M. Williams. The President spoke of the beautiful lessons contained in the life here presented. “A Christmas Story,” by Mrs. Marriott was also one of the gifts to the Club.

Mr. Warren M. McLeod, of Baltimore, also presented his book, “An Odd Jewel,” to the Club. The President read Mr. McLeod’s dedication of his work “To the Men who go down to the Sea, in Ships,” where “his heart goes with them.”

Another book was the gift of our honorary member, Mrs. E. W. Latimer; her “Last Years of the Nineteenth Century.” This is the final volume of her series of nineteenth century books, of which she had already presented former volumes to the Club. The President spoke of the fact that Mrs. Latimer worked over this book through the last summer, at the request of her publishers, also during that time giving sixty days to the translation of the “Love Letters of Victor Hugo,” published in the latest three numbers of Harpers’ Magazine. Mrs. Latimer also, we were told, translates all the French novels that appear in Littell’s Living Age.

The first article of the programme was


of “Selections from ‘The Moving Finger Writes,’” from the lately published book of our Honorary member, Miss Grace Denio Litchfield, read by Miss Marie Perkins. Miss Perkins said she had chosen to read a few descriptions, rather than any pat of the story. The first chapter described a beautiful home, and an attractive heroine. Then came a lively presentation of a scene in the woods, where a quartette of squirrels were enjoying a game of “follow your leader,”—the smallest one sometimes hesitating to follow his leader’s longest leaps; and then—as the timid are not always cowards—taking his life in his little paws, and leaping with the best of them. Then followed a vivid description off a snow storm; beginning with the wind that seemed like a malignant spirit, sent down to spoil God’s handiwork, until it was hard to tell whether the Snow was the sport of the wind, or the wind of the snow,--or if the two had not become one. Then in the great, white stillness that followed somewhere in the immeasurable distance something moved as if a soul had been born; and as if Love dominated all things, the eternal conqueror.

The next article was by Miss Malloy, and as called “At the Queen’s Garden Party.” Miss Malloy gave a bright and lively sketch of the experiences of an American Journalist at ta Queen’s Garden Party, to which he owed his invitation from the gratitude of a young nobleman


whose life he had saved in an adventure out on our Western plains. Recalling old memories, he compares one of the duchesses with the wife of the Indian Chief, Big Bear, who had grace and dignity of her own. In one quiet path he finds a fair young lady, who has been accidentally pinned to the earth with the falling of a stone vase upon her dress, though herself unhurt. The unconscious ease of the journalist in giving timely and not officious aid to this literally oppressed fair one, and her embarrassed hauteur and shy gratitude are indicated in the short conversation that follows. He naively informs her that the American Republic is not a democracy, but a gynocracy, in which every woman can be queen, and claim the loyalty of the men around her. n being told after the adventure that he has been talking to a princess, the journalist is not overwhelmed by the accident of birth, though not failing in homage to the royalty of the woman.

The next article was by Mrs. Frederick Tyson, and was called “The Fortune Teller of Old Naples,” being her translation from the Italian of Mathilde Serrao. Mrs. Tyson told us that her own experience in Naples confirmed the accounts of Madame Serrao, as to those Neapolitan women who are supposed to possess magical powers. We were given an account of Maria Chiarostillo, the fortune teller, who refers everything, even in the incantations to the Will of God and the Blessed Virgin; who exacts


from those who seek her aid in doubt or trouble, not only the deposit of ten lire, but also that they shall have attended Mass, and shall offer their “Pater noster,” their “Ave Maria,” and their “Gloria Pater,” before his work begins. We are told of Carmela and Annarella, who have sold a much prized chest of drawers to gain the money that is required, and who come, the one seeking to hold back her husband form engaging in lotteries, and the other to rekindle the cooling affection of her lover. The black cat is there; the mysterious boy, the restraining cords, the love philter and other implements are brought out; but still more real seems the weird impelling personality of the fortune teller, and that wonderful power which we may call superstition, but which seems to her inquirers, and possibly to herself, to answer for religious faith. This is invoked with a solemn warning against any evil intent in its use, which will bring down the vengeance of God upon those who wish to benefit by it.

Miss Virginia Cloud next gave us a curiosity picked up on an island upon the New Jersey coast. A notice was there published to the effect that: “The Shepherds of Bethlehem will give a Necktie Sociable and a Cake Walk at the Burrows Hall on Thursday Evening.”

The next article was by Mrs. R. K. Cautley, and was called “The Truth Teller.” She told of a dream, and in its fairly-land, she heard all around her speaking of that “good man who gave all his goods to feed the poor,” lavished his time and strength and spent himself for others;--of that good woman who devoted herself to the support of her family, never sparing herself any toil or care; and she wondered why she could not be as good as they were. But the good people did not seem to give happiness to those for whom they labored; the poor grew idle; and the good woman gave her very life to keep her family in luxury and discontent. Then the dream changed to ta land where each one did his or her own duty—and all were satisfied and happy. There she saw a door on which was the notice. “This house is for rent, the occupant has moved away.” On asking the name of this occupant, she was told, “The Fool Killer.”

At the close of Mrs. Cautley’s article, the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of January 15th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, January 15th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin of Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Jordan Stabler, Chairman of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records.

The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes


of the meeting of January 8th. The President announced the programme for the current month. She also announced that a course of study in French was to begin on the next afternoon to be conducted by Monsieur Perrault. The introductory meeting would be in the room of the Woman's Literary Club, to which all the members were invited; and those who wished to do so could enroll themselves as members of the class--which is for both ladies and gentlemen. The course is devoted to French literature, and French conversation. Ultimately it will probably develop into a branch of L'Alliance Française, now existing in New York and Boston.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Mary Davis, and was on "Historic Trees." Miss Davis quoted Shakespeare's line on finding "tongues in trees," and went on to speak of the interest that trees possess for all of us. She reminded us of the trees that stand as monument of the past,--as witnesses for history. She spoke of the oak trees under which the Druids held their worship;--of the veneration for holy oaks in different ages and centuries, of their symbolisms, and of the qualities found in the nations who reverenced them. She told of historic oaks,--besides the Royal Oak of Charles the Second, she reminded us of an oak under which William Rufus,--second Norman King of England--was killed,--of the oak of John Knox,--of oaks known to fame in Germany,


and in other lands. She went on to the East Indian Banyan tree, to the cedars of Lebanon, and to the olive trees of the Holy Land. In our own land she reminded us of the Charter Oak of Hartford, Connecticut, where the Colonial charter was hidden during the contest of Sir Edmond Andros, and Governor Treat; to be recovered a year afterwards, and brought into effect, as having never been surrendered. But she said the Charter Oak blew down in 1856. She told of the Boston Elm of 1749,--and of the Pennsylvania Elm of William Penn, under which was said to have been made that agreement, with the Indian tribes, which Voltaire said was the only treaty never sworn to, and never broken. She told too of Sir Philip Sidney's tree at Penshurst. Passing to our own Pacific Coast, she told of the giant trees of California, and of the trees which are supported to be the oldest living things on earth. After giving us what Wordsworth calls "a noble brotherhood of trees," Miss Davis closed her article with the beautiful panegyric on trees of Oliver Wendell Holmes.

The President said she had, at Christmas received a twig from an historic tree in the neighborhood of the City of Mexico. This one is called "The Tree of the Sad Knight." It is said to have been the one under which Cortez shed tears after a defeat suffered by his Spanish soldiers, during the invasion of Mexico,


on the 30th of June 1520. The President also spoke of the still more remarkable historic Bodi tree in Ceylon, under which Gautama himself is said to have rested. Besides this tree a monastery of Buddhist monks was instituted to guard it, and the votaries of Buddha have been accustomed to gather the leaves that fall from its branches to be preserved as holy givers of blessings.

The next article was by Mrs. Edward Stabler, and was on "The Seals of our Country." Mrs. Stabler gave  detailed and careful account of the discussions of the Fathers of our Republic with regard to a Great Seal for the new nation they were forming and developing. She described the designs proposed, among others, by such different statesmen as Benjamin Franklin, and Alexander Hamilton;--showing the influence of French examples in the case, and of English ones in the other. She spoke of the old fashion of seals as impressed on wax; and of the more modern style of metal seals, with two different faces or sides. She described the seals of our army, navy, treasury, and other departments of government, and also told of the relation of seals to treaties and other documents. Mrs. Stabler's article included references to heraldic symbols; and to the early and later history of our country.

The next article of the programme was by Mrs. Aaron J. Vanderpoel, and was on "Some Old Dutch Records." It was read for her by Mrs. Cautley. Mrs. Vanderpoel told of the discovery in 1609, by


Henry Hudson sailing under the Dutch flag, of the river which bears his name,--of his meeting with the red men,--and of his report of the good country, and the good hunting and fishing he had found in it, to the government of the Netherlands. She went on to the claim made to this land (afterwards the colony and state of New York) on the part of the government of Holland, by the right of Hudson's discovery. It was supposed to be a part of Africa, before it was called the New Netherlands. She told of the settlement of New Amsterdam , and of Fort Orange. The latter place afterwards called Albany, was where the Patrons held a hereditary rank, which even the changes of government from Dutch to English, and from Colonial to Republican could not traditionally now socially abolish. She told of the just and honest treaties made by the Dutch with the Indians, the valuable considerations for which the bought their lands, the deeds attested with the signs manual of the Indian chiefs,--agreements never broken nor violated. She described the prosperity of the Dutch settlers, and the comfort in which they lived, the crops that grew from seeds brought over the sea in the pockets of the Dutch women. She quoted the saying that, if a Dutch woman should find herself on a desert island, she would soon surround herself with everything necessary to life. The men depended on the women for food and clothing, for medicine and medical attention; they knew and appreciated woman's worth, and gave


her honor and rights accordingly. Mrs. Vanderpoel's pictures of family life and of the relations between the old and the young gave us the best charm of those olden times. She closed with some beautiful lines form Oliver Wendell Holmes on Old Age.

The last article of the programme was by Mrs. Thomas Hill, and was on the "Unique Attractions of the World's Fair of 1900.Mrs. Hill gave a  vivid account of the great and beautiful Exposition in Paris last summer. She brought before us the exhibitions of the different countries of the world . Of our own Country's part she spoke briefly, as one of which we could be proud--the American contributions having taken more of the highest prizes than those of any other coutnry, except France. She described the European, American, Asiatic, African, and East and West Indian portions of the wonderful whole. She dwelt on the Swiss Village, a real village, with rocks, hills, cataracts, farms, dairies, and real Swiss people. She told of the Hall of Historical Costumes and then of the marvellous "Old Paris," reproduced as it was, as far back int eh past as the 14th Century,--and no later than the 17th one. She had beautiful photographs of the scenes she brought before us.

At the end of Mrs. Hill's fine descriptions, the meeting adjourned.



Meeting of January 22nd, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, January 22nd, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. R.K. Cautley, Chairman of the Committee on Essays and Essayists. In the absence of the President, Mrs. R. K. Cautley, Vice President, called the meeting to order, and presided. The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of January 15th.

In introducing the first article of the programme, Mrs. Cautley called attention to a review in the London Spectator, which advanced the opinion that of the American women who write verses, there are only two who are really poets; and that those two are Miss Imogen Guiney, and our own Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese.

The first article was by Miss Evelyn R. Early, and was called: "A Poet of Our Own."  Miss Early gave us a very sympathetic and appreciative notice of the writings of Mr. D. M. Henderson, a native of Scotland, but long a resident of our own city. She read a letter to her mother and herself from Mr. James Whitcombe Riley, speaking of Mr. Henderson as "a poet who beats us all," and advising lovers of poetry to "read his book." Miss Early read form Mr. Henderson's book "Poems of Scotland and America"--"Our Neighbor's Pity," "Tam Tammie," and "A song for Robert Burns,"--the best beloved of Scotland, and a joy and pride for all men. Mr. Henderson


is called the Poet Laureate of the St. Andrew's Society of this city.

Mrs. Cautley introduced the next article of the programme: "A General Discussion on The Power and Limitations of the Novel." She reminded us that the last few years have been called "the age of fiction." The power of the novel was first treated by Mrs. Sidney Tuner. She spoke of the realism of the novel, and instanced the power shown in the new work of our former President, Mrs. Turnbull, "The Golden Book of Venice"--to bring before us--as if we saw them in reality--the Grand Canal, the Doge's Palace, San Marco, and the gondolas of "The City of the Sea." She spoke of the impressions that the characters described leave on our mind; and of the power of fiction for good or evil over its readers.

The next speaker was Miss Cullingotn. She spoke of hte aims of the novel, to entertain us. "All the world loves a lover," "love makes the world go round," and we desire romance. We can, she reminded us gain what the novel has to give us,--we become more sensitive to heroism, our burdens may be lighter, we can come back to our work, and do it better.

The programme next called for an article by Miss Lizette Reese on "The Limitations of the Novel." As she was unable to be present her notes were read for her by Mrs. Cautley. Miss Reese spoke of the novel of today as a sort of Alexander Selkirk, proclaiming: "I am monarch


of all I survey." History; Science; slums and cooking schools;--the heroine who rushes off to London to be a hospital nurse;--the hero who fights his way to Parliament;--John Smith, who to some of the faith of his fathers, and his cousin who is not, are among the things surveyed for the entertainment of the bewildered public. "What a far cry," she says, "from Robinson Crusoe, to Mrs. Ward's 'Eleanor,' the man Friday, with no problems in his head," and the parrot, who knew his one phrase--decently,--are, she said refreshing. We have shreds and patches of science, history and theology. The novel was a fictitious narrative dealing with life. To make it a fetcher and carrier for the "ologies" and "isms" in idle and impertinent and results in a bad piece of art. In science, have we not Darwin, and others to teach us? In theology, are there not still enough early fathers to go round?--and treaties on the best way to cook your hare, when you have caught him? The only changeless thing is human nature. "Let the novel" she said "recognize its limitations," its old sphere; once more take its chance of becoming literature.

Following Miss Reese, the next writer was Miss Laura De Valin. She spoke of the novels reason for being,--which does not seem to be justified in some of those most popular. We can, she said, find in the great work of the Puritan, John Milton, one of the truest of love stories. There is love at first sight, the woman's charm and


sensibility,--the man's love of power,--the tempter coming between man and wife,--the first lover's quarrel, the heroism of the man, the returning love and devotion of both,--in fact, all the essentials of a novel. But a novel it is not; the love story is an episode in the presentation of momentous and tremendous problems.

Miss De Valin went on to speak of our resentment in finding in a novel the obtrusion of the author's personality or his moralizing. This is a violation of true art--but great authors are guilty of it. There should be perfection in the evolution of the characters. Dickens has shown this by the story of Esther Summerson in Bleak House. Her care for others makes her own love story merely incidental in her narrative. This is the high water mark of evolution in the novel. One celebrated author said that, do what he would, his characters would follow their own sweet wills.

The next article was by Mrs. John D. Early, and was given as "In Praise of Romance." Mrs. Early spoke of the last twelve months as a year of romance. She recalled the later historical novels, and dwelt on the romance of history--which is often the best of history itself, and suggests the visible and invisible motives of great actions. Some romances may be valueless, may gild dross, may be harmful; but the true romance holds the power to keep its lover a child in spirit till he dies, and make him feel himself the possession


of all the earth. Mrs. Cautley spoke of the worth and dignity of fiction in its true power, and within its limitations. Mrs. McGaw spoke of the real lessons to be gained, as well as the true enjoyment to be found in the novels of Robert Louis Stevenson. Mrs. Bullock spoke of the introduction of science into the modern novel; maintaining that there is no need for it there; as the regular teaching of science is now so interesting, marvelous, and even in one sense romantic, as to make such extraneous aid unnecessary. She gave some critical observations on the differences and the likenesses between some works of science with others of fiction.

Miss Duvall spoke of the return to the older forms of fiction as perhaps not to be hoped for; but suggested that perfection--within limits--seems to have been reached in the short story.

Miss Middleton spoke of the good done to the world by the novels of William Makepeace Thackeray.

Mrs. Cautley then called attention to a copy (just sent to her by one of the members of the Club,) of Harper's Bazar of January 19th, as containing a very fine and gratifying review of "The Golden Book of Venice," the novel written by our late President, Mrs. Turnbull. The reviewer also takes occasion to speak of what he or she calls "the famous Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore." This, "it is said, is one of the few in the country which may be truly called literary." "Its salons are events of importance." Mrs. Stevens then called attention to


the celebration of John Marshall's Day, in this city, on the Fourth of February--the one hundreth anniversary of Judge Marshall's taking his seat as Chief Justice of the United States. The admission to the exercises on this occasion is to be by tickets; and Mrs. Stevens offered to secure tickets for all the members of the Club who wished to attend this anniversary celebration, and would send their names to the presiding officer. A vote of thanks was given to Mrs. Stevens, and the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of January 29th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, January 29th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Sidney Turner, Chairman of the Committee on Current Topics. The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of January 22nd. After announcing the subjects for the programmes of the current month, the President said that the tickets for the John Marshall anniversary exercises were on her desk, for distribution to the members of the Club.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs. Sidney Turner, and was on "The Threshold of a New Century." Mrs. Turner spoke of two great events that mark the opening of the new Century:


first, the place our own nation is taking as a "world-power," among the nations of the earth, and second, the close of the life and career of the noble woman who has reigned over our kindred nation of England for almost two thirds of the Century just passed. She paid a high tribute to the beloved and honored Queen, and hoped the power and influence of her life and her spirit may be still felt and acknowledged in the reign of her son--who has proposed to walk in her footsteps.

Mrs. Turner suggested our looking backward over the great progress and improvements of the past Century, before saluting the new one. In reference to the new methods of dealing with humanitarians and charitable problems, she spoke of the efforts now made to reclaim juvenile offenders against the laws; dwelling especially on the plans lately tried successfully in Chicago. This system is to parole youthful transgressors, to put them on their behaviour at their own homes, or in other or better homes that are willing to receive them; to keep them out of institutions, even charitable ones; home life and associations being the best reforming influences, the best preventives of crime.

She went on to speak of the French Monthyon Prize, which has for many years been given by the French Academy--annually, to the poor person in France who has within each year been held to have performed the most virtuous action, or in benevolence, life-saving or otherwise given the best


example for the good of humanity. Some distinguished writers have interested themselves in the conferring of these prizes,--including Monsieur Bennétière, whose lectures we have heard in Baltimore. In the report of 1898, Pierre Loti has given the pathetically beautiful story of two blind sisters; who seeking to overcome their disabilities, have succeeded in supporting themselves and their mother--who also became blind. They could spin, knit, do their own housework, and other work , with marvelous success, and unconsciously heroic patience and contentment. This view of the French Academy's was, she said, a new one to her, perhaps to others also.

Mrs. Turner spoke of the new "Book Lovers' Library," an institution by which books of their choice are sent to the subscribers at their homes, and sent for again. There is no writing for someone else to bring in the work desired, there is a sufficient number of all, especially of new publications,--all are in good condition,--when they become otherwise they are discarded. A book is sent for a week, but it can be renewed indefinitely. Mrs. Turner reminded us that in a former article she had offered to give us the address of a "cheerer up;" she could now give us that of a reader up-to-date, whose work she had found satisfactory.

At the request of the President, Mrs. Cautley gave some further information with regard to the Monthyon prizes of the French Academy. She reminded us that the Monthyon prize for 1874 was


given to Madame Legion, who simply from motives of humanity, by unwearied efforts, had gained the freedom of Henri de Latude, a prisoner, by lettre de cachet, for nearly thirty five years in the Bastile, at Charenton, Vincennes and Bicetre. She referred to he published article on Latude by Mrs. Latimer.

The next article was by Mrs. Frederick Tyson, and was on "Great Events of the Past Months." Mrs. Tyson referred to the many evidences of progress which now surround us. The conditions of life are better than ever before; knowledge has increased wonderfully, our interests are multiplied, happiness and comfort are far more easily attained. One of the most important improvements is the higher and better position of woman in the world than ever before In this connection she called attention to the published statement that a Woman's Club, or Sorosis had begun its existence in Bombay, India, composed of native women, who have adopted the motto "The world was made for women also."

Mrs. Tyson spoke of the progress made by our own state of Maryland. she spoke of the great decrease in the number of illiterates, of people who can neither read nor write, as compared with former years. She then referred to this subject in relation to the franchise and to other disturbing elements in politics left us by the century just closed. She gave statistics of the increase of American trade, of exports over imports. She spoke too of English trade conditions, and of our many connections with our mother country. Our own country


and Russia, she said, more nearly independent, self-supplying than any other great nations. She dwelt on the immense worth to England of her colonies; and thought that the pacification of the Philippines and their completed connection with our country would mean more and more in value to the United States as the years go on. She thought any nation would grow great by her colonies, and when her colonies fell off, would begin to decay. Such was the case with Holland, with Venice, and Spain. She touched on the Ship Subsidy Bill, and on the Isthmian Canal. Mrs. Tyson spoke of the prosperity and glory of England during the reign of the late noble and good Queen Victoria, also comparing her with the Queens Elizabeth and Anne. She reminded us that during more than fifteen Centuries of actual history since Hengist landed on the Isle of Thanet, seven dynasties have reigned in England,--the Saxon, the Danish, the Norman, the Plantagenet, the Tudor, the Stuart, and the Guelph. The Normans she did not consider of any more noble stock than the Saxons, who claimed to be descended from the god Woden. She spoke of Shakespeare's representation of the Plantagenet Kings. She went back to the mythical and romantic origin of the Guelph family who ascended the throne in 1714, and have held it from George the First to Victoria. King Edward the Seventh, though his royal mother was a Guelph, is on his father's side of the family of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The new King has,


it was aid, shown much tact, and good humor while Prince of Wales, and the people of London are hoping that the court will belong now more to their city than it has of late seemed to do.

Mrs. Tyson went on to speak of hte new books of the past month, naming many of them. Among these were "Linnet," by Grant Allen, "The Philippines, the War and the Country," by A. G. Robinson, "The Great Boer War," by Dr. A. Conan Doyle,--the reading of which, she thought would make every lover of England wish she had never had such a war upon her hands. Mrs. Tyson spoke of Maurice Hewlett's "Richard yea and Nay," as a work of fascination in its description of mediaeval life, not leaving out its brutality, but distinguishing between the false and the true in it. She noticed "The Hosts of the Lord," by Mrs. Steele,--Marie Corelli's new book "Boy,"--Lord Roseberry's "Napoleon," and "The Life of Thomas Huxley," by his son. She referred to the several "love letters" of distinguished men, and works of fiction in the form of letters, reminding us that letter writing had been called "a lost art," but that the old fashion seems to have been revived. She spoke of Mr. Stedman's "American Anthology," in which we have a special interest, as two of our members have been reviewed in it,--Miss Reese and Miss Cloud.

The President asked our honorary member, Mrs. Latimer, to give us some recollections of her early life in England, during the first part of the reign of Queen Victoria. Mrs. Latimer said that having been


born in England, and the daughter of an officer int eh British Navy, she was legally English, but in feeling an American, as her father had an American mother, and she had lived in this country long, in the North and in the South. She told of seeing the young Queen, who was then a very pretty girl, with beautiful hair and complexion, not at all like the pictures taken lately. She saw her the day of her coronation, and on other occasions, and gave as entertaining incidents relating to her as the Princes and as Queen. Other members related anecdotes showing the true womanliness which distinguished Queen Victoria, in youth and age. Incidents were told too regarding the Prince of Wales--now the King,--referring to his visit to this country in 1860. After many pleasant comments, the President said that to Queen Victoria could will be given the description by Wordsworth

"A perfect woman, nobly planned,

To warm, to comfort, and command."

The meeting adjourned.



Meeting of February 5th, 1901. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, February 5th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. R. M. Wylie, Chairman of the Committee on Art. In the absence of the President, Mrs. Wrenshall, the Vice president, Mrs. R. K. Cautley, called the meeting to order, and presided. The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of January 29th.

The first article of the programme was given by Mrs. Sidney Turner, and was on "Stray Thoughts on Some Painters." Mrs. Tyson prefaced her article by reading an address delivered before the Literary Club of Ladies and Gentlemen and Lansing, Michigan, by Judge Joseph B. Moore, on The Progress of Woman in the 19th Century. To appreciate this progress in this closing century, he thought it well to consider the condition of women at its beginning. He recounted her want of legal rights, her exclusion form higher education, and form most of the honorable and profitable branches of industry. The progress of the 19th Century was then clearly and plainly stated, form the point of view of a man who believes that the


woman should stand side by side with her brother, to share and strive for all that is good and true together. Mrs. Turner's article on Pictures began with the idea that Art is its own educator; it teaches us to love the good and to seek the better, to be dissatisfied with what is inferior, to avoid retrogression. She told of being at Paris, and of making her first visit to the Louvre; where the first pictures she saw were by Boticelli; and represented some old women, appearing to her uncouth and grotesque; and she wondered if they were put first as among the best the Louvre had to show. She went on through the great collection and each day found new beauties in it, often finding too,that what she had admired one day would look very different to her a day or two afterwards. Finally she came back to the old women of Boticelli, and thought them gems of Art also, though scarcely comprehending what attracted her in them. She confessed to have found some disappointment in the Venus de Milo, and even in the Sistine Chapel at Rome. She went on to speak of a new and rare discovery in Rome,--an ancient Christian Church, decorated with paintings from the 8th Century. This Church dates form the 2nd Century, though remodeled in later Christian times. It was known as Old St. Mary's in the 7th Century. We were reminded that, between the Roman frescoes of Pompeii and the works of early Italian masters--such as Cimabue and Giotto--the history of painting, apart from miniatures and


mosaics, is almost a blank, except of the few Christian frescoes in the Roman Catacombs. But this newly discovered Church is adorned with dated frescoes of the 8th Century, among them a Crucifixion, scenes from the Bible, and portraits of the two Popes, Zacharias and Paul I, who were reigning when the old church was being decorated. Mrs. Turner went on to speak of the frescoes in Venice, and especially of those which once adorned the Chapel Rosario, which was built in 1571, and burned down in 1869. She described her visit to Venice during the first Exposition of Italian Art held in that city, and told of the arrival of the King and Queen of Italy in their gorgeous gondolas. Every one was, she said, speaking of "the picture,"--as if all would recognize what picture was meant. She found it was one by the artist Grazzi, and was called the "Last Inquest." Its meaning was revealed as "The power of the artist over his subject." As she vividly described the picture with its beautiful details, its subject was such a fearfully realistic inquest of ruined embodied souls over the body of the ruiner, that we might feel the evil that men do lives after them, in this world, o in the next one--or in both worlds. After describing some other remarkable pictures, Mrs. Turner dwelt on the fact that the ancients did not paint landscapes as such, but used them only as backgrounds for what they wished to portray. She then called attention to an article in the Baltimore Sun of that morning called "A Flurry about Art."


It related that the State regents of the public schools of New York have, after three years of experiment prepared a list of one hundred works of At "paintings, sculptures, and architectural subjects," "suitable for display in the public schools of that state." A list of rejected pictures etc is given. The Venus de Milo is one of these discarded as unsuitable. The Sistine Madonna and other Madonnas of Raphael, of Murillo, Titian and Corregio are eliminated, because they may be objectionable to Hebrews. Rosa Bonheus's Horse Fair is left out as second rate; also Meissonier's great picture "as suggesting War." Among others rejected are Da Vinci's Last Supper, and Hoffman's Christ in the Temple, the latter because the pupils would admire it and should not. After speaking of being true to our own tastes, Mrs. Turner then went on to tel of her having visited a collection of pictures intended to be sold, in one of which a stream was represented as going around a corner, and being lost to corner, as she could have all that there was beyond it, and perhaps more. He answered hat was the one picture he had concluded not to part with. Art, she reminded us, educates us, and leads us towards the golden gates of eternity.

The next article was by Mrs. R. K. Cautley, and was on "A Venetian Painter." After a few words on the Florentine school of painting and its influence, Mrs. Cautley spoke of the pleasure she had found


in the Art of Venice. Her special favorite among the Venetian painters was Giovanni Bellini. She told of the three Bellinis, the father and two sons who are called the first authors of Venetian color, the predecessors of Titian and Giorgione. They are said also to be among the first to paint in oils, instead of making pictures in tempera,--which latte method is lacking in transparency, having scarcely even translucency. Jacopo, the father, is less known than his sons Gentile and Giovanni. The first of these was invited by Mohammed the Second to come and paint for him in Constantinople, which he did, we were told with such success that the Sultan forgot or disregarded the law of his prophet Mohammed, which forbids the making the likeness of any living thing,--and to have allowed the painter to execute historical subjects unrestrained. Giovanni Bellini remained in Venice. Mrs. Cautley gave striking descriptions of some of his pictures, and told of the wonderful power of their color. She could not at first define wherein lay the great charm his paintings had for her until told by an Irish Countess that Bellini seemed always to have painted with molten gems. Then she recognized the ruby, sapphire and opalescent brilliancy she had been enjoying. In the Madonnas of Bellini, the expression, she said is not so much maternal tenderness as maternal pride and reverence. She seems to present the child as the Saviour of the world. Bellini was living, nearly ninety years old, when Albrecht Durer


came to visit Venice. We were told of a letter written by the German painter which was a tribute to the Italian one, as a Christian man. Durer says he had been warned against the jealousy of the Italian painters, who would not scruple to poison or stab him or to take other liberties. But one old painter is, he said, above all this, and he eulogizes this one. Mrs. Cautley showed some photographs of Bellini's pictures; and the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of February 12th, 1901. 

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, February 12th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, Chairman of the Committee on Modern Poetry. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall called the meeting to order; and the Recoding Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of February 5th.

The President called attention to the Library of our Club, and to the desirability of placing in it all the books (as far as we can obtain them) that have been written by the best authors of our own state of Maryland. She appointed as a Committee to seek additions to those already in our collection, Mrs. Uhler, Mrs. Jordan Stabler, Mrs. Percy Reese, the Librarian, Mrs. Ames, Miss Whitney and Miss Brent. She requested that those mentioned who were present would confer together at the close of the meeting.


The first article of the programme was by Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, and was on "A Manx Poet." This poet was the late Thomas Edward Brown. Miss Reese began with a characteristic quotation from the delightful letters of this poet in the Isle of Man. She went on to speak of him as one of the nine children of a clergy man of the Church of England, in orders himself, an Oxford graduate, a lover of outdoor life, and as seeming to find, and tell of the best things with which Nature had surrounded him. She spoke of his fondness for his Manx people, of different orders and degrees. She told of his beautiful style in writing, which seemed to belong to him; like an instinct of personal cleanliness. He was offered an archdeaconry; but declined, as he did not want to go to Church on all occasions, and did wish to confer with the Methodist ministers,--when he chose. He did also wish for a professorship; and was advised to see a Bishop, with regard to the appointment but was warned to be on his good behavior during this interview. Yet, perhaps with Celtic obstinacy, he met the Bishop with jokes, and lively entertainment. The Bishop burst into laughter; and after the conversation said: "He will do," and agreed to the appointment. Miss Reese gave his just and


appreciative comments on other authors, such as Hall Caine and Kipling; and told of his scoring Thomas Hardy's story Tess, for its impossible and inartistic treatment of its heroine. Miss Reese then read three of the beautiful poems of Thomas Edward Brown. The first was "Salve," the second "A Canticle." and the third "My Garden." In listening to these poems we could appreciate one reviewer's opinion, that Brown's writing has a charm in which "one forgets Hall Caine as comfortably as if he had never been born."

The next article of the programme was "A Poem," by Miss Emily E. Lantz. She gave us a "Love Song," as appropriate to the approaching ST. Valentine's Day.

The next article was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was on "The Predecessors of Shakespeare." Miss Duvall spoke of the Drama in ancient Greece, in France and Italy, and especially in England before ht time of Shakespeare. She reminded us of the power of dramatic representation before the invention--or common use of the art of painting; when books were made and copied only by hand, the book was or one, where the play might be for a thousand. She dwelt on the time immediately before Shakespeare,


when Plays were the work of many hands; actors had freedom in representing them; and Shakespeare found, of course, much floating material to be made use of. Mr. James Russell Lowell has given us at length his doubts whether Shakespeare was ever anything more than the adapter--or even than the adapter of a part of the play of Richard the Third; and she had some doubts with regard to the play of Henry the Sixth. Of the predecessors of Shakespeare, Miss Duvall spoke of Christopher Marlowe as the one most notable, the one who really foreshadowed Shakespeare. She spoke of Marlowe's Edward the Second, as the most remarkable play of its kind we have outside of those of Shakespeare himself. She reviewed also Marlowe's Dr. Faustus, with great interest and appreciation. She drew a striking contrast between ancient and modern dramas. She described the old Greek plays, with their lessons of inexorable fate, of the government of man from outside of himself, The sentiments of the modern drama is government still, but it is self government, the power and worth of human character. This is the main idea of Shakespeare, and of those of his predecessors into whose labor he entered as their true and greater inheritor.


The next article of the programme was "A Poem" by Miss Virginia W. Cloud. The last article was by Mrs. R. K. Cautley, and was on "The Revival of the Poetic Drama." Mrs. Cautley spoke of the fact in agriculture, that lands are often allowed to like fallow, unworked, for a time, and so in literature, more than in any other art, one very large field may be for a very long while untilled. The Victorian poets have given us the epic and the lyric rather than the drama. Tennyson took dramatic situations, and made epics of them. Browning took dramatic subjects, and they became philosophic essays in his hands. Both of them wrote poems in the dramatic form, but not successful dramas--though they probably intended these as such, and would have been glad had they proved so. But the novels and short stories of the present day have been dramatic, and in France we have Rostrand's Cyrano de Bergerac, and L'Aiglon. The novel written in English have been dramatized successfully. A novelist who is full of dramatic suggestions, may, and perhaps will write a play. In Richard Hovey's death, she thought, we have lost a dramatic poet. Tennyson made a failure when he decided to write the legends of King Arthur in the epic form; but the old version of Sir Thomas Malory in plain English, is more


dramatic than is Tennyson's. Mrs. Cautely then read from Hovey's "Marriage of Guenevere," the charge of Guenevere's mother to her daughter, which she said is like the charge of Polonius to Laertes. She also read from the same poem, "Guenevere's Soliloque," both very striking quotations. Mrs. Cautley went on to speak of Stephen Phillips, another writer of dramatic poetry with something of the Marlowesque style. As Marlowe led up to Shakespeare, Phillips, she thought may be the forerunner of something much better. His Paolo and Francesca has been acted, and praised. Mrs. Cautley read to us form another play of Stephen Phillips--Herod-- what was, she said, an outburst of great beauty, with fault. But she fears that this author will be taken, or take himself, for a finished dramatic poet, while he is only half way to "the prize of that high calling."

After a few words by the President, with regard to the Library Committee, the meeting adjourned.[3]



Box 4 Book 1

Feb. 19, 1901-May 28, 1901 (pp 1-62)


Meeting of February 19th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, February 19th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Thomas Hill, Chairman of the Committee on Colonial and Revolutionary History. This being the nearest meeting to the anniversary of "Washington's Birthday," the room was decorated through the efforts of the Chairman of the Committee, with United States Flags, a fine representation of the "Great Seal of Maryland," and, over the platform, a graceful "Liberty Bell" of smilax[4], suspended by ribbons of the State colors.

The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of February 12th. The President read an invitation to the members, from the "Baltimore Water Color Club," to attend and exhibition of pictures on the 21st and 22nd of February.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Laura De Valin, and was on "The Day and Generation of Cawsons." Miss De Valin told of Cawsons,--the estate of the Bland family in Virginia, the family and estate being connected with much of the interesting history of the Old Dominion. She told of Theodoric Bland who came to Westover in 1654, and of his descendants, especially of another Theodoric Bland, the Revolutinary hero, and friend and correspondent


of General Washington. The old home had been burned down; and many valuable papers carried form it to a barn were lost or destroyed. On one occasion an old negro offered to sell eggs to a neighbor in a basket lined with what proved to be a genuine letter from General Washington. But the documents belonging to Cawsons which have escaped destruction have been of remarkable interest. Miss De Valin read one letter written in 1775, from an Indian chief--dictated of course--requesting his "big white brothers" not to blame his tribe for all the stolen horses they had lost. Another was from a lady in Philadelphia, written during the British occupation of that city, giving a lively account of the amusements patronized or originated by the English officers, in which she, without compromising or concealing her revolutionary principles, was allowed to find entertainment.

The next article of the programme was by Miss Maria Middleton, and was on Francis Marion. Miss Middleton gave an extremely interesting account of the life and deeds of Francis Marion, called the "Swamp Fox," by his enemies, and known as the true and tried patriot and hero whose gallant exertions animated the people of South Carolina to maintain their unequal fight against the British forces sent to subdue them. She quoted Bryant's poem on this "leader frank and bold" and his men who knew the forests round them, "as seamen know the sea."


The next article was by Mrs. F. P. Stevens, and was on "The Story of Redemption Rock." Mrs. Stevens described a visit she had made to South Gardner, Massachusetts, and told of the Revolutionary memories kept alive there. She told of a birthday picnic party at Redemption Rock--the scene of a Colonial event in King Philip's War. It was there that the ransom was paid for the restoration of a white woman, Mrs. Rolandson, who had been carried away by Indians in one of their raids on the English Settlements. We were told the story of the redemption and return of the captive wife and mother with interesting details.

The next article was by Mrs. Thomas Hill, and was on "Patriotism." In well-chosen words she brought before us the noble deeds and heroic sacrifices of the patriots of the Revolution, from Washington, down to all who were led by his inspiration and that of their native land, and reminded us of our debt of gratitude, and of emulation of such examples.

The President thanked Mrs. Hill for the fine programme she had provided for us. We were then entertained by the inspiring music of our guests. We enjoyed Solos by Mr. Malcolm Hill, and Miss Mary J. Rodgers; Quartettes by Mr. Hill, Miss Rodgers, Mrs. Mealy, and Mr. Supplee, accompanied by Mr. Corbett. After several beautiful songs, they gave us four National Hymns. They sang with fine effect, "America," and "Columbia


the Gem of the Ocean." The President called attention to the fact that the two songs to follow these were especially dear to us, as belonging to our own state and city. These were "The Star Spangled Banner," and "Home, Sweet Home." The President thanked our guests appropriately for their fine music, and declared the meeting adjourned.

Refreshments were served, the tea being poured by the Vice President, Mrs. Cautley, from the Colonial silver tea-pots of her grandparents, which had been used in serving tea to General Washington, and also to four signers of the Declaration of Independence,--the day of their signing that document.


Meeting of February 26th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, February 26th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was the monthly Salon; and the programme was under the direction of Mrs. John D. Early, Chairman of hte Committee on Autographs and Letters.

The President called the meeting to order. The Recording Secretary being unavoidably absent, the notes of this meeting were kindly taken for her by Miss Imogen George. The President gave notice that Tuesday, March 19th being the Anniversary of the formation of the Club, and marking the close


of its eleventh year of existence, the March Salon will be held on that afternoon. A gift was then presented to the Club from Mrs. Early, Chairman of the meeting, of a handsomely framed collection of Autographs. The President in this connection spoke of other gifts from Mrs. early, and of the interest she has shown in the Club, and its welfare.

The papers that followed generally commemorated the authors whose autographs had been presented to the Club.

The first article given us was by Mrs. Philip R. Uhler; and was on our former fellow townsman, Mr. John P. Kennedy. Mrs. Uhler spoke of Mr. Kennedy's early patriotic writings as having appeared in the newspapers and as having received the recognition usually accorded such productions. She went on to speak of his books, such as "Swallow Barn," "Horseshoe Robinson," and "Rob of the Bowl," which have given us charming pictures of rural life in the olden time, in Virginia, Maryland and South Carolina,--pictures very well worth preserving and enjoying. She recalled his acquaintance with , and encouragement of other authors, the political and patriotic part of his life, and its associations, and his service as Secretary of the Navy under President Fillmore. She spoke too of Mr. Kennedy's long residence in Baltimore, and recalled his public spirit; his interest in the building of the Peabody Institute, and in other institutions. He died in 1870, but


is still remembered by our older citizens.

The next article was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was on James Whitcombe Riley. Miss Reese spoke of Whitcombe Riley's interest in common people and common things, and recalled the charity and humor he finds--and brings to our view in the life of every day. She added to her written paper some of Riley's stories told to her by himself.

The next article was given by Mrs. Waller Bullock, and was on Oliver Wendell Holmes. Mrs. Bullock told a characteristic anecdote of this author,--the heroine of the story being a member of the Club then present. She went on to speak of Oliver Wendell Holmes and the coterie that surrounded him as specimens of the spirit and the inherited culture of the New Englanders. His favorite books were Montaigne's Essays, and Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy. He made always strong opposition of what he considered the dogmatic character of Calvinism. But we know that while he would "shame all sullen creeds," he would have us

"Not trusting less, but loving more,
And showing faith by deeds."

The President quoted the words of Holmes as the gentle "Autocrat." "Our brains are seventy-year clocks. The Angel of Life winds them up once for all, then closes the case, and gives the key into the hand of hte Angle of the Resurrection."


The next article was by Miss Maria H. Middleton, and was on Donald G. Mitchell. As Mr. Mitchell married a cousin of Miss Middleton, she was able to give charming reminiscences of the moan and the author. He wrote before his marriage and continued to write after it; but it was his "Reveries of a Bachelor" that first gained him his literary reputation. Miss Middleton made a beautiful quotation from the "Reverie of a Loveless Marriage." She told too of a letter coming from the West, recently received by Mr. Mitchell, acknowledging the delight his book had given to young people.

The next article was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was on the writer best known as "Mark Twain." Miss Duvall spoke of Mr. Clemen's book published in 1867, the "Innocents Abroad;" which laid the foundation of his fame. She went on to discuss his works, giving the keen analogies and broad deductions with which we are familiar in Miss Duvall's papers. She quoted Mark Twain's recent arraignment of the Administration in the North American Review.

The next article was by Miss De Valin, and was on Edward Bellamy. This paper was introduced by the reading of a letter from Edward Bellamy to Mrs. Early in response to the expression of her high appreciation of his works. Miss De Valin expressed her views of Bellamy's writings, and enforced them by quoting from Howells, in reference to their characteristics,--and also the character of


their author as the disciple of Altruism.

The last article of the programme was by Mrs. Early, and was on Sir Walter Besant.  After reading a letter to herself from Sir Walter Besant, Mrs. Early went on to speak of him as an antiquarian, as a socialist, and as a writer of popular novels. At the close of Mrs. Early's paper, Miss Cloud quoted a recent delicate and appreciative compliment to Miss Duvall's writings.

The meeting adjourned to spend some time in partaking of refreshments and in social conversation.


Meeting of March 5th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, March 5th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Waller Bullock Chairman of the Committee on Education.

The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of February 26th. The President spoke of the new Committee on the Library, and of the enthusiasm its members have shown in their efforts to complete our Collection of the works of all the authors of our own state of Maryland.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs. Bullock, the Chairman of the Committee by Mrs. Bullock, the Chairman of the Committee of the meeting; and was the introduction of the


subject of Religion in Education. Mrs. Bullock treated the historical, philosophical and traditional aspects of her subject. She spoke of the ethnic character of some religions, which made them part of tribal or national governments. But these conditions are not ours, and Protestantism and Democracy have brought about the entire separation of Church and State. She then spoke of the education given in the public schools of our own country. In the public schools of the State of Wisconsin there has been the entire ruling out of all religious teaching, and we were given interesting facts and comments on this decision. The comments have been largely on the advisability and the responsibility of the teachings in the Church and in the home. Mrs. Bullock quoted form Pestolozzi, Froebel and others, opinions on the necessity for the religious element in education, for the training of the whole man; and for the ideal teaching. She quoted statistics to show that ignorance alone is not the cause of crime,--a sense of justice may go with ignorance, but inadequate and partial education is recognized as an evil. There are indications that the pendulum is swinging back on the subject of religious education. She spoke too of religion as a factor in literature, art and civilization.

The next article was by Miss Nicholas, and was called "No Dissection in Education." Miss Nicholas spoke of that dissection which must


kill the body we are training to grow up and live. Education must deal with the whole human spirit in which everywhere the religious instinct is inherent. No tribe is destitute of it in some form--even if only in the consciousness f the unknown and mysterious. Missionaries have asserted the contrary, from want of recognition--the god of the savage was to them no god. Such was the case with regard to the savage tribes of South Africa, but further research has revealed a faith and a ritual. Miss Nicholas went on to speak of the teaching of Language, of natural laws, of art and religion, with no part left out in the great unity of education.

The next article was by Miss Laura De Valin, and was on "Psychology and Religion." Miss De Valin spoke first of Psychology alone. She then took up the infant child's first intimations of consciousness. She spoke of the time when the whole universe is the me, and not me; when the real ego is evolved; when the gift of memory comes; when emotion, intellect and will take form as the mind of man. She spoke of the claims and the work of the body, mind and soul. Then of the whole being looking up and rising into that higher realm where the spirit lives and moves adn has its being, where it needs and reaches out to the divine light and air, the presence and love of God. Miss


De Valin quoted the noble words of Robert Browning on this life which is our chance of learning love, of seeing the will of God,--this life where "man partly is, and wholly hopes to be."

The next article was by Miss Imogen George, and was on "The Bible as Literature." Miss George spoke of our Bible which has been subjected to the tests of literature in the highest and best methods, and has come nobly through all. As the record of man's nature, of his hopes, strivings, love and heroism, as appealing to all, and being for all, Jew and Greek, ancient and modern; it not only teaches us how to live and how to die; but is the helper to intellectual effort, the giver of strength to mind and soul. Here familiarity does not breed contempt. Miss George spoke of the great minds who have drawn inspiration from its pages. Milton found here the spring of his wonderful descriptions; Dryden the subjects and the power of his harmonies of verse and prose. The orators of later times, even those of our own country, have gained the force of their expressions from the Bible of their fathers.

The next article was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was on "The Personal Equation." Miss Reese treated with much interest and sympathy, this subject of Religion in Education form the point of view of personal development, and personal influence. She spoke of the great teachers, like Dr. Arnold of Rugby, Dr. McCosh, Dr. Coit and others


whose lives characters and teachings were harmonious, successful, and appreciated. The religious spirit with them was a vital thing. Their influence was of that kind which makes us see the gate of Heaven, and shows us the path to it.

The next article was by Miss Whitney, and was on "The Lord's Prayer Before Christ." Miss Whitney reminded us of the late objections made by Hebrew Rabbis to the teaching of religion of any kind in our public schools. She referred to those portions of the Scriptures which are the common property of Jew and Gentile, or are even older than the creeds of both of them. Referring particularly to the Lord's Prayer, she then gave, with clearness and force, the result of much research among the prayers of the Hebrews,--those for the synagogue, and for the family. In these, ore in the old Testament, she showed us were nearly all the expressions contained in the payer of our Lord; who had, in his own divine method, combined them into one prayer for all times and all men.

The next article was by Mrs. R. K. Cautley, and was on the "Responsibility in the Case." Mrs. Cautley spoke of the work of the women of this country, on whom the responsibility of the early education of the rising generations seems to be thrown. We sometimes hear that the task is thrown off by the fathers upon the mothers.


But it may be also said that the hard work of the men can create a leisure class, (more or less so,) who can train and educate their children. The responsibility does at any rate seem to fall on the mothers, or those who take their places. It would seem too, that on us has fallen the mantle of St. Paul, "the care of all the Churches." Children are often taught to read and write, but not what to read and write.  She told of having taught in a Sunday School, a class of boys whose parents were well off, cultured, and her friends--and their children had been taught something of history, Latin, and similar studies. She took up the Acts of the Apostles; and one little boy volunteered the information that he knew about St. Mark--that he was not martyred at all. "No. He fell on his sword when eh heard that Cleopatra was dead." We hear much, she reminded us, of the danger of trusts, of imperialism, and of anarchy. Trusts, she thought a set of machines, which may not outlive their usefulness; and that imperialism in America will wait a while,--if the rising generation is properly educated. Imperialism is apt to follow anarchy--Napoleon followed the revolution. The danger here, she thought, is not entirely form our poorest class; it is, she believed, the half educated, half elevated comfortably fed laborer who may be more ripe for anarchy. We shall have to deal with Socialism, and the question is whether


it is to be a Christian Socialism, or the Socialism of selfishness and anarchy. It is our own problem and responsibility.

The last article was by Miss Ellen Duvall, and was on "Education within Religion." Miss Duvall spoke of the education of the infant, and of the different theories advanced with regard to it. She dwelt on the fist movements of the infant intelligence, of its first conscious interrogations. She went on to its first religious impulses and ideas, and to the influence of our Christianity on its development. She quoted the views of those who call themselves agnostics; who, she supposed often believe more than they think the do. Miss Duvall closed by saying that the best education is that which will draw out the religious instinct, and will base the intellectual training upon it.

The programme being finished, the President asked for comments by members or visitors. Mrs. Alan P. Smith [Ellen Anna Jones Smith] told of having been at the Parliament of Religions at the Chicago Exposition when a vast assemblage joined in repeating the Lord's Prayer. There were Christians, Jews, Mohammedans and Brahmans present; but apparently all who knew the language without objection or hesitation joined in the prayer. Interesting comments followed by Miss Middleton, Miss Bates, Miss De Valin, and others.

The meeting adjourned.


Meeting of March 12th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, March 12th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Anne Weston Whitney, Chairman of the Committee on Fiction. The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 5th.

The first article of the programme was given by Miss Whitney, and was called: "Sketches of American Writers." Miss Whitney spoke first of Paul Liester Ford, telling of his life and writings. She told of his saying that he had never supposed he should owe his home to a woman; but that the sale of Janice Meredith had paid for the house in which he is going to live, and the receipts from the play are furnishing it. We were told of his parents, and of his early environment, including a description of the library which his father took pleasure in providing or him, with his three desks, on which he is accustomed to write severally, History, Fiction, and Drama. We were told of his love story; how the father of the young lady objected to Mr. Ford, on account of his being a cripple; --of how the young people were determined to marry each other, or never to marry at all; in view of which determination, the stern parent relented, and consented. Miss Whitney spoke of the general idea that the Honorable Peter Stirling


was meant for a portrayal of President Cleveland, but, she told us, Mr. Ford had asserted that Cleveland was only one of the public men of whose career eh had availed himself in describing that of Peter Stirling. In speaking of MR. Ford's mother, Miss Whitney dwelt on her power of telling romantic stories, in describing her own adventures, and those of her friends. One of these was the romance in real life of the Countess Von Cracow,--an American girl, who studied Art in Europe and married a nobleman. The Countess now writes for the magazines of this--her native country--and was the second author of Miss Whitney's entertaining sketches.

The third writer noticed was Miss Mary Wilkens, the well-known New England author. Miss Whitney gave a lively description of the personality and home life of Miss Wilkens. She told us that as a child the future authoress was not considered promising by the people with whom she was connected. She was not fond of sewing, and other employments, consequently an old aunt said she did not know what God could have made Mary Wilkens for,--she was good for nothing. This new England aunt did not live ot see the child's eventual literary success. Miss Whitney spoke of the story of Mary Wilkens just begun in Harper's Magazine; and referred to the rumor that she is going to be married to an old lover, with the comment that probably not Cupid himself knows whether


Miss Wilkens is to be wedded soon, or later, or not at all.

The next article was by Mrs. J. Wilson Marriot, and was called "My Flowers." Mrs. Marriot being out of town, the article was read for her by Miss Early. Mrs. Marriot spoke of the companionship of flowers, and of their power of attraction and repulsion. The sun-flower, she thought was impertinent, and she reminded us of the dislikes of Macaulay, who, we remember, wondered if it was "Christian like" to have his intense aversion to some flowers. Mrs. Marriott wen on to tell us of her garden, in which each plant was representative of some loved and cherished friend or protege. The pansy was an artless little girl, hte poppy a more imposing woman. The lily opened its heart of gold to recall the fairest and purest ones on earth. The wild rose had its type too; and we were led on to a story of youthful love and a happy wedding amid the June roses with the music of Nature's orchestra, and the joy of true and trusting hearts.

The next article was by Miss Virginia Cloud, and was called "The Story of a Secret." Miss Cloud's interesting story turned upon the great Civil War, as seen from a child's point of view. The Development in the loving heart and mind of a little girl, of the true woman's character through the means of her terror, compassion, sympathy, and heroic reticence, was traced and described with all Miss Cloud's insight and power of expression.


The last article of the programme was by Miss Lizette Reese, and was called "Concerning Novels." Miss Reese spoke of the frequent announcement we read and hear that "The Great American Novel" has been, or is about to be published. This generally proves to be a book which sells by the hundred thousand copies,--lives for a while, and dies.--and is forgotten. She then gave us the opinions of her "Cousin Augustina," on the novels of the day, and the false criticism that they receive today. A rash critic perhaps finds in a book the piney odor of the woods he loved in his boyhood. As he does not know a New England pine from a cedar of Lebanon,--and moreover--does not know what is literature--or what is not,--he originates the praise which the crowd swells and continues for some probably harmless production without form and void, with out style or right to permanence. We need another old Dr. Johnson to roar out: "Trash, Sir! and you know it." She would like to organize a society for the protection of the adjective, a part of speech so badly used that it bids fair to become a chronic invalid. In our devotion to the American Flag, we may be too anxious for the great American novel. Its inspiration must be the same which our forefathers brought over the sea centuries ago. In both English and American novels, our favorite characters seem often doomed to die. Even Mrs. Ward's Eleanor Burgoyne has been swept off into the limbo which novelists sometimes prepare for their own favorites. Miss Reese went on to


suggest that writers should prepare pre mortem notices in the prefaces of their stories; so that those who wish to do so can stay away from the funerals.

At the close of Miss Reese's article, the President said that we welcomed the second visit of Cousin Augustina, and would be glad to have her for an honorary member of the Club. She thanked Miss Whitney for her interesting programme, and declared the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of March 19th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, March 19th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was the eleventh anniversary of the formation of the Club, which was appropriately celebrated. The assembly room was decorated with palms and flowers, and a musical programme was presented.

We were favored by the presence, on the platform of our first President, Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull, who held our highest office for more than seven years, and is still a highly honored member of our Club. We also welcomed among us Miss Louise Osborne-Haughton, for five years our Vice President.

The President gave notice of the French lecture of Monsieur Gaston Deschamps, literary critic of the Paris paper, Le Temps, to be given to the Cercle Francaise of Baltimore in the assembly room of the Club, and to it all members of


the Club were invited. Mrs. Turnbull then gave notice that she would present tickets to the Turnbull Lectures of hte Johns Hopkins University--to be given by Mr. Mabie, to such members o the Club as would be able to attend the course, who should send their names to her.

The President then announced that the Recording Secretary would read the minutes of the fist meeting of the Club, held on March 19th, 1890,--and would also read the minutes of the latest meeting on March 12th, 1901. This was done, with the explanation that the minutes of the first meeting--for organization, and held at the Woman's College--were written from the notes of the first Vice President, Miss Hester Crawford Dorsey, now Mrs. Albert Richardson.

The next exercise from the programme was the Anniversary Address of the President. Mrs. Wrenshall gracefully offered her congratulations to her fellow members for our successful accomplishment of eleven years of Club life, and her earnest wishes and hopes for many more prosperous and beneficial years to come. She referred to the real conservation which has kept us,--by organized efforts--in our true position as a literary Club, and to our eleven years progress in good literary work, which has won the sympathy and approval of many friends and contemporaries. We have grown in appreciating the power and necessity of criticism for our own work, and in keeping before us the highest and best ideals,


intellectually and spiritually. And, in looking back on the work we have done, we can be proud that it has not been such as to bring a blush to the cheek of any one among us. We believe we can justly claim that our efforts have not been in vain,--that the influence of our Club has been for culture, and truth, and righteousness. And, in view of our past, we can justly aspire to, and assuredly hope for encouraging progress and accomplishment in the future.

We were then favored with three piano Solos, beautifully rendered by Miss Elizabeth Coulson. She gave us from Rachmaminoff, the "Prelude in C. sharp, minor," form Lorgo, "Canto d'Amore." and form Moszkowski, "Caprice Espagnole." Miss Louise Haughton next sang for us--with accompaniments by Miss Stiebler--two songs: from Rubenstein, "The Asra," and from St. Saens, the song from Samson and Dalila. Miss Edith Stowe then gave us the pleasure of hearing her sing two songs: Chaminade's "Madrigal," and Dudley Buck's "Sunset." Miss Coulson then played a "Hungarian Rhapsodie," by Liszt, which was highly appreciated. Miss Haughton then favored us again by signing two songs: "Calm as the Night," by Bohm; and "A May Morning" by Denza.

The President then appropriately thanked he guests who had given us their fine music; and declared the meeting adjourned. The next hour was passed in the enjoyment of refreshments, and social intercourse, by the Club and its visitors.



Meeting of March 26th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, March 26th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Frederick Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on Translation.

The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 19th. The President announced the subjects for the meetings of the coming month of April. She also repeated the notice given by Mrs. Turnbull at a former meeting with regard to the furnishing to the members of the Club the tickets to Mr. Mabie's lectures at the University on application in time to her--our former President. The President, Mrs. Wrenshall, again called attention to completion of our library by the collection of the works of the authors of Maryland, so far as they are attainable. She also announced the presentation to the Club of two books by their authors; --one from Mr. Henry P. Goddard, and the other from Miss Owens.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs. Prince Kitzing, and was called "A Meeting between Heine and Kücken in Paris." Mrs. Kintzing told of her having found in a German book treating of artists and literary people, and account of the meeting of the two old Germans, Heine and Kücken in Paris. Before reading the translation


she gave us a short and interesting account of Kücken, rightly judging that he might not be so well known to us as Heine. Frederick Wilhelm Kücken, whose tuneful songs are loved and fondly remembered by the Germans, was born in 1810, the son of a farmer, who was also a lover of music. She gave the main incidents of his life in his own Germany, and in other countries. She told of the great success of his musical compositions which won him the favor of his government and the love of his people, young and old. He died at his old home in Schwerin, in 1882, at the age of seventy one. Even in American some of us can recall the great popularity of some of Kücken's songs, such as "Ach wieists moglich dann," known to us as: "How can I leave thee?"

In the article translated by Mrs. Kintzing, we were told that, on Kücken's arrival in Paris, he first called to see his countryman, the great composer, Meyerbeer, by whom he was invited to spend an evening. On this evening he met eight or ten gentlemen of literary distinction, such as Dumas, Janin, Scribe, and others. While talking with one he knew, a gentleman approached him, but did not join in the conversation, and soon withdrew. Kücken soon afterwards went to call on his other fellow countryman, Heine, but was told that he was "not at home." The same answer came so often--once, he had reason to think given by Heine himself--that Kücken sought to find the reason for it. He found out that Heine was the guest


who had, it seemed, expected to be recognized at Meyerbeer's evening company; also that Heine's sensitive egotism had been played upon by another guest, to the tune that Herr Heine was not so great a man as he supposed himself to be, since his fellow German, Kücken,  had not discovered his presence, nor hastened to make his acquaintance. This little misunderstanding being set right, the two geniuses were able to appreciate and enjoy each other's company. Mrs. Kintzing then gave some fresh and entertaining incidences connected with the life of the two German friends in Paris, Kücken, she reminded us is one of the words used for "a chicken" in Germany; and she closed by reading a note from Heine, informing his dear Kücken that he has sent him some eggs; but requesting him not to brood over them too long, but to let his friend see or hear from him very soon again.

The President thanked our new member for her very interesting translation.

The next article was "The Hat," from the French of Francoise Coppée; translated by our honorary member Mrs. Latimer, and read with appreciation, by Miss Perkins. With Mrs. Latimer's lively power of translating, we were told of the confirmed bachelor, who at a dramatic entertainment finds himself separated form his hat, by an impenetrable wall of women in evening dress, between himself and the console on which he had left that article


necessary to his desired departure. This leads seemingly to an endless chain of troubles, from which he his deftly unwound and relieved by the tact, grace, and amiability of a fair girl; where upon he makes an unpremeditated and unconditional surrender to her charms, and finds himself the happiest of men.

The last article was "Sister Joan of the Cross," translated from the Italian of Mathilde Serrao, by Mrs. Frederick Tyson. It was a pathetic description of the breaking up o fa convent in the Neapolitan territory, by government order. The fourteen nuns all over sixty years old,--all for more than a generation, dead to the world, are suddenly called to lift their veils; and to go out into what would seem a stormy sea without chart or compass to guide them. And official order has been promulgated giving notice of the suppression of the convent to the relations and friends of the sisters--but they themselves could scarcely know whether they had relations or friends outside the sacred walls. The similarity, and also the individuality of each one's sorrow is brought before us. Sister Giovanni, perhaps forty years before, had loved and been loved in return; but a younger sister had captured her lover form her, and she had sought peace under the shadow of the cross. When all had made the painful parting except herself and the Abbess, Sister Giovanni is told that a lady is waiting for her at the gate. She finds a woman over fifty, too youthfully dressed, who says: "I am your sister, and have come for you." All


the rest near to the two sisters are dead; and they go their way together. then a carriage bringing a young girl, who is the last of a noble family, carries off the Abbess,--and the scene of infinite pathos fades out of sight.

The President gave the thanks of the Club to the Translation Committee and its Chairman for the entertainment of the afternoon, and the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of April 2nd, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, April 2nd, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Mrs. Jordan Stabler, Chairman of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records.

The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 26th. The President gave notice of a paper in charge of our member Miss De Valin, containing a request that the University Extension Lectures of MR. Sykes, at the Johns Hopkins University shall be continued next year. This paper was presented for signatures to the members of the Club who are interested in the improving lecture of Mr. Sykes.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs. Waller R. Bullock, and was called:


"Selections from my Aunt's Diary." This diary of Mrs. Hardy of New York was--we were told--written seventy-six years, and described the different modes of travelling then and now, in America--and in Europe. It described a journey from Florida to New York; and, after delays caused by calms--the going in a local steamer to the sailing vessel, which was to take the lady and her husband to Liverpool. The passage--after really starting--took only eighteen days, a short one for that time, and manner of travelling. About twelve miles from Liverpool, a small sailing boat took off letters and papers, but passengers had to wait longer. We were told of Liverpool, and of its Blind Asylum, then the largest in the world. The journey to London was made in what was considered good time,--going for instance one hundred and eighty six miles in twenty six hours,--not too fast for the beauty to be fully appreciated by the travellers. The description of London in 1824 was particularly interesting. The beauty and advantages found in the lighting the great city by the use of gas is described. The amount and variety of sight seeing done by these travellers was certainly wonderful. We were told of a sermon they heard by the celebrated Edward Irving. We were also made to enjoy a ball in London, at the house of an English cousin of the travellers, where the good taste in dressing and the good manners of the English ladies made a very pleasant impression on these travellers.


They appreciated highly Gloucester Cathedral, and were much impressed by the recumbent statue of Robert, Duke of Normandy, eldest son of William the Conqueror. It is of Irish oak, probably bog oak, which it is said, worms do not attack. After seeing the Bank of England, Lord Mayor's palace, and other points of interest, they went to Dulwhich, to see one of the choicest collections of pictures in Europe. This gallery contains works by Murillo, Rembrandt, and other great artists. We were taken with the travellers to Brighton and to cross the Channel to Dieppe, and on to Paris where the go to the theatre, and see and hear Talma and Mademoiselle Mars. The wonders of Paris are described, as seen in 1824.

The next article was by Miss Maria Middleton, and was called: "Summer Scenes." Miss Middleton described the charming Northern trip of two pilgrims from our own part of the country. She pictured the beautiful mountain and lake region passed in drawing near to Montreal and Quebec; and described the two old cities with their lingering romantic aspect and air of old France. She told of the Falls of Montmorency, and of the Laurentian Hills--the very oldest lands in America, and took us to the Shrine of St. Anne, where so many cripples have discarded their crutches,--to walk away with much sustaining faith and hope. The pilgrims turned their faces homeward with


pleasant memories to relate. The next article was by Mrs. Thomas Hill, and was on "Memories of the World's Fair," held in London, in 1850, and due to the wisdom and good feeling of the noble Prince Consort, who suggested it, and interested himself in it. She spoke too of ht next great World's Fair in New York, held like the first, in one great crystal palace. She traced the development of such exhibitions since that time, dwelling particularly on the one in Paris, and our own in 1876, and in 1893. She went on to the Exposition of last summer in Paris; and spoke of the American portion of it as a gratifying success. She told of the Post Office, Telegraph Office, and of the excellent arrangements for the comfort of American visitors: also of the Cor Kitchen, where our own Indian corn was served up in every style of preparation by the neat colored cooks,--recalling the kitchens of Maryland and Virginia. She gave a picturesque account of the exhibit of the Dearings and McCormicks of Chicago--a firm which has nine thousand employees--with the reaping machines at work, cutting down the grain in most excellent style, making the circuit of the field, to come back and continue the reaping. An interesting souvenir was the old coach, which was furnished for the use of the friend of America, General La Fayette, on his visit to this country in 1824, which was lent for this occasion to be shown in his native land,--and upon it is the name of a manufacturer in Gay Street, Baltimore. This


is particularly interesting in connection with the erection of the statue of this friend of America, and the other statue of our own Washington, both unveiled in Paris during the Exposition. Mrs. Hill gave further notices of the American Department of the Paris Exposition.

The last article was by Mrs. John D. Early, and was called An Ancestress." IT was read for her by Mrs. Jordan Stabler. It told of the beautiful love and sympathy between a grandmother and granddaughter. These two kindred spirits looked on this world and on the world which was to come, not only with faith and hope, but with joy. When her grandmother died, the child thought it only ignorance that could find mourning and sorrow in her loved ones translation. When she grew up to be a wife and mother and grandmother herself, she may--or may not have been the most nearly perfect of housekeepers,--but she truly dispensed the head of life to all around her. And in the end--true to her inherited faith--she could not find sorrow in the last parting, when the only word she knew how to speak then was: "Rejoice."

The President spoke of our meany pleasant afternoons together, and declared the meeting adjourned.



Meeting of April 9th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, April 9th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Ellen Duvall, Chairman of hte Committee on Current Criticism. The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of April 2nd.

The President announced that the April Salon of the Club would take the form of a Reception to Mr. Mabie, the Lecturer on the Percy Turnbull Memorial Course at the Johns Hopkins University. It will be held on the evening of Wednesday, April 24th, at half past eight o'clock, and in consequence of this the regular Club meeting of the 23rd would be omitted. To this reception each member is entitled to bring a gentleman.

The President also announced the gift to the Club Library, by our member, Miss Fannie H. Shackelford, of her book "The Jew and the German, or From Paul to Luther." Thanks were given to Miss Shackelford. Thanks were also given to Mrs. James Casey Coale for the presentation to the Club of her two books: "Lelia the Hindoo Girl," and "The Cottage by the Sea."

The first article of the programme was by Miss Duvall, and was called: "A Vice


from Philistia." Miss Duvall reviewed the great authors of English literature and dwelt chiefly on their choice of subjects, and on their treatment of the subjects they have chosen. She spoke of the contrast of characters which gives color to fiction and drama. She dwelt on the fine sense of color in all art, and especially in literature, and its half sister poetry. Some writers may see life as a whole, and have the sense of form, but their characters are drawn all bad, or all good, without the finer contrasts of color. She told of this latter quality, or of the want of it, in great writers of poetry, and in prose--such prose as Plato's, Shakespeare's, Milton's, and Newman's. Miss Duvall contrasted the work of Shakespeare and Milton, of Tennyson and Browning; and went on to give philosophical and discriminating criticisms of Hardy and James, among the writers of the present day.

The next article of the programme was by Miss H. Frances Cooper, and was on "Authors Old and New." Miss Cooper took a wide range in reviewing good literature, past and present. She spoke of a new book by Arles Bater: "Talks on How to Read"--suggesting the need we all have of knowing how--as well as what--to read. She spoke of the passing it no apparent oblivion of treat and widely read favorites, but reminded us that Shakespeare, and Mother Goose hold their own,--all of it,--and will continue


to do so, as long as classic taste and true insight on the one hand, and natural childhood--that wants to go to market--on the other, are left among us. She said that the 25th of October 1900, was the centennial birthday of Macauley; but it seems to have met with no particular commemoration. Still, where can we find better writing of its kind, more clear, vigorous, and not to be misunderstood, than that of Macauley. George Eliot, it has been asserted, would have retained more of her early popularity but for the fact that she appeals more to the intelligence than to the emotions. Dickens may not be as much talked of a in former years; but how many of us love to recall the real and helpful friends he gave to us, and hail the new editions, now being published as proofs that his works are not forgotten. Miss Cooper spoke of Motley's History of the Netherlands and having the charm of a romance. She went on to speak of such authors as Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, Cervantes, Milton, whom none of us can ever afford to forget. She took up the novels of the present day, such as "To Have and To Hold," "Even Holden," and "Richard Yea and Nay"--also the graver works such as "Hukely's Life," by his son; Lord Roseberry's "Napoleon," and the "Life of Lady Isabel Burton." She recalled that Darwin's "Origin of Species" has been called "the book of the century." She spoke too of the general regret hat has been felt for the death of Professor Max Muller. The


next article of the programme was by Miss Maria Middleton, and was on "Axel Münthe." Miss Middleton told us that the subject of her article was not so much a writer as a doctor, by profession. He was a native of Sweden; and early in life, he fell in love with a Swedish princess. But as marriage with her was impossible, he left his country, and went to Paris. Like a man, he sought to console himself by marrying someone else; but the union proved unhappy, and a separation followed. In 1889 he went to Naples, where a pestilence was raging. Here the Swedish doctor worked among the poor, sent no bills, and did much good. Miss Middleton told of an American lady who employed Dr. Münthe professionally,--but could not obtain his bill. Finally, she laid what she supposed to be the right amount on his table. This was met by the assertion that he did not want so much money,--unless it was for his poor people, in which case he would willingly receive it. He seems to have fallen quite in love with poor Italian people--with their generous, silent devotion in bearing one another's burdens--of which some pathetic instances were given to us, as having been encountered in the doctor's practice. His love and sympathy was extended to his dog, to whom he ascribes reason, who gave him consolation in trouble, and who--he believes--has as good a right to a future life as his master. HE shows us life as he sees it among his dear Italians, with some of


the power of expression we find in Pierre Loti. Miss Middleton suggested that Dr. Münthe's two volumes would be an addition to our library, and from her extracts we could agree with her.

The last article was by Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese, and was "A Group of Poems." Miss Reese read her "Cherry Trees," "Lines written on the Fly Leaf of Herman's Apologia," "The Workers," and "The Empty Room,"--all of them highly appreciated by her fellow members.

The President thanked the Committee on Current Criticism for the entertainment of the afternoon, and declared the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of April 16th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, April 16t, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Emma Brent, Chairman of the Committee on Archaeology.

The President called the meeting to order. She again announced hte omission of he meeting of April 23rd, to be replaced by the reception to be given by the Club to Mr. Mabie on the next evening, April 24th. She announced also that the French lecture of Monsieur Giraud, to be given in our Club room before the Cercle Francais of Monsieur Perrault, to


which lecture the members of the Club were invited to be present.

The first article of the programme was by Mrs. John D. Early, and was on "Recent Discoveries in Greece." It was read for Mrs. Early by the President, Mrs. Wrenshall. In speaking of the recent excavations of the old world, Mrs. Early's article called attention to the great interest awakened by the treasures they have revealed to us,--treasures greater than the gold of Klondike, or diamonds of South Africa. WE are learning not only how the ancient nations built their temples and monuments, but how they lived and loved, and sought for the knowledge of God, and for the presages of immortality. She spoke of the benefits conferred by Greek art upon the world for all time; and contrasted the higher grace and gentler nature of the Greeks with the iron rules and ruder life of the Romans. Last November, she reminded us, some fishermen brought up from the waters of the Egean Sea, a fine bronze hand; which led to the discovery of a sunken ship, laden with rich prizes of art, marble and metal, hidden for centuries under the sand and salt water. These treasures are supposed to have been stolen from Greece, to decorate the palaces of Rome; probably by the consul Sulla, in the first century before Christ. But they


never reached their destination, and are now--at last--restored to the land of their origin. Beautiful statues, --but most of them--we were told--with not a leg to stand upon, were now recovered from the Sea. Mrs. Early went on to speak of the excavations in Crete, recalling the old stories of Minos, the Minotaur and the Labyrinth. She spoke of the wonderful prehistoric civilizations that have been revealed to us; and also gave a very interesting account of Henry Schliemann, and of his successful explorations on the site of ancient Troy. She closed with references to the recent revelation of the people who lived before Homer, before the early Phoenicians, and who seem to lead us back to the period of the unity of all the inhabitants of the earth.

The programme next called for a "Reading" by Mrs. R. M. Wylie. She gave us an article by Professor Herman Hieprecht, of the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Hieprecht has been for some eleven years exploring the mounds of ancient Nippur, in the old Babylonian country; and has returned to America having brought to light, tablets with cuneiform inscriptions containing records of a civilization which appears to have existed five thousand years before Christ. Nippur was--we were reminded--the ancient Calneh, mentioned in the tenth chapter of Genesis, and there is also evidence


that the Jews of the Babylonian Captivity were carried there, and lived in that region. A fine description was given us of the ancient temple and royal library at Nippur, especially of the lower strata lately excavated, which have given evidence of the civilization of long past centuries of the time before Abraham lived in Ur of the Chaldees. Mrs. Wylie read too of the ruin in Idumea and in Baalbek, and of the temple of Karnak. In the last, we were told of the fall of some of the venerable columns. The methods being used by the Egyptian government to arrest their impending destruction, and repair damages, resemble toe works of their ancient builders,--thousands of years seeming to make less difference in Egypt than in any other part of the world.

The next article was by Miss Emma Brent, and was called "The Enduring Magnet." Miss Brent reminded us that in the year 1600, William Gilbert published his book, "On the Earth as a Great Magnet." She spoke of the later discoveries of the variations of the compass. She went on to speak of terrestrial magnetism, and referred to the question whether the earth derives magnetism from the Sun. She spoke of the effect of the magnetic force on the development of the earth, and of its influence on life, vegetable and animal life--from the age of fossils down


to the much later periods. Miss Brent gave us interesting facts and suggestions. We had been promised an article by Mrs. Wrenshall, our President, but she insisted on deferring it, and the meeting adjourned.


Reception of Wednesday, April 24th, 1901.

The regular meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, which would have taken place in due order on Tuesday, April 23rd, was omitted, according to a decision of the Board of Management; and its place was taken by a Reception given by the Club to Mr. Hamilton W. Mabie, who was this year the lecturer of the Percy Turnbull Course at the Johns Hopkins University.

This Reception, held in the Club rooms at 8:30 P. M., Wednesday, April 24th, 1901, also took the place of the April Salon. The rooms were bright with floral decorations, and a fine musical programme was presented by Miss Elizabeth Starr, Master John Triplett Harrison, Dr. Philip Ogden, and Mr. Edwin Litchfield Turnbull. The Reception Committee were Mrs. John C. Wrenshall, President, Mrs. R. K. Cautley, Vice President, Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull, Former President, Mrs. Frederick Tyson, Miss Ellen Duvall, Mrs. Philip R. Uhler, Mrs. Waller R. Bullock, Mrs.


G. K. McGaw, Miss Jane Zacharias, and Miss Emma F. Brent. The attendance of members and guests was large and appreciative. Among those invited--including gentlemen as well as ladies--were the members of the "Cercle Francais," recently organized under the direction of Monsieur Perrault; and the members of the Johns Hopkins University Faculty, as well as other literary and well-known citizens of Baltimore. The enjoyment of all present seemed to be complete and satisfactory.


Meeting of April 30th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, April 30th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was under the direction of Miss Jane Zacharias, Chairman of the Committee on Music. The President called the meeting to order; and then read a graceful note, from our former President, Mrs. Turnbull, expressing her grateful appreciation of the Reception given by the Club to Mr. Mabie, the Lecturer this year on the Percy Turnbull Foundation at the Johns Hopkins University. The President also announced a French Lecture on France as a Republic, on Wednesday evening, by Professor Cohn of Columbia


College, New York, before the Cercle Francais, to which our members as the hosts of the Cercle were invited to be present.

The President then announced that our next meeting--the first meeting in May--would be devoted to the reading of the Reports of Chairmen of Committees,--being one of the three regular business meetings of the year, to which guests are not invited.

The first article of the programme was by Miss Zacharias, and was on "Recent Musical Events." Miss Zacharias spoke of the recent literature of Music, and gave the published opinions of musical authors. One writer of authority exalts the piano, as having of all instruments, the most varied powers of expression. She quoted the opinion of Mr. Damrosch, as against the use of operatic music in Church services, and in favor of the growth of the chorus in Sacred Music. She spoke of recent dramatic music in England,--also, of what has been called the decline of minstrelsy in Berlin, and of the continued popularity of the opera of Faust in Paris. Miss Zacharias also spoke of a new book of the music of the "Opera, Past and Present,"--from which she made interesting quotations.

The next article was by Mrs. R. K. Cautley, and was on "Ethelbert Nevin." Mrs. Cautley said she had been suddenly called to take the place of Mrs. Gilpin, who by reason of illness could not


give us her very interesting paper. She herself felt very much like the boys of an English school, who, during an examination in history, were required to tell what they knew of Charles the Second. They answered that "he was born,--and he died." To the question: "What was his character?" came the answer: "We did not know that he had any." This may have been applicable to Charles the Second, but she would try to give a different account of the young musical composer Ethelbert Nevin. He was born in Ohio, and began his musical work by playing for his mother. His talent was encouraged, and received some public recognition when he was eleven years old. At fifteen he attempted operatic music. His parents were in good financial circumstances. Life was joyous to him; but eh died at he age of thirty eight. His later works show distinct advancement and growth, but it is impossible to imagine the work he might have done in a longer life. His genius and place in music seem--it was said--to resemble those of Robert Louis Stevenson in literature.

We were then given three songs by Ethelbert Nevin--which were beautifully sung by Miss Edith Stowe. They were: "The Rosary," "At Twilight," and "The Roses of Yesterday Even."

The next article was by Miss Anne Cullington, and was on "Robert Schumann."


Miss Cullington spoke of the characteristics of Schumann's compositions, dwelling on his music for the piano, and giving him a very high place in that department of music, in which Chopin stands preeminent. She spoke of the responsive quality of his compositions. When we are sad, he can be sad with us; he answers to our sorrows, and also to our joys, he has something to say to the cavalier, and also to the puritan; and his strains answer well to a good interpreter. She analyzed his work, and compared it with that of Beethoven. In much of it, we were told, he speaks to us "out of the depths," and the gloom which pursued his spirit, only ended in death. We must judge him by his best work, and by what it seemed to foreshadow. Miss Cullignton appropriately and expressively illustrated her article by playing on the piano five of the compositions of Schumann: "A Nocturne in F."--"Soaring,"--"Why,"--"Whims,"--and "Novellette No. VIII."

The next article of the programme was by Miss Jane Zacharias, and was on "Giuseppe Verdi." Before its reading, the President announced two changes in the programme. It had promised us two arias from the operas of Verdi, to be sung by Mrs. G. B. Evans, accompanied by Mrs. Piece Kintzing. The illness of Mrs. Kintzing made it impossible to fulfill this promise. But our former member, and Vice President, Miss Haughton, had with very short


notice consented to come and sing for us. Miss Haughton kindly favored us with two songs, "Because I Love You, Dear,"--and "Roses." Miss Zacharias then read her article on Giuseppe Verdi. She spoke of the great work of his long life for harmony and for Italian melody, and of his influence upon the age in which he lived. the heart of Verdi always beat true for the poor and afflicted, and for his country. His father was an innkeeper of Rancola in Parma, and he was born in 1814. In his infancy his life was in danger from the wars and tumults of that time. Miss Zacharias traced Verdi's life in detail and gave a critical and appreciative account of the compositions, which have become household words in many lands. She told of the circumstances leading to the production of the opera of Aida. She said that when some one spoke to him of the music of the future; he answered: "The music of the future does not worry me." She dwlt on his patriotism and charity; and closed with an account of hte demonstration made in his honor by the students of Florence just while his real funeral was going on at Milan. These students arranged their own commemoration, at which D'Annunzio recited a poem of his own in honor of Verdi. He told too, of a great sculptor who was saved from military conscription by Verdi, and who had chiselled


a lifelike figure of his benefactor. Verdi had chosen to be buried by hind the "House of Rest," founded by himself, for old musicians.

At the close of Miss Zacharias's tribute to the great musician, Miss Haughton again favored us by singing "Stride la Vampa," form his Opera of "Trovatore."

Miss Nicholas then receited, by request, Owen Meredith's poem" "Aux Italiens;" which, as she said expressed the power of Verdi's music. Thanks were then given to Miss Zacharias, Chairman of the Committee for the meeting to our guests, and especially to Miss Haugton, who had contributed to our entertainment, and the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of May 7th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, met on Tuesday, May 7th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This was the annual business meeting for the reception of the Reports of the Chairmen of the Committee. There was no literary programme; and no visitors were present. The President called ht meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of April 30th. The President announced that the Board of Management had decided that the closing Salon of the year should take place on the 28th of May, the last Tuesday of that month.


instead of the first Tuesday in June, as in some former years; a By Law on this subject having been adopted nearly two years ago. She also announced another French lecture to be given before L'Alliance Francais of Baltimore on Saturday evening, May 11th, to which the Club as hosts of the Alliance, were expected to be present. The President also announced that the two succeeding meetings of our Club, were to be respectively, for the nomination and election of six officers and three directions. She ten announced the Committee of Election, taken--according to our rules, two from the Board of management,and three from the ranks of the Club. She appointed as this Committee: Miss Duvall, Chairman and Judge of Elections, Miss Whitney, Mrs. Jordan Stabler, Mrs. Uhler, and Mrs. Hill. The Treasurers Report is read on the day of election, and at the meeting for nominations, the librarian is expected to tell us something about the library of the Club.

The President requested that after the reports of Committees were read, the Chairmen of Committees would come to her desk and arrange the days of their meetings for the Club year 1901 and 1902.

The first Report given us was that of Miss Whitney, Chairman of the Committee on Fiction. She reported three meetings. At the first of these, on November 6th, 1900, there


were stories by Mrs. Percy Reese, miss Duvall, and Miss Whitney, and a "General Discussion," introduced by Mrs. R. K. Cautley. At the second meeting on January 8th, 1901, there was a "Reading" by Miss Perkins, from the latest book of our honorary member, Miss Grace Denio Litchfield, also stories by Miss Malloy and Miss Cloud; a Translation form the Italian, by Mrs. F. Tyson; and an Essay, going into the fairy lands of Dream and Fancy by Mrs. Cautley. AT the third meeting on Feburary 12th, 1901, there were some articles by Miss Duvall, Miss Cloud, and Ms. Cautley; and a Poem by Miss Lantz.                                                       

The Chairman of the Committee on Essays, Mrs. Cautley, reported two meetings. At the fist of these on December 11th, 1900, the contributors were Mrs. Sidney Turner, Mrs. McGaw, Miss Cullington, and Mrs. Cautley. At the second meeting, January 22nd, 1901, there were articles by Mrs. Early, and Miss Evelyn Early, and a General Discussion on the Power and Limitations of the Novel,--the participants being Miss Cullington, Mrs. Reese, Mrs. McGaw, Miss Middleton, Mrs. Bullock, and Miss Duvall.

Miss Duvall, Chairman of the Committee on Current Criticism, reported three meetings. At the first, on October 16th, 1900, there were Reviews by Miss Reese, Miss Duvall, and a notable Essay by Miss De Valin. At the second, on December 18th,--there were Reviews and Critical Essays by


Mrs. McGaw, Miss Cloud and Miss Duvall. At the third of these meetings, on April 9th, 1901, there were articles by Miss Cooper, Miss Duvall, and Miss Middleton; and poems by Miss Reese.

Mrs. Stabler, Chairman of the Committee on Unfamiliar Records, reported that her Committee had held preliminary meetings and had prepared two programmes. The first of these was given to the Club on January 15th, 1901, when there were articles by Miss Davis, Mrs. Edward Stabler, Mrs. Vanderpoel and Mrs. Hill. The second programme was presented on April 2nd, 1901, when there were articles by Mrs. Bullock, Mrs. Early, Mrs. Hill, and Miss Middleton.

Mrs. Tyson, Chairman of the Committee on Translation, was detained at home by the illness of her husband, but reported by letter the work done by her Committee, and the two meetings of November 20th, 1900, and March 26th, 1901. AT the first of these, translations were given by Miss Perkins, Mrs. Bullock, and Miss Mullin. At the second were enjoyed the translations of Mrs. Kintzing, Mrs. Latimer and Mrs. Tyson herself. It was announced to the Club that Mrs. Tyson's translation of the latest book of Mathilde Serrao of Naples had been accepted for publication in Littell's Living Age,--a matter of great interest to the Club,--especially, as the Littells are supposed to accept only the


best literature. The report of Mrs. Hill, Chairman of the Committee on "Colonial and Revolutionary History," recalled vividly to us the meeting of February 19th, 1901; a patriotic commemoration of the father of our country. Articles were read by Miss De Valin, Miss Middleton, Mrs. Stevens, and Mrs. Hill, and National Hymns were finely sung by Mrs. Mealy, Miss Rodgers, MR. Supplee and Mr. Malcolm W. Hill.

Mrs. Early, Chairman of the Committee of letters and Autographs, reported the meeting of February 26th, 1901, when she had presented a collection of Autographs to the Club, and articles were given by Mrs. Uhler, Miss Lizette Reese, Mrs. Bullock, Miss Middleton, and Miss Duvlal, Miss De Valin, and Mrs. Early.

Miss Brent, Chairman of the Committee on Archeology, reported the meeting of April 16th, 1901, to which the contributors were Mrs. Early, Mrs. Wylie and Miss Brent herself.

Miss Cloud, Chairman of the Committee on the Drama, recalled to us the well filled programme of December 4th, 1900, the contributors being Miss Duvall, Miss Perkins, Mrs. Delano Ames, Miss Malloy, Miss Cloud and Miss Reese.

The Chairman of the Committee on Education, Mrs Bullock, was not present, but her fellow members cannot forget the meeting of March 5th, 1901, when the subject of Religion in Education was introduced by Mrs. Bullock


herself, and ably discussed by several other members from almost all points of view,--excepting of course the in-religious one.

Miss Wylie, Chairman of the Committee on Art, reported two meetings. At the first on October 23rd, 1900, we were entertained by Mrs. Uhler, Mrs. Wylie and Miss Whitney. AT the second meeting on February 5th, 1901, there were articles by Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Cautley.

The report of Miss Zacharias, Chairman of the Committee on Music, was read by Miss Whitney. Miss Zacharias recalled the very successful musical programme at the reception given to Mr. Mabie on April 24th,  and reported also her musical Salon of of April 30th,--when musical articles were presented by herself and Mrs. Cautley, and Miss Cullington, with instrumental and vocal illustrations. She dwelt too on the advantages following the cultivation of musical literature.

Neither of the Chairmen of the Committee on Current Topics were present, but their meetings of November 27th, and January 29th, are not forgotten. WE have pleasant memories too of some occasional meetings accredited to no standing Committees, but under the direction of the President and special Chairmen.

The president spoke of the good work done this year, notwithstanding a great deal of sickness in the Club, and also of the


good work anticipated in the future, while we hold to our original aims and intentions.

She then read from a publication of the Century Company,--the publishers of "The Golden Book of Venice," the latest work of our former President, Mrs. Turnbull,--a series of criticisms giving high commendations to this work, and written by the most distinguished authors of our country. One of these,--speaking of Mrs. Turnbull's presentation of Venetian scenes to English speaking readers,--says that this book has done for Venice, what the Marble Fawn did for Rome, and what Romila did for Florence. These critiques were very gratifying to the many friends of our honored first President.

The President announced three changes in our Standing Committees: Miss Duvall takes the Chairmanship of the Committee on Fiction, and Miss Whitney takes that of the new Committee on Ethnology; and Mrs. Cautley that of the combined Committees of Criticism and Essays.

Miss Duvall in speaking of the work done this year in and for the Club, paid a grateful tribute to the energy, industry and that of our President, Mrs. Wrenshall.

The Chairmen of the Committees came to the President desk for congratulations, and the meeting adjourned.



Meeting of May 14th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, May 14th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. The second Tuesday of May being set apart for the nomination of six Officers and three Directors of the Club, the attendance was restricted to members alone. A quorum being present, the President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of May 7th.

The Librarian, Mrs. Percy Reese, then gave a short account of the Club Library. She reported that we have very good books, and that they are in good condition. Also, that the Library Committee--lately appointed, was continuing its efforts to enlarge our collection, especially in the department of the works of Maryland authors. Mrs. Reese then wen ton to speak of several of our books, which she had found to be of unusual interest,--such as: "How we Gained our Bible," by Paterson Smythe,--and Miss Shackelford's book,--"The Jew and the Gentleman." Mention was also made of the "Life of Luther Martin," and of "Poems," by Miss Owens, as of particular interest to Marylanders.

The President asked if the subject of providing good ink and pens for the use of the Club could come into the department of the Library Committee? Miss Duvall, and Miss


Brent offered to supply some small deficiencies, and humorous suggestions were made with regard to the wants of a Woman's Club.

No further incidental business being presented, the President called on the Election Committee to proceed with the subject of the meeting. Miss Whitney, Corresponding Secretary, proceeded to call the Roll; and twenty four members answered to their names. The ballots were then distributed by Miss Duvall and Miss Whitney. They were quickly filled up; and soon afterwards collected, and the Election Committee retired to count the votes. The President appointed as the Auditors of the Treasurer's Report: Mrs. Edward Stabler, and Miss Cooper. After a short time, passed chiefly in conversation, the Election Committee returned, and announced the result of the ballots.

For President: Mrs. Wrenshall: 23. Miss Brent: 1.
First Vice President, Mrs. Cautley: 23. Mrs. Bullock: 1.
Second Vice President, Mrs. Carter: 24.
Recording Secretary, Miss Crane: 23.
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Whitney: 23. Mrs. Uhler: 1.
Treasurer, Miss Middleton: 23. Miss Mullin: 1.


For Directors.

Miss Duvall, 22. Miss Brent, 9. Mrs. Uhler, 4. Mrs. Early, 3. Mrs. Beebe, 1. Miss Early, 15. Miss Zacharias, 9. Mrs. Wylie, 4. Mrs. Hill, 2. Miss Cloud, 1.

Mrs. Early withdrew her name as a candidate for Director. Several others withdrew from candidature. The President expressed her hope for a full attendance at the next meeting when the elective votes will be given and declared the meeting adjourned.


Meeting of May 21st, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, May 21st, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This was the Business Meeting held on the third Tuesday in May, and the regular occasion for the Annual Election of six Officer sand three


Directors of the Club.The President called the meeting to order, and the Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of May 14th. The President announced as the next exercise the reading of the Treasurer's Report. The Treasurer, Miss Middleton, gave a short eminently satisfactory statement of her department of our affairs: enumerating the different items of our expenses;--and closing with the expression of our gratitude for the good administration of our President and Board of management, which has kept us still in that circle of happy families who live well within their means.

The President spoke of Miss Middleton's able and accurate management of our financial affairs. She then requested Miss Cooper and Miss De Valin to act as auditors of the accounts of the Club while the votes of the members were being counted.

Mrs. Uhler, Chairman of the Committee on the Library, then gave her Report. She reminded us that this Committee had two objects in view, first--to build up the library,--and second, to complete its Collection of Maryland Authors. The late Dr. John Morris had a very large and comprehensive list of these authors, and their works; and our Committee expects to receive a copy of the written result of his work,--probably before the next meeting. Mrs. Uhler requested the cooperation of all our members in the good work of gaining information with


regard to Maryland authors, and of adding their works, and other good books to our Library. Mrs. Hill spoke of the book, "Wayside Flowers," by a daughter of former Senator Pearce of Maryland, and also of the works of Mrs. Emory, which are not in our Library. The question arose of having a printed form, or of a book plate, regularly designed, and perhaps engraved, to be placed in each book, for the identification and preservation of our literary property. The Chairman of the Library Committee promised that this subject should have full consideration. No further general business being proposed, Miss Duvall, Judge of Election requested that all members present would register their names, and receive their printed ballots, which was promptly done. Very soon afterwards the completed ballots were collected by Miss Whitney and Miss Duvall, and the Election Committee retired to count them. After a short intermission, the Committee returned and the result was announced. The six officers of the Club were unanimously reelected for the coming year. They were

President. Mrs. John C. Wrenshall.
First Vice President, Mrs. R. K. Cautley.
Second Vice President, Mrs. John M. Carter.
Recording Secretary, Miss Lydia Crane.
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Anne W. Whitney.
Treasurer, Miss Maria Middleton.


The three Directors elected for two years were

Miss Ellen Duvall, Miss Evelyn Early, Miss Emma Brent.

The harmonious election seemed to be accepted as a good omen for the coming year.

The President gave notice of the full meeting of the "Alliance Francais," to be held in our assembly room on Saturday evening, May 25th, at a quarter past eight o'clock; to which our members would be invited by cards went out by our own Corresponding Secretary. She spoke of the great success of the "Alliance Francais" in this country, and of the fact that our Club had greatly contributed to its success in this city.

The President then thanked Miss Duvall and the whole Election Committee for the work they had done for us:--and declared the meeting adjourned.

Meeting of May 28th, 1901.

The Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore met on Tuesday, May 28th, 1901, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. This meeting was the closing Salon of the Season of 1900 and 1901, and a musical programme was presented. The President called the meeting to order; and announced that, as the


preceding meeting had been one merely for business, the minutes would be omitted.

The exercises began with an Address by the President, containing a brief and comprehensive review of the work of last year. Mrs. Wrenshall began by thanking her fellow members, for the honor and expression of confidence she had received form them in having been for the fourth time elected their President. She added her congratulations for a year of great success in the history of the Club. There have been no resignations during the past season, former members are coming back, and new one shave been added to our numbers. We have held our won and  made progress in all the lines of work undertaken. Allusion was made to the recent remark of a prominent educator in this city, that "the Woman's Literary Club is a great power among us, and carries a wonderful influence for good."

Mrs. Wrenshall spoke too of the French Lectures given by our invitation in our assembly room before Le Cercle Francais, which have greatly contributed to the successful organization of L'Alliance Francais of Baltimore. She read a letter to herself from Mr. Julian Le Roy White, President of L'Alliance Francais, thanking the Woman's Literary Club for the hospitality and assistance given to this lately formed Alliance, which has contributed greatly to its successful organization. "It is pleasant," said our President, "to make friends


and to help them." She went on to speak of our Library Committee, and its good work, especially in making a collection of the books by Maryland authors,--in which she asked the cooperation of the members of the Club and their friends. Reference was made to our Salons, or social occasions,--especially to those receptions to which gentlemen as well as ladies are admitted. Mention was made of the wise management of our House Committee and Treasurer. A list of Magazines and papers, in which articles by our members have appeared, was given us, and notices of literary work done. Mrs. Wrenshall recommended us to hold in remembrance always the importance of our weekly meetings, even making some sacrifices to attend them regularly; reminding us that we love most these things which cost us some care or trouble "We gain," she said, "in strength of purpose, united with close thought and steady aims, and in the individuality which is the foundation of our own work and form which we can reach out and help others." She thanked her fellow members for the efficient manner in which they had sustained her during her presidency, and congratulated the Club on the good prospect of another successful year.

The programme next called for Music for piano and violin by Miss Stevenson and Miss Ruth Cowdrey. They gave us Wieniawski's "Chanson Polonaise," and Yradier's "La Paloma." This was followed by Songs: Godard's "L'Amour,"


and Bemberg's "Chant Hindou;"--sung by Miss Bloodgood. We had anticipated instrumental music also by Miss Rous; but that lady being ill, to our great regret, the President announced that we would change one pleasure to another, and requested Miss Lizette Reese to read Selections form her own poems. The selections given were "To a Town Poet," "Inspiration," "Growth,"--"The Shepherd of Druid Hill Park"--and "The Peach Trees in Kent,"--which were received with the applause always accorded to a favorite poet.

The closing musical exercise was Braga's "Angels' Serenade," sung by Miss Neilson, with piano accompaniment, and a Violin Obligato by Miss Ruth Cowdrey.

The President gracefully thanked our guests for the pleasure they had given us with their delightful music.

She invited our new members to sign the Constitution and Pledge of the Club. She then declared the meetings adjourned until October 1st, 1901.

The Programme of Topics and Committees was distributed to the members. The rest of the afternoon was passed with refreshments, and in social conversation by the members and their guests.


[1] This appears to be spelled 'beart-glass;' but bear-glass is a glass and mirror manufacturing brand?

[2] Written pagination ends with page 300, and the subsequent 5 pages are on other notebook paper that has been added to the end of this volume.

[3] Here marks the end of book six in box III. The season continues into book one in box IV.

[4] A kind of vine.

[5] Pages 53-54 (a single sheet of paper) were removed, clearly before this meeting was recorded because none of the minutes are missing.