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1892-1893 Meeting Minutes

SEPT. 27, 1892-MAY 20, 1893

Maryland Historical Society Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore Collection, MS 988, Box 3




1892-1893. 3rd Year.

Board Meeting, September 27th, 1892.

The 1st--preliminary--meeting of the Board of Management of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore for the third year, was held on Tuesday September 27th, at 5 o'clock in the afternoon, at No. 12 E. Centre Street. There were 7 members present: The President, first Vice President, Secretary, Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin], Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold] and Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace].

The President announced that, in view of the fact that the Academy of Sciences was expecting soon to change its quarters, some little uncertainty had been felt about our own future place of meeting; but that Dr. Uhler had informed her that we were expected to retain our room until he and his associates left the house they and we now occupy, and then to go with them. It is believed that they intend to sell the house occupied at present.

Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] then spoke of the cards to be issued at the beginning of the season, containing the programmes of meetings for the coming year. She said that, being in ignorance of our time of removal, we could not, at present, put the place as well as the time of our meetings upon these programmes. It was voted that the cards containing the lists of our meetings should be prepared with the time alone upon them.

The Secretary was directed to prepare,


and have these lists printed; but the first Vice President, who prepared them for the first year of the Club, generously undertook to relieve the Secretary of the same work this year also.

Miss Haughton also informed us that our Treasurer, Miss Thompson [Charlotte Dellacklot Thompson], was about to enter upon a collegiate course of study and would certainly resign her office in the Club.

The Secretary mentioned the subject of having her work divided with a Corresponding Secretary which was favorably received,--and deferred to a future meeting.

The President proposed that the first meeting of the season should be a Salon, to which all agreed. The question arose whether this action would alter our custom of making the last Tuesday in every month the occasion of a Salon?--but it was decided that it would not do so.

The President announced that Mrs. Fabian Franklin [Christine Ladd-Franklin] had returned from Europe, and wished to resume her membership in the Club, interrupted by her having spent the last year abroad. We were reminded of our action on the subject of any member who, after retiring from the privileges and duties of membership for a time, wished to resume them, that she should be voted upon by the Board of Management but would not have to come before the Club for final approval. Mrs. Franklin was then, without opposition, re-elected a member of the Club.


Mrs. Colvin mentioned the name of Miss Nicholas, who was elected a member a year ago; but who had never availed herself of the privileges of membership,--and wished to know if her election would hold good now? The case was deferred until we could know more certainly Miss Nicholas's wishes on the subject.

The President spoke of the proposed book of the Club, for the Columbian Exposition, to be issued to subscribers only--the estimated cost to be $2.00 or $1.50, according to the number of subscribers. She said that as for the circulars sent out on this subject had not met with sufficient returns to make it certain that the book would be printed. It was not intended in any case to draw upon the treasury, especially as our proposed change of quarters might bring upon us expenses now unknown;--even the question of furniture would have to be considered later. If the book can not be published without drawing on the treasury, it will have to be given up. It is not to be "on sale". bit as a Christmas gift book, or for our members and their friends, there may be a demand for subscriptions.

After some little conversation, the meeting adjourned.



18th Salon, October 4th, 1892.

The eighteenth Salon of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, being the first meeting of the third year, was held on Tuesday afternoon, October 4th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre St.

The president, after calling the meeting to order, announced that she wished to draw the attention of the Club to some matters of business before beginning the exercises on the programme. It was necessary to give notice of some propositions to be voted upon at the next meeting of the Club; and we had now a full meeting, for the purpose of giving such notification.

She then spoke of the notices sent to each member with regard to the book representing the work of our Club, to be sent to the Columbian Exposition at Chicago. Possibly some members had not received the notice. She said the proposed work was not to draw anything from the Club treasury,--which will, perhaps, have to meet some unusual demands this year,--and was not, by any means, an assessment upon the members. After reading from the notice sent out, she explained that the book is to be sold only by subscription,--the members may have friends who would like to subscribe to it,--that not less than an average number of five (5) copies to each member is required to bring it out creditably--"an édition de luxe"--; and that is to pay the simple cost, with no advertising or publisher's expenses. Whether the price will be two dollars ($2.00) or less will depend on the number of subscriptions taken. Of


course, some members can not or ought not to take it at all. There had been one hundred seventy two (172) subscriptions,--fifty six (56) members having responded for an average of three (3) copies a piece. Responses have also been received from members who have been asked to send their literary and artistic contributions to the committee for publication in the proposed book. The artists belonging to the Club will probably illustrate it thus adding to its beauty and value. The publishers' estimates have been obtained, and the committee can do no more at present. Responses can be made to the president,--or to any officer of the Club.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] rose to say that Mrs. William Reed, who has charge of the Maryland department of Woman's Work at the Chicago Exposition, asks for collections of the works of Maryland female authors,--and considers the Woman's Literary Club the place to come to make this request. She wishes a response as soon as possible, in order to know how much space to ask for. Other states are taking up the space now. Mrs. Graham said that Mrs. Reed had spoken of the apathy and want of responsiveness shown by the women of Maryland with regard to the women writers of their own state. The President responded to Mrs. Graham's statement; but it was concluded that nothing definite could be done at this meeting.

The President said that she wished to give


notice of two proposed Amendments to our Constitution,--very important, and calculate to further the interests of the Club,--to be mentioned now for consideration and discussion, and to be voted on at our next meeting. She quoted Article 7th, Section 1st of our Constitution: "On Amendments." She told us the story of that ancient Greek colony in which the laws were venerated and implicitly obeyed; but where any citizen could propose an amendment, and, if he could could convince his fellow citizens of its worthiness, have it adopted. But, in presenting his amendment, the proposer was obliged to wear a singular costume, one feature of which was--a coil of rope around the neck. If the amendment was approved, it was to the honor of the proposer;--but, if he failed to have his amendment adopted, he was immediately--mercifully prevented from ever failing again. But our laws are not so stringent as those of Zaleucus 25 hundred years ago; and we are not so fatally obedient to them as he is reported to have been.

The first proposed amendment was the one suggested by the newly elected Secretary last spring, and postponed to the present time; with regard to the appointment of a corresponding Secretary, to do part of the work faithfully and successfully done by Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely] for the last two years. We were reminded that she had shown herself willing and anxious to do all that belonged to the office, and the Club was congratulated on having had from its beginning


such a secretary. But some things which have been done by the President, and some which have been necessarily left out, seem now to belong to the Secretary's work. Miss Crane [Lydia Crane], the former secretary of the "Eight o'clock Club", was unable to attempt to do the work done by Miss Ridgely; and the appointment of a corresponding secretary, who could assist the President, and undertake the large and growing correspondence of the Club, seemed to be necessary now.

We were reminded that there is no clause in our Constitution providing for the filling of vacancies in the Board of Management for an unexpired term, and it is proposed that the President of the Club shall be given a power like that belonging to the Governor of our own state, and very generally conferred upon the Executive officers of societies resembling our own. A vacancy might frequently be filled by a special election, but sometimes this is impossible,especially if it should occur in the summer time, when the members are scattered in different directions. A vacancy in the office of president could be filled by the vice president, but one in that of secretary, or, still more, in that of treasurer, would be of grave consequence to the business or financial welfare of the Club. It is not to be supposed that the Club would elect to the office of president one in whom it had not such full confidence as to give her the power to fill a vacancy for an unexpired portion of the Club year.


The two suggested amendments will be proposed and voted upon at a subsequent meeting.

The President then read a letter from Miss Thompson [Charlotte Dellacklot Thompson], the very efficient Treasurer of the Club, resigning her office, giving us her reason that she was about to begin a regular collegiate course of study, and had gone to enter Bryn Mawr College[ER1] . A further letter to Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] was read, sending vouchers and letters from her bankers to the President and first Vice President. The President said that this vacancy might now be regularly filled, but that the whole question of Miss Thompson's successor could be deferred until the meeting of next Tuesday.

Mrs. Turnbull then announced that the first article of the programme related to a subject about which we shall certainly hear much during the coming year. It was a reading by Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord] from her "Drama of Christopher Columbus",--the Man of Destiny." She read parts of the 3rd and 5th Acts of her Drama. First, showing Columbus before the Junta at Grenada, pleading for the means and the authority to carry out his great ideas, and plans "for the glory of the nation and the Church". Also, a love scene between Columbus and Beatrice Enriquez,--in a Moorish mosque, turned Christian Church,--in the midst of which the Queen sends to demand his presence immediately; and the conflict is depicted between love and ambition. Then Columbus is shown before Ferdinand and Isabella, defending the theory of the spherical shape


of the earth; quoting Pliny Esdras, and King David's Psalms--followed by lively discussions. Then Columbus on the voyage, with his mutinous and rebellious crew and followers,--and his own marvelous hope and courage. Then the vindication of the great discovery, and the scene closing with the "Gloria in Excelsis". Mrs. Lord could, of course, only read extracts from her drama. We can hardly hear too much of him, to whom, as he said, were given "the keys of those gates of the ocean which were fast closed with mighty chains".

Mrs. Turnbull announced that the second article of the programme was; "A Winter in Germany," by Mrs. Fabian Franklin [Christine Ladd-Franklin];--a sketch on a subject on which we would be glad to hear a long essay. It was chiefly on the educational advantages given by the German Universities to women students; though we were told that most of the German Universities admit women not as members, but as guests. Also, that some women, finding themselves unable to gain the privileges they wished in Germany, went to the University of Zurich, whose provisions for them were not of the limited sort. Still there are great advantages for women in some of the German Universities from lectures etc.; in Leipzig and Göttingen for instance, and they are created with courtesy and respect;--but degrees are not conferred upon them. There is, we were told, a decided change of opinion on this subject, within the last few years. It is argued that the


higher education will open more avenues of occupation for German women. Professors often live in luxury; and, dying, leave their daughters poor enough to "take in sewing", and to overcrowd the few paths of money making open to women in the Fatherland. It is argued that this class of distressed gentlewomen will be especially benefitted by unlimited educational privileges.

Mrs. Franklin also spoke of the changes she saw in her [?life] abroad last year from the Europe of ten years ago. She was struck particularly by the ubiquitous advertising indulged in, even to a greater extent than in America. It was almost impossible to see the names of the railway stations; and, even at Oxford, the collegiate walls were plastered over with announcements of the virtues of soaps, and other useful or ornamental materials;--even those time-honored walls being not "above the reach of sacrilegious[1] hands".

The next article of the programme consisted of two published poems by Miss Bennett [Sarah H. Bennett]. The first was called. "Eventide,"--setting of that true-restful hour when, if ever, Nature and the soul of man should be at peace. The second was; "To a Poet",--charging him to "keep nothing hid" of his gift, but to approve himself "the true interpreter to God."

Mrs. Turnbull[2] called our attention to the name on the programme, and said that when we had seen the poems of "S. Elgar Benet" in the magazines, we--probably--not all of us, had


known that they were written by our Miss Bennett,--our fellow-member of our Woman's Literary Club.

Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] then called our attention to the approaching lectures of the Reverend Mr. Kinkus, on the "Rise of the Drama".

Refreshments were served, and the meeting ended with pleasant social conversation.

Board of Management Meeting, October 11th, 1892.

A meeting of the Board of Management of the Woman's Literary Club was held on Tuesday October 11th, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

There were seven members present. The President, First Vice President, Second Vice President, Secretary, Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold], Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] and Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely].

The President called attention to Mrs. Graham's [Elizabeth Turner Graham] proposal at our last general meeting (Salon), with regard to a collection of the works of the women-writers of Maryland to be sent to the Woman's Department of the Columbian Exposition at Chicago. The President also read a letter from Mrs. William Reed, who has charge of the Maryland portion of the Woman's Department,--Mrs. Graham being one of her assistants.

Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat] and Miss Szold discussed the question whether the work requested to be done could be done creditably; and whether it would be well to attempt it in the


very short time left to us, unless it can be done creditably.

Some mention was made of valuable literary work done, by both men and women in Maryland; and some general expression given to the State pride felt by all of us, in connection with this matter.

To the question whether a list of the works of all known Maryland authors was obtainable?--Mrs. Sioussat answered that a complete list had been made by the Revered Dr. John Morris; and, no doubt could be readily obtained by us. Mrs. Sioussat was requested by the President to see Dr. Morris, and learn his views on this subject. After we had ascertained that the material for doing the work proposed was near at hand, the question was [?set] before us; whether it was possible now to do it well?--or whether we ought to undertake such a responsibility? It was said that it might have been easily done in the summer time, if we had them understood what was to be requested of us, now. A letter from Miss King [Elizabeth T. King] to the President on the subject in hand was also read to us.

Mrs. Sioussat said that she would do anything to rescue from the dust of oblivion the memory of any Maryland woman who would reflect credit upon our State[ER2] . The labor of selection, of preparing and comparing the available material seemed to all of us almost impossible in the haste unavoidable at the pres-


ent time.

The time for the general meeting of the Club having arrived--and passed--we were obliged to postpone further consideration of the subject.


60th General Meeting [Oct. 11, 1892]

The 60th General Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday Afternoon, October 11th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

Several guests were introduced to the members.

The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], called the meeting to order, and the Secretary read the Minutes of the former meeting on October 4th.

The President announced that the Programme next called for: "Business of the Club"; and that the first business in order was;--The question of creating the office of Corresponding Secretary of the Club;--of which notice had been given at the last meeting.

A resolution was offered by Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat] to add to Article II of our Constitution--On Officers--a Section providing for a Corresponding Secretary, who should be the President's assistant, and should be appointed by the President.


Mrs. Sioussat being absent, the resolution was read by Miss Haughton, who moved its adoption. Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] seconded the motion.

Miss Edith Duer made some very decided objections to the motion; and afterwards proposed to amend it by omitting the words "appointed by the President", and substituting for them, "elected by the Club."

Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] spoke in support of Mrs. Sioussat's resolution.

Miss Fannie Hoffman [Fanny Hoffman] spoke in agreement with Miss Duer, and in opposition to the resolution.

After some discussion, a vote was taken "<em viva voce /em>, which did not seem to be definite or satisfactory, and a standing vote was called for. This resulted in 14 for and 14 against the resolution. We were them reminded that a two-thirds vote was necessary to amend our Constitution. The resolution had failed.[ER3] 

Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely], in a very few words, said that we ought to have a Corresponding Secretary, but that it seemed to her desirable to have that officer elected in the same manner as the other members of the Board of Management.

Mrs. Griffin [Rebecca Griffin] spoke briefly to the same effect.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] suggested that the President might nominate the Corresponding Secretary--might give us one, or more, names, on which we could vote.

We were reminded that the President of the United States appoints his assistants,


--his Cabinet--who are afterwards voted upon, and confirmed, or rejected, by the Senate.

The President said that she had often received offers of assistance in Club work, from members of the Club who had young children, or other pressing home claims;--consequently she had felt a delicacy in accepting their aid. While any member would be acceptable to her, she would be glad to have chosen for this place one whom she could feel always willing to ask for assistance in her work. She was also thinking of providing for the comfort of her successor--in this respect.

Mrs. Graham said that, as we were a society of women, we might as well do as other women are accustomed to do. She then gave us some account of the "Association for the Advancement of Women, and of the official position of its Corresponding Secretary.

A suggestion was made for a special meeting to consider the subject before us,--which was not acted upon.

Miss Ridgely moved to add to Article II, Section 1st, of our Constitution, On Officers, that there shall be a Recording Secretary, and a Corresponding Secretary; also making these additions in Section 2nd, of the same Article, to the list of officers to be elected by ballot; and to amend Section 5th, so as to provide for the division of duties of the Recording and Corresponding Secretaries.


Miss Duer seconded this motion.

After some discussion, and proposed amendments, the vote was taken; resulting in 12 votes in favor of the motion to 15 against it.

After further discussion, participated in by Mrs. Griffin, Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace], Miss King [Elizabeth T. King], Miss Duer and others, Miss Bond moved an amendment to the Constitution providing that a Corresponding Secretary shall be nominated by the President, and voted upon by the Club.

Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock] seconded the motion. A vote was taken, resulting in 20 votes for the motion to 11 against it,--still not a two-thirds vote, even though some of the members counted, and they thought, 21 votes in favor to 11 against the motion.

The President, as well as some other members, being uncertain with regard to the counting of the votes on this motion, made the request that it be taken over again by a standing vote; but this proposal was not agreed to, nor, apparently, considered.

On a counting of the members there was said to be 34 present, and, consequently, that all could not have voted.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] made a motion, resembling Miss Bond's, providing that the President shall make the nominations for Corresponding Secretary, which shall be voted on--by ballot.

Mrs. Easter [Marguerite E. Easter] seconded the motion.


The question arose whether the same motion could be put forward over again--after failing?

Mrs. Graham said that she had added the words: "by ballot" to Miss Bond's motion,--consequently, it was not the same.

Mrs. Graham and Mrs. Turnbull called to our attention that Mrs. Lake [Margaret Lake], having come in late, had not understood Miss Bond's motion, and that her vote had been lost to the majority. The question was asked whether Mrs. Lake did not have the right to have her vote counted?

It was not decided; nor did Mrs. Graham's motion reach a vote. Some of our members had left the room; and the President announced that the time allotted for this meeting had more than passed away;--and that it would be necessary to defer the whole business on hand to our next meeting. It was certainly a matter for regret that the pressure of business obliged us entirely to omit the two literary articles of this afternoon's programme:--the first, on "Women as guardians of the Public Health", by Dr. Ella V. Mark [Dr. Ella D. Mark]: and the second: "Love's House,--A Thought Materialization," by Mrs. George Whitelock.

But, as we are often told; "Business is business", and must come "before pleasure". Perhaps we were--all of us--a little oblivious


of that maxim of Lord Chesterfield that, "Dispatch[3] is the soul if business". Yet may we not hope that the pleasure too is only deferred?--that we shall not only soon gain our Corresponding Secretary, but that Dr. Mark will yet help us to be better guardians of the public health than ever before; and that "Love's House" will some day materialize before us, under the wand of Mrs. Whitelock's effective fancy?



61st General Meeting. [Oct. 18, 1892]

The 61st general meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, October 18th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

The President called the meeting to order; and the Secretary read the Minutes of the previous meeting on October 11th.

The President announced that the next meeting would be a Salon; and that there would be no regular programme on that occasion, but that we should make it in some sense a Tennyson Memorial meeting; that in justice to ourselves, we should not pass over silently the death of the Poet Laureate of England,--of


whom we are, no doubt, all sincere lovers. She therefore proposed that those of us who felt so inclined should make selections of our favorite poems or extracts, and read them to the club. To avoid confusion or repetition those who intended to read were requested to send to the President or Secretary the exact titles of the poems selected; and, those chosen should have been already appropriated. The best way to commemorate the great master would be to read his own words, and let him speak to us again, with the voice that can not die.

Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] then placed on the President's table an exquisite vase,--a present to the Club--from Miss Grace Denio Litchfield, an honorary member, whose interest in the Club is highly appreciated[4] by all of us. A vote of thanks and appreciation was passed unanimously; which the Secretary was requested to convey to Miss Litchfield.

An invitation to an artist's studio was given to us, and a notice read of Professor Daves's Literary Class.

The President recalled to us that there was some business before the Club. "But, she said, as the especial cause for our existence as a Club is literary work, and business is only auxiliary to it, literary work ought not to be crowded out for business;--each


should be kept it its proper sphere, to do otherwise would be a fault in us. Our programmes are arranged for weeks beforehand; and a failure today would make a change until the middle of March.

A motion was made that today out former order should reversed; or, rather, that all our business should be simply adjourned until 5 o'clock;--our literary exercises coming before that hour, and business after it. The proposal was agreed to.

The President announced that a valuable Article, by Miss Mary Wilcox Brown, on: "Genoa,--Its Economic Condition in the Time of Columbus", would have to be omitted. Miss Brown was unable to be present, and it was beyond the power of anyone to read the manuscript without some previous acquaintance with it; and there was no time to transfer it to a type-writer,--consequently it must be lost to us.

The first Article was announced as by Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Siousssat]. It was on "A Century of Production in France". Our Essayist spoke of Political Economy as: The Science which investigates the Production of Wealth, and the Laws which govern it. She spoke of land, labor and capital; especially of land, going back to the point of view of the earlier races of the world; and, also, of the struggle for the possession of land, from very ancient times to very modern ones. Then of the wonder power of the


French people for recovering from disaster.

The time the particularly reviewed covered rather more than a century,--beginning just before the great Revolution. It had been, she said, the supposition that the Revolution created the peasant proprietors. But the modifications which led to the destruction of the feudal system began, not with the Revolution, but with the Crusades. Lords emancipated their serfs for the good of their own souls; and the peasant who had been living on black bread and roots began to have a new value, even before legislative assemblies. But that France, with her eight millions of freeholders now, has made great progress since 1780.

Our essayist spoke of the pen-picture given of the ruin and desolation of that time, when it was said that "if men and women ate grass and hay, what was left for the cattle?" The account was written by an English squire, Arthur Young, who, despite his insularity, as we might think, was the agent of a holy propagandism in the agriculture of France. "In 1801 the French Directory ordered the whole of Arthur Young's agricultural writings to be translated into French."

But even before the Revolution peasant-proprietors had begun to contribute to the wealth of the country.


Mrs. Sioussat told us of the vintage industry and of how, twenty five years ago, the vines were attacked by an insect whose redoubtable life was carried by the winds from one province to another. But the wines were replanted, and the brave struggle went on till the losses were repaired. Then how the silk industry began to fail, from a silk worm pest. But Pasteur taught the value of breeding only from healthy moths; and it has been said that the ribbon trade alone could pay a very large proportion of the war indemnity. Also, that the Eifel tower, with two stories added, in silver, might scarcely represent the savings funds of the French people. That the progress of the future is unimaginable, and that France is truly "the school master of the world in thrift."

The next Article on our programme was by our former Vice President, Mrs. Hester Crawford Richardson [Hester Crawford Dorsey Richardson], and called: "The Higher Education of Women, Applied to Philanthropy". It was kindly and appreciatively read by Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold].

It began by speaking of one of the promising signs of the times,--a sort of new religion,--which allows the woman of the higher education to mingle with her unfortunate sisters without soiling her own robes. The graduates of Smith, and other colleges, are engaging in work like that of Toynbee Hall in London. Some devote a month at a time to this work; some


pass the summer vacation among the inmates of the homes they have provided for their less fortunate sister; interesting and instructing them,--they do not say reforming them,--and giving them nobler ideas than they have any chance to meet with elsewhere; calling them friends, and forming constant friendships with them. This is the higher practical socialism carried out by the College and University Settlements. The effect of the higher education is not girlish sentimentalism, but good work for the practical education of others. The women and the men who engage in this work are successful in the moral and political training of the denizens of the slums; they are not disgusted by these people, they do not make them feel that they are to be reformed? We were reminded of Walter Besant's writings on this subject. We were told that the higher education has brought out a sincere enthusiasm to work for Philanthropy. We were reminded that this College and University Extension is spreading to the South;--and the Article closed with the expression[5] of the belief that, from our Woman's Literary Club, the same spirit is moving us to action: not, of course as a Club, but as individual women.

All of the Literary Programme of the meeting that could be given, being now over, the President announced that the adjourned business of the Club would


now be taken up.

Mrs. Sioussat moved to proceed with the business left unfinished at the last meeting; which motion was seconded, and followed by an affirmative vote.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] rose to withdraw her motion regarding the Corresponding Secretary, offered as a substitution for Miss Bond's resolution, which latter had, she told us, in her belief, received a vote of 21 to 11.

The question arose whether, accordig to Parliamentary law, a motion made, but not voted upon, at a former meeting, was still before the house?

The President recalled to our recollection that a motion had not been made for a reconsideration of the voting of last Tuesday.

After some discussion, a motion to reconsider the vote of the last meeting was made; and decided in the affirmative, by a <em viva voca /em> vote.

Miss Bond read her resolution, providing "that a Corresponding Secretary shall be nominated by the President, and voted for by the Club",--with the amendment, adding the words;--"by ballot".

Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock] asked if the Corresponding Secretary would have a vote in the Board of Management?

Some discussion arose as to whether this question made a separate resoltuion necessary?--also whether Miss Bond's resolution was an amendment to any other resolution?


The Secretary was asked to read from her Minutes of the previous meeting, the part relating to Miss Bond's resolution. It recorded that the resolution was proposed as an Amendment to the Constitution.

The question of a separate resolution seems to have been dropped;--probably because the Article of the Constitution to be amended enumerates the members of the Board of Management; to whom it was now proposed to add the Corresponding Secretary.

A standing vote was taken on Miss Bond's resolution--providing for the nomination and election of a Corresponding Secretary--which resulted, on being counted, in 30 votes in favor to 6 against it. Carried.

A correction was afterwards particularly requested by one member which would have made the vote 31 to 5.

Miss Milnor [Mary Worthington Milnor] then offered a resolution that the Executive Board shall have power to fill any vacancies that shall occur in their own body during the Club year. The question arose whether this shall be done from the members of the Board?--or from the general membership of the Club?

Mrs. Graham moved, as an amendment, that vacancies in the Board of Management shall be filled from the ranks of the Club.

Miss Haughton seconded this motion; and it received an affirmative vote.


After some discussion a vote was taken on Miss Milnor's resolution--as amended--, on the filling of vacancies in the Board of Management; and it was carried; with only 2 votes against it.

Mrs. Graham then made the motion to proceed to the election of Corresponding Secretary.

Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgley] said that the duties of the two Secretaries should be carefully defined. There was some discussion on this point, and proposals to refer it to a committee.

The President spoke of the ability, leisure and other qualifications necessary to the work of a Corresponding Secretary.

Miss Hoffman [Fanny Hoffman] gave us some information gained from her own experience in work of this kind.

Miss Ridgely, who, for two years, has successfully combined for us the offices of both Recording and Corresponding Secretaries, spoke of the work to be done; and said that the Reconding Secretary should have charge of the Minutes and the Records of the Club and that the Corresponding Secretary should notify new members of their election, issue notices, and conduct the correspondence of the Club.

The President agreed to this statement of the division of labor between the two secretaries, which was afterwards put in the form of a motion and recived an affirmative vote,--with no opposition.


Mrs. Graham's resolution to nomiate and elect a Corresponding Secretary having been agreed to, the President now sent her nomination to be read by the Secretary. It was of Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud].

A ballot was taken, and 30 votes were cast, of which Miss Cloud received every one,--and was declared elected, unanimously.

The President said that it had been difficult to make a choice; but that Miss Cloud's experience of similar work to that required, her interest in the Club, and her regular attendance--except when prevented by more pressing home duties--,had combined to influence her decision.

The Meeting adjourned. The new incumbent of the new office received many congratulations from her fellow members.

There was much discussion at this meeting; and some apparent by irregular motions, difficult to record or to remember. One member did propose that all motions should be reduced to writing, and passed up to be read by the Secretary;--but another exclaimed: "Then we shall never get home this evening!"

That we did "get home"--so far as known--in sufficiently good time; after having elected a very acceptable Corresponding Secretary,--after having defined the duties of the two secretaries,--after having empowered the Board of Managment to fill vacancies in its own membership, occurring during the Club yet,--we have to thank our members who discussed the


proposed changes in our affairs,--and voted, conscientiously, for our against them.



Board of Management Meeting. [Oct. 25, 1892]

A meeting of the Board of Management of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 25th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

There were nine members present: The President,--two Vice Presidents,--two Secretaries,--Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin],--Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely],--Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace],--and Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold].

The President called the meeting to order, and reminded us that we had been called together to take measures to fill the vacant position of Treasurer of the Club.

Several names were suggested for the place; including those of Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman],--Mrs. Tutwiler [Julia R. Tutwiler], and others.

The name of Miss Milnor [Mary Worthington Milnor], suggested by the President, seemed to meet the general approval; and she was appointed,--without opposition.

The President called attention to the request of Dr. Uhler to confer with some representatives of the Woman's Literary Club, with regard to the room we are expected to occupy in the new quarters of the Academy of Sciences. She spoke of the work to be done, which would make our co-operation necessary,--the painting, papering, etc. It was generally agreed that we wished the room we were


to use in future to be at least as well decorated and furnished as the one we now occupy,--more so, if possible.

The President went on to tell us of Dr. Uhler's having expressed great pleasure and satisfaction with regard to the relation of the Woman's Literary Club and the Academy of Sciences, and his hope that they might be permanent ones.

It was due to the Academy of Sciences to let them know our wishes on the subject in hand; and also to give information as soon as possible of how much of the financial portion of the newly assumed responsibilities of the Academy we would be able and willing to share. In view of this last matter, an effort had been made for some time to keep our treasurey as full as possible under existing circumstances.

With regard to the painting, papering, etc., we would wish to preserve harmony with the Club colors and decorations.

The question of furiture was also to be considered.

A Committee to confer with members of the Academy, and also to make arrangments with regard to painting, papering, etc., was appointing, consisting of Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] and Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud]. The name of Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] was suggested, and it was added to the Committee. Adjourned.




19th Salon. [Oct. 25, 1892]

The 19th Salon of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, October 25th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], announced that this would be a Tennyson Memorial Meeting;--that a bust of the poet in our room had been decorated by loving hands with a laurel wreath; also, that one of our members, Mrs. Early [Maud Graham Early], had sent us his picture, as a gift to the Club;--and that we were to listen to the reading of his own words, chosen by appreciative lovers of his works.

She told us that the laurel wreath was afterwards to be palced on the grave of him whom we might call our own poet, Sidney Lanier, a lover and kindred spirit of the poet we were now commemorating.

Mrs. Turnbull then went on to speak in fitting terms of the late poet laureate of England; of the reverent homage we pay to him as our own household friend; who, in these early days of loss, is best honored when we feel that he has not departed from us, but that our eyes are only too dim to se the links of that great chain that leads up to true life and true knowledge. That across his noble pages the great angel has writen "[?Finis]"; but that he, who has moved others to nobler life, has gone up higher to live with God and god-like men.

Miss Crane [Lydia Crane] then read Mrs. Lord's [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord] poem on "Whittier and Tennyson",--setting of the two


deaths so near in time, and of the two poet souls--

"--from East and West,

Together entering into glorious rest."

Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] next read Tennyson's poem: "Wages,"--the "wages, not of glory, nor of dust,"--"not of a golden grove" nor "a summer sky", but--"the wages of going on, and not to die!"

Miss Piggott [Margaret Moore Piggot] then read to us: "The Passing of Arthur", "Morte d'Arthur,"--that old and still new favorite of many of us.

Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese] next gave us, from "In Memorium," Section 53rd;--and surely her reading from the first lines:--

"Oh yet we trust that somehow good

Will be the final goal of ill,--"

--to the closing ones,--

"I can but hope that good shall fall

At last--far off--at last, to all,

And every winter change to spring."

--struck the answering chord in our heaarts. Miss Reese also read to us: "In the Garden at Swainston."

Miss Grace then read, in place of Mrs. Hoblitzell [Eliza W. Hoblitzell], who was not able to be present with us, an Article from "English Stems", by a Mr. Ward, written in 1853. He wrote of "Events in Greece"; and, in that connection, spoke of the "noble pilgrim" to Greece of thirty years before, and of the motives which inspired his sacrifice to that struggling nation. But he tells us that "ignorance of Byron is now considered a becoming thing;


and the attempt is made to life Mr. Alfred Tennyson into his place;"--also, that "the insipid writings of Mr. Tennyson are read instead of the inspired poems of Byron."

At the time this was written In Memoriam had known only three years of fame. Now, it has had more than forty; and surely, the critics of today are in advance of Mr. Ward.

The Criticism was followed by the reading of four selections from In Memoriam: [?telling] of "the loss 'that' is common to the race";--and of the "trembling fingers weaving the holly round the Christman hearth";--and of the voices than sang of those--

"--who do not die,

Nor lose their mortal sympathy."

Miss [?Benat] read to us from the same poem, Section 50,--telling us that our loved ones,--"when we climb or fall," can "watch like God",--

"--With other, larger eyes than ours

To make allowance for us all."

The President said that In Memoriam had evidently gone home to many hearts; and many of us seemed to have chosen our favorite portions of it for this occasion.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] then, by request, gave us her poem called "Gone". The poem tells of the poet going up "on the moonbeam's shining tide", "as a bridegroom to his bride"; and calls on the songsters "here below"--to--"sing across the tide of woe".--for that "Death, for our living gives us Life".


Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] then gave us that very late poem of the old poet,--"Crossing the Bar",--in which looking up to the--

Sunset and evening Star!"--

he says:--

"I shall meet my Pilot face to face,

When I have crossed the Bar."

Mrs Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] then gave us, very approximately, Sir Edwin Arnold's poem in answer to "Crossing the Bar", beginning with--

"No [?moaning] of the Bar,"--

--and closing with--

"Christ, they Pilot, speaking peace to thee!"

It was prefaced by an account of a day spent with Tennyson, a year ago.

Our President also read Dr. Van Dyke's poem,--"In Lucem Transitus", telling that--"Here passed a soul--that grew to music, toll it was with God in tune."

A request was made that the Introduction to In Memoriam should be read;--which was done by Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham]. Our meeting might have seemed incomplete, if that had been left out.

After a few more of the most beautiful lines from the same poem;--Mrs. Turnbull told us that we had to regret the absence of Miss Adams, who could have given us some of the pleasant experiences of her sister, Mrs. Fields;--the latter lady having twice visited Tennyson in his own home.

Mrs. Turnbull also read to us the last


poem of Tennyson, written about ten days before his death.

She also reminded us of a poem by his wife, Lady Tennyson, which had been read to us on a former occasion.

Mrs. Tait [Anna Dolores Tiernan Tait] gave us an account of having known a brother of the great poet; and of having once when very young, looked upon the poet himself,--with an admiration, that was something like adoration.

We seemed to have spent much of our afternoon in the presence of the death poet; but I think we felt, as an older poet has said:

"Nothing is here for tears, northing to wail,--

--nothing but well and fair.

And what may quiet us in a death so noble."

The remainder of the evening was spent in conversation around the pleasant tea-tables that our House Committee had prepared for us.

Board of Management Meeting. November 1st, 1892

A Business Meeting of the Board of Management of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, November 1st, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street. There were present 6 members:--The 1st Vice President,--2 Secretaries,--Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely],--Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace],--and Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold].

The President being absent, the 1st Vice


President called the Meeting to order.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of three former Executive Meetings.

She also read the Declination of Miss Milnor [Mary Worthington Milnor] of the office of Treasurer, to which she had been appointed, by the Board of Management.

The Vice President said that the President had wished to send us her approval of the appointment of Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman] to the vacant office.

Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud] made the nomination;--Miss Grace seconded it, and Mrs. Haman was appointed,--without opposition,--to the office of Treasurer.

The Recording Secretary was requested to notify Mrs. Haman of the action of the Board of Management;--and the Meeting adjourned.


62nd General Meeting. [Nov. 1, 1892]

The 62nd General Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, November 1st, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

Several visitors were present; among others, Miss Emily Mason and Miss Rowland.

The President, being, to our great regret, unable to be presentm her place was filled by the First Vice President, who called the meeting to order; and presided.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the two last preceeding Meetings on October 18th and 25th.

The first Article on our programme was given by Mrs. Gaston Manly, and was a "Review of Samborn's


Mexican Painting and Painters."

She said we can have only an outline of the treasures of Mexican Art; but that even this may be acceptable,--at least, to those who are not specially art--students. That it has been said that the short Story is a demand of the Pullman-car period. But the short Story has come to stay,--indeed, the short method in everthing.

She told us of Dr. Samborn's having devoted seven months in the year 1883 to travelling in Mexico; while pursuing the study of Mexican Art. Also of the collection of eighty paintings, as well as of other artistic productions, which has had brought away with him, and which are now in Philadelphia.

Mrs. Manly went on to speak of Mexican Art in general; of the early and original Art developments, in painting, feather-work, etc. of the Aztec Indians; to which Cortez and his followers and successors have borne witness; and of the wealth of Art in the Colonial period--native and imported.

She spoke of the Art School, established eleven years after the conquest; and told us that the publication of the first book in America was in Mexico. Also, that, after three long centuries of Spanish rule and misrule, came the Revolutionary period, a time of poverty and disorder, when many valuable paintings were sent to Europe; and are there still.

Many of Dr. Samborn's collection had been found in strange places; but many such works had been preserved by the clergy, and had adorned sacristies and convent reflectories. An original Murillo was found in a riding school; and a painting of the "Entombment,"


of rare value, in a village refectory.

Our Reviewer went on to tell us of the "Virgin of Guadalupe," painted in 1531. It was the copy of what was said to have been a miraculous appearance on the mantle of a priest, afterwards transferred to a church. A native artist was emplyed to paint a copy of it for the Pope. Mrs. Manly showed us a print of this beautiful painting, kindly furnished by Dr. Samborn.

She told us some of the poetical legends of Santa Rosa of Peru, the first American canonized[6] saint, who sang responsive hymns of praise with the birds, and seemed to talk with the flowers.

She also told us of the remarkable Mexican woman--artist and poet--Doña Juana Iñez de la Cruz, who died in 1699.

She reminded us that the Art of a nation has a profound significance for us, when we study its histroy. Perhapts it may have the same when we try to study its destiny also.

The next Article on our programme was a Review by Mrs. Miller of the late German novel, "Ground Arms,"--"Die Waffen Nieder"--, of which a German critic is reported to have said: It is not a book, it is an event."--

Mrs. Miller told us that this novel is said to have produced as great a sensation in Germany as "Uncle Tom's Cabin" once did in America. The Author--Baroness Von Suthner, a noble Austrian woman,--had been known before this publication as the writer of two tender and witty society novels. But here she treats of the realities of war: making them tremendously


real. With steady purpose her heroine devotes her life to the stirring question of a future of stable peace and the abolition of standing armies. At the International Peace Congress in Rome, the brave Austrian lady stood on the rostrum, like Corinna, to advance her views.

We were reminded that our histories are filled with long lists of battles, and acts of individual heroism, in war; that our novels and poems--even the books for boys and girls--are still tending to the development of a war loving race. But surely, we can "mentally shake hands" with the Baroness Von Suthner, and feel in full sympathy with the poet we were commemorating two weeks ago today when he calls on the Christmas bells to--

"Ring out the thousand wars of old,

Ring in the thousand years of peace!"

Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese] then spoke to us on "Open Air Novels." She said it was often a relief to the weariness of those of us who spend much of our time in doors, to read with full enjoyment the books that take us into the open air, and tell us of adventures by sea and land.

She read us extracts from a Story of the reign of Edward III, about the free, rude life of that time, and introducing a poem on "The Bow,"--the old English bow, the weapon of hunters and foresters.

She also read extracts from the Story of "The Blue Pavillions", and from that of "The White Company".

We enjoyed her reading, from books, which,


as she said, "could be read with a clear conscience, and which we sometimes find bracing like sea-breezes."

Mrs. Dammann [Aileen B. C. Dammann], chairman of the Committee on "Current Criticism", next reviewed, with great condensation and vivacity, the books of the last summer,--new and reprinted ones.

Among others she spoke of the book of Claudio (Junet?) on "Socialism"; in which he maintains that inequalities of circumstances and fortunes is a condition of humanity, necessary to civilization, giving opportunities to emulation and enthusiasm,--to striving to rise,--to the aspirations of genius,--and to the elevation of the whole race.

Mrs. Dammann also spoke of Miss Rowland's "Life of George Mason of Virginia", and read very favorable criticisms of it from the "Nation" and the "Atlantic Monthly".

She also reviewed the "Conversations and Correspondence with Thomas Carlyle", by Sir Charles Duffy; and compared it with Nicoll's and with Froude's accounts of the life of the sad, bitter, wonderful Thomas Carlyle.

She spoke of "Edinboro Life", by the Baroness Nairne, the writer of "The Land of the Seal", and of a number of other poems, of which she said eight or ten were of superior worth,--and proved her opinion, by reading several of them to us.

She spoke of "Aunt Anne", by Mrs. W.K. Clifford, a novel in which a lady of sixty years gets married; but the apparently preposterous situation is relieved--partially--by the author's


making us understand why she did it.

She spoke of the "Peter Ibbetson" of Du Maurier, as interesting and poetical, but with a minor note of false sentiment put in place of religious faith.

She thought there was a sort of fascination in his account of "dreaming true!", and meeting the one he loved best, who had the power of "dreaming true" also, and whom he could meet in no other way. That one might be tempted to try his process for "dreaming true"--sometimes. But to live for it, to spend one's time in dreaming, and hoping for dreams seems possible only to the inmate of a criminal lunatic asylum,--which poor, pleasing Ibbetson was.

Mrs. Dammann spoke with great interest of Mrs. Piozzi's "Observations on her Journey in Italy" near the close of the last century. Also, of Dr. Johnson's "Correspondence" with Mrs. [?Thrale], when she was about to be married, for the second time,--to Mr. Piozzi. His opposition is painful, and, sometimes, pathetic. He speaks of her having brightened his "life of radical wretchedness"; and writes about his ill, and wishing to test his mental powers. The contrast was shown between this man of large body and large heart and ponderous ceremoniousness, and the graceful woman of chatty literary power and love of repartee.

Mrs. Dammann also reviewed "An Englishman in Paris", and quoted very entertaining anecdotes of Dumas, Véron, and King Louis Phillippe.

Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] then read some graceful verses sent with died rose leaves to the Club, which we all appreciated. The Meeting then adjourned.



Board of Management Meeting [Nov. 8, 1892]

I do not remember if this was read to the Board or not.[7]

A meeting of the Board of Management of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon November 8th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

There were present 10 members: the President,--1st Vice President,--2 Secretaries,--Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin],--Mrs. Johnson [Mrs. W. Woolsey Johnson],--Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace],--Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely],--Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold],--and Miss Brown [Mary Wilcox Brown].

The President called attention to the business in hand;--the appointment of a Treasurer. The Recording Secretary read the declination of that office by Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman], to whom it had been offered. Miss Grace proposed the name of Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock]. Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] spoke of Mrs. Dammann [Aileen B. C. Dammann] as having been proposed for the office. The President, Miss Grace and Miss Szold spoke of Mrs. Bullock's business ability. Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] said that Mrs. Dammann was so much occupied with home duties that it might be hardly worth while to offer the position to her. Miss Szold thought it was necessary to save time. Mrs. Turnbull said she had reason to think that Mrs. Bullock would accept the position if it were offered to her. Mrs. Bullock was appointed without opposition.

Mrs. Turnbull proposed that one of the Board of Management should go immediately to notify Mrs. Bullock of her appointment as Treasurer of the Club; and to receive her answer in time, if the office should be accepted, to inform the Club of it at the General Meeting, about to be held. Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud] being requested by the President to make this notification consented to do so; and soon afterwards returned with Mrs. Bullock to give her consent in person.


The President called attention to the next matter before us. She read a note from Mrs. Margaret J. Preston, a well known writer, to Mrs. Easter [Marguerite E. Easter], who had called on her, and spoken of a proposed that Mrs. Preston should become a member of our Club. Mrs. Preston, with many thanks declined the honor of being proposed as a member, on account of the state of her health. The President proposed that honorary membership should be conferred upon Mrs. Preston by the Board of Management;--which was done, and Miss Cloud was requested to notify Mrs. Preston of our action.

The President then called attention to a "List of the Works of the Female Authors of Maryland"; sent by Dr. John Morris to Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat], and by her sent to the Club;--also to a note from Dr. Morris stating that the list contained the names of those who had written books, but not of the authors of pamphlets or Magazine Articles. The President mentioned that the list seemed quite a small one.

Mrs. Colvin said that it might be practicable to gain information with regard to Maryland authors--for the Chicago Exposition by advertising in the public papers. She said that the New York Woman's Columbian Exposition Committee advertised far and near for accounts of all noble deeds done by women of New York in war and peace.

The Recording Secretary was requested to reduce to writing the changes made in the Constitution with regard to the Corresponding Secretary, and to the filling of the vacancies in the Board of Management.

After some conversation, the Meeting adjourned.



63rd General Meeting. [Nov. 8, 1892]

The 63rd General Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon November 8th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

The President called the Meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the Meeting on November 1st.

The President said that there were some announcements to be made.

Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely] spoke of the Amendment to the Constitution proposed by herself at a former Meeting, defining the duties of the two Secretaries of the Club;--and proposed to add to it--that the Recording Secretary should sign the written contacts of the Club.

The President said that this, of course, was not really a change in the Constitution. Miss Ridgely's motion was seconded by Miss Briscoe [Margaret Sutton Briscoe]; and was agreed to without opposition.

The President requested the Recording Secretary to have the Amendments lately added to the Constitution written out in proper form from her Minutes.

The President also announced that a new Honorary Member of the Club had been appointed by the Board of Management;--Mrs. Margaret S. Preston,--who had lately come to live in Baltimore. A letter was read from Mrs. Preston to our fellow member Mrs. Easter [Marguerite E. Easter].

The President also announced that the vacancy in the office of Treasurer of the Club, had been filled by the appointment, by the Board of Management, of Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock],--who had accepted the position. She took great pleasure in presenting the new Treasurer to the Club.


As we were all aware, the dues of the Club were payable on the first Tuesday in October; but, as there had been so far this season, no Treasurer to receive them, the bills had not been sent out,--and the Treasury had suffered in consequence. She would remind the members, not as the Treasurer's suggestion, but as her own, that those of the ladies who could make it convenient to pay their dues on the present occasion, would now have an officer who could receive them.

Our President then spoke of our approaching change of quarters, in company with the Academy of Sciences, and of the action now being taken by our Committee, to furnish and decorate the room the Academy have set apart for us in their new building. We are to have the use of two rooms, and a separate entrance from the street; with no rental except the almost nominal dues of honorary members of the Academy;--the officials of which institution wish the building to be occupied only by their society and our own. Dr. Uhler has said that "Science and Literature belong together", and he and his fellow members have spoken of our association with them as an honor to them, and with the hope that it may always continue.

We are glad to have the intellectual position of women so gracefully acknowledge by this action of so old an Academy to so young a society as our own; which latter had, three years ago, no existence.

Individual expressions of gratitude to Mr. and Mrs. Pratt for our part of the benefit received from their generous gift to the Academy have been made, and pleasantly received.

The announcement was made that the Meeting


of next Tuesday would be under the direction of the Committee on Fiction. Also, that Mrs. Miller had resigned the Chairmanship of this Committee; and that the President had been requested to accept it,--and had consented to do so. The programme for next Tuesday was also announced.

Announcement was made of the Literary Lectures of Miss Claudia Stuart.

The President then introduced the first Article of the programme: "Women as Guardians of the Public Health", by Dr. Nellie V. Mark. This Article was deferred from the Meeting of October 11th; and she said Dr. Mark had, with some inconvenience to herself, consented to give it to us this evening.

Dr. Mark told us that the saying "wealth is health" is as true of nations as of individuals. She spoke of women having been in all ages recognized as the attendants of the sick and the feeble; also, of the powers ascribed to them of cleverness and experience, and--sometimes--of witchcraft. In the feudal times the care of the wounded and dying was given to priests and women. But that for ages women were kept to what was called their proper sphere; and the individual use of individual gifts for the preservation of human life was denied to a very large portion of the human race.

But that, forty years ago a few individuals met and threw a stone into the pool of public opinion,--a big stone, and thrown with immense force,--destined to ruffle the waters in ever increasing circles; and to revolutionize much ignorance and superstition.

Dr. Mark thought that women doctors had come to stay.


She quoted Herbert Spencer that "health is a duty--a physical morality". The effects of injuries are as great as those of crimes; and each one of us maybe unconsciously accountable for physical sins. Long ago it was said that the best way to begin a reformation is, to reform number one; there is then one more reformed person in the world.

Women, she said are responsible for the care of the young; for giving them proper food and dress and exercise; that they may grow up with--

"The reason firm, the temperate will,

Endurance, foresight, strength and skill";

--that Wordsworth tells us of.

She thought the high death rate among children could be easily traced to bad food and clothing; and to ignorance of Nature's laws on the part of parents. She told of the woman who, hearing that all of us changed completely every seven years, said she hoped the seven years would soon be up, for any change in her husband would be a change for the better.

Dr. Mark also spoke of our being made what we are by heredity and environment; and reminded us of the assertion that "every man is a quotation from his ancestors";--and that individual traits can be traced back for centuries. But that much can be done by environment and direction. She spoke of a boy belonging to a family, all of whose male members down to himself had been victims of alcoholism; but whose mother so kept him from temptation that up to the age of thirty, he did not show the family trait. After thirty he fell into temptation, and went the way of the rest of the family. She thought that if his mother had only understood, better than she did,


physical laws, and physical training, he might have escaped altogether the shipwreck that came to him.

She thought that food should be nourishing, but not stimulating, and that in our home life the laws of hygiene and sanitary science should prevail. It had been said of some old Puritans, that they were never so happy as when they were thoroughly uncomfortable, and that they had a general idea that dyspepsia was a good preparation for going to heaven.

She thought that woman's voice should never be silent in all that goes to counteract evil heredity.

She spoke of the harm done to children by their study for school examinations, and their efforts to gain good marks, medals and prizes.

She spoke of trained nurses; of Miss Nightingale; of woman's work in war, flood and pestilence.

We have been told that, in Persia, the women-doctors nursed the cholera patients, when the men ran away from them.

Dr. Mark said that "women-physicians were needed for their own sex;--and sometimes to work for all humanity, tenderly and prayerfully;--to prolong human life; to lower the death rate; to conserve morality.

The President announced that the Class in Economics would meet in our Club room on Thursday at 4 o'clock.

Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord] announced that a meeting for reading and discussion of the English Essayists would be held at her house on Thursday mornings at 10 o'clock.

The President read a letter, sent to her by Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham], from a lady in Nebraska, speaking of her apprecia-


tion of the poems of Sidney Lanier.

The next Article on our programme was by Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace]: "An Account of the Refuge at Anglet", in south western France.

She spoke of the scenery around Anglet; of the picturesque road; the infinite perspective; the Pyrenees mountains; the sand and the sky; and the melancholy[8] ocean. Then of the black cross, and the flashing light in the distance; and then of the church and the mass of law buildings, now known all over the world, where six hundred working women have for years been working and serving God.

In 1830 Père [?Cestar], a good priest of this place, had, some poor orphans to take care of, and was seeking for a room to put them into. Once he gave them bread and cheese with the last money he possessed. A woman, once a servant, came to help him; and he gained, first a garrent, and afterwards a ground floor, for his work.

Soon unfortunate women came to him, begging him to save them. He could not take them into his mother's house; but, with courage and faith and prayer, he went bravely into the work of making a refuge for them. A house was soon offered for those who had been received for penitence and prayer, and the Refuge was established. It was once destroyed by fire, but was built up again, better than before. Two hundred penitents came to it; and one hundred and fifty Servants of Mary;--the latter being good women, who have adopted the religious life of duty and charity.

There the Bernadines live,--silently laboring, between the sand and the sky, and the mountains and the sea,--a life of expiation and prayer. On land reclaimed from the sea, they do men's work, as well as men. They till the soil, like Tennyson's "stout women of the plough"; they do the


farm work and the dairy-work;--they make shoes;--they raise magnificent fruit and vegetables[9] to supply the fashionable resort of Biarritz, and the markets of Bayonne.

Nor are woman's works forgotten; such as hours-keeping, cooking and sewing. Fine trousseaux are made,--ecclesiastical vestments, and such exquisitely fine embroidery as we are accustomed to see in museums.

There is no perpetual vow to stay there, but they do not leave the place of consecrated labor.

Not far off is Biarritz, with its attractions and pleasures, its follies,--sins too, perhaps. The contrast is strong enough to have a real fascination for the pleasure-lovers, who come to wonder at and admire the life of expiation and of aspiration at the Refuge of Anglet.

Miss Grace showed us some interesting photographs and some beautiful, fine embroidery; which added greatly to the interest she had excited in the subject of her paper.

She also, afterwards, showed us a little printed book in the Basque language;--reminding us that Basque is a language, and not a dialect. It was a rare and curious thing, and probably new to most of us.

The next Article on our programme was: "The Tramp Problem, as it is Met in Baltimore," by Miss Margaret Briscoe.

She spoke of the finely illustrated edition of the Persian poem "Omar Kayyam"; and of that illustration,--which surely all who have seen it will remember,--of human hands, helpless and appealing, striving to uplift themselves; with the lines of a sort of net-work over and through them, of which we can not tell whether they are the cords on which to hold and limb upward; or the bands to bind them down.


She went on to speak of the old Associate Reformed Church in Fayette Street; which was for two years closed and unoccupied. Many years ago, it was said by one of the rich men of this city, that he liked to sit in his pew in that church;--because he could look around him and see more good notes in bank represented there than in any other church he had ever attended in Baltimore. But now, as Miss Briscoe told us, "[?Dives] had gone out, and Lazarus has come in", with his sores,--if not bodily at least mental and spiritual ones.

After being reduced to silence and emptiness, for a time, the old church, since February 1892, has been occupied by the "Free Breakfast and Rescue Association of this city. It is absolutely undenominational and unsectarian; and here the genus "tramp", in all its varieties, has shelter, at least; and food, that is, coffee and biscuits or sandwiches,--and something more. The directors work for charity only, and the sign is a large S., meaning the effort to give: Soap, Soup, and Salvation.

The founder of this charity tells us that he was walking on night past the dark, deserted booking church, when a voice seemed to call to him: "Bill",--our essayist remarked that Bill's guardian angel spoke in the vernacular,--"Bill", said the voice, "open up this place, and bring in the poor." He wanted one hundred dollars, but began, I believe, with ten.

The Association numbered at first five members, but has grown in numbers and influence; and now has a reading room, a night school, and a lodging-house connected with it.


There have been results; men have been reclaimed, and made self supporting; sometimes have gone back to the churches to which they have belonged.

But now the yet unreclaimed tramp, who has wandered so far on the downward road, that its seems to be the only path left open to him, comes to the old hall to sleep in, for his chance of living and not dying--physically and mentally.

Miss Briscoe described a visit she herself paid to the old church on the Sunday before the last. She told us she saw gray-haired men and boys, or perhaps, those who never had been men,--and those who never may be. All had strange, hunted looking eyes. The weaker ones showed their weakness, but the stronger ones were calm. One poor boy broke down for a few minutes, but soon recovered himself. The religious service was simple,--all of it meant to show that it is never to late to mend."

The paper closed, with the picture again, of the poor tangled hands, uplifted,--here, at our very feet.

Mrs. Graham spoke of the propriety of using our opportunities; and quoted the remark of an aged minister, that "one point of "taffy" is worth tons of epitaphy".

She also spoke of the Art Exhibition of the "Lend a Hand Club", at Mt. Washington; to which she cordially invited our Club.

The meeting adjourned.


[Note from Lydia Crane] After this date I can only find the notes of 2 Executive Meetings, and my mind has been unavoidably so full of other things that I can not recall whether there were any more. I have confused notes of one on November 22nd; and of one on November 28th--I think. If there was one on the 15th, I can only leave a space,--trusting that some other member may be good--and wise enough to recall it. Our excellent Corresponding Secretary will probably remember whether she sent out notices for such a meeting. There was one meeting called for, which failed to be a business meeting on account of the much regretted absence of our President. Of that I took no notes, and can not recall the exact date. L.C.


64th General Meeting. [Nov. 15, 1892]

The 64th General Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, November 15th, 1892, at No 12 East Centre Street.

There were several guests present; including Miss Litchfield [Grace Denio Litchfield], and Mrs Joh[10] Stewart.

The President called the Meeting to order. The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the previous Meeting, on November 8th.

A letter was read from Mrs. Margaret J. Preston, expressing her appreciation of the honor conferred upon her, by her election to honorary membership in the Woman's Literary Club; but also her regret that the state of her health--from ner-


vous prostration--would prevent her from enjoying often the privileges of membership.

The President announced also that we had expected to have had as a guest this afternoon, Miss Woolsey, also known as "Susan Coolidge"; and had hoped to hear her read one of her own poems; but that she had received a note from Miss Woolsey; saying that she was not feeling well, and was unable to be present with us.

Announcement was made of a paper by Mrs. Lord, to be read at the next meeting.

The first Reading of this afternoon by Miss Grace Denio Litchfield, of a story of her own: "The Price I Paid for a Set of Ruskin".

She drew, with humor and pathos, the picture of the widowed village clergyman, with the usual baker's dozen of children, and the usual inadequate salary,--taken from the point of view of his eldest daughter; who idolizes her father, and tries to be a mother to the rest of the family.

Her idol, being fascinated by a lovely "Set of Ruskin", she takes the bold resolution of procuring it for him, by writing a Story:--being perfectly satisfied that she is not a story-teller born. But, being mindful perhaps of the counsel: "Look in thine heart, and write!" she concludes to open her heart and to tell the one romance of her life;--the events of one summer spent away from home,--and never told at home. The--apparently--full success[11] of the venture,--the delight of receiving the money for it,--and the still greater delight of the approval and admiration of the Story by the


adored father himself, are followed by the black looks of the neighbors, and their pertinacious accusations of her having put them into her book, of having told their family secrets.

Then comes the dismal disappointment, when the beautiful "Set of Ruskin" is presented to the father, and he can hardly look at it; having just been asked by his vestry to resign his pastorate.

Installed in another home, the self-sacrificing daughter never touches, and can not bear to look at the “Set of Ruskin”;--and this, let us hope, is the last installment of the price she has paid for it. Certainly Mr. Ruskin never had so large a price paid for his Works before--or since.

The heroine of the story is quite charming; so are her father, and little brother, in their way; and the wrong headed egotists of the village people, who “would not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so wisely”, are very real and natural to us:--and we shall hope to hear Miss Litchfield read again to us.

Our next reading was of an Essay by Mrs. Lawrence Turnull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], on: “Fiction as an Art”.

She spoke of Art as an appeal to [?an] higher nature, as the expression of beauty, by which the nobler part of the soul of man is moved; of the beauty of holiness,--for that holiness is beauty also. That true art is spiritual; and appeals with various voices to our needs, and ministers to our ideals. That the art of fiction carries with it great responsibilities for good or evil.

Study will not produce creation; there must be no chance fiction,--art is something inborn. As poetry is “the rhythmic creation of beauty”, fiction may be a


lower form of art. Yet, in poetic writing, an artistic form or manner can be mistaken for true art. In literature, the most comprehensive of all arts; we have creative poetry and fiction; as well as history, criticism and biography; and all can be true art also.

Our essayist thought that the real art-function in fiction is to please,--to give pleasure,--though to improve also is in nothing opposed to the true art purpose.

“The art of fiction has its many schools, and their various methods;--each elects his own form of fiction;--modes are made the question of indvidial gifts.” A real message must be clothed in right words;--the effect of study must often be good words.

“Why should not the artist be his own best critic?” He should “know whether the picture brings back the inspiration of its first creation”.

Mrs. Turnbull quoted from Mr. Howells, with much agreement, and some disagreement. She quoted his opinions on literature’s keeping pace with its own time; thinking that it should have an exquisite power of response to the yearnings and the satisfactions of the age.

She spoke of the realism of Moritz Maeterlinck; which, with no appeal to exited emotions, has a wonderful power to make us hold our breath, and to feel the might of silence through his words;--a power far beyond that of the word painting of Ibsen, or the dreams of Olive Schreiner. She spoke of realism as distinctly the color of the fiction of today. But, without denying to men realities, we can believe that men’s souls are made larger by idealism. The true artist can give the beauty of a face, because he realizes the spirit which informs it.

She quoted other writers, and said that the de-


cline of fancy had been traced to the advance of science. But that there are counter currents and reversions, very likely, fancy is declining;--but there has been no better time to read romances than the close of the long nineteenth century. Romances seem to hold some sympathy with modern thought.

There are many--perhaps too many--society novels; but there is artistic word done in short stories; and in this department of fiction American women are in advance of men. The London Spectator gives the American short story a very high rank.

Caricature is a darker side of literature, disregard of proportion detracts from strength.

There is much about local usage, local distinctions and dialects in the fiction--in the literature--of today. We were reminded of many of the New England pictures--which make us long to throw the sunshine into them. Also, that over introspection distinctly mars artistic word.

That the art of fiction, with true souls is a gift, held in trust, a privilege and a delight. That there should be no unnecessary, careless work,--work that needs not to have been done. And that specialism excludes breadth in art.

But, we were told, there are some prophecies that realism has begun to re-act; that the advanced school of realism has been a sort of school master for the art yet to come; that we shall have a new classicism, like the classicism of the Greeks; that the new strivings of souls shall not be by the teachings of the life of pain; that the poetry of tomorrow shall be large and joyful; and, that,--not thrust out by minor tones,--joy shall be the key-note of the better time, of the art of the future.


We had expected to have an Article by Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock], but there was some change in the programme, and she requested that her reading might be left out. We can hope that it is only deferred.

After some little conversation, the Meeting adjourned.

The best I could from my notes. Not read or adopted.


Board of Management Meeting. [Nov. 22, 1892]

A Meeting of the Board of Management of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon November 22nd, 1892, with 7 members present. The 1st Vice President presided.

There was some discussion with regard to the janitress [ER4] employed by the Academy of Sciences. Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold] spoke of her efforts to gain fees; relating some experiences of the Botany Class; and of Dr. Uhler’s remarks on the subject. It was suggested to learn his opinions more clearly than we seem to have done so far. The question arose whether it would not be well to have a maid of our own for our own special service; separate and distinct from the janitress, as the employee of the Academy of Sciences. The suggestion was favorably received; but did not seem to be finally decided.

The question of furnishing heat to our new rooms in addition to the furnace in the building, and of a stove for our own cooking was also discussed.

Some statements and estimates of our expenses--new and old--were given, including those of the Committee on papering the new rooms.

The question of omitting the “tea-feature” of our Salons was discussed, and seemed to meet with favor in the Committee. The Meeting adjourned.



65th General Meeting [Nov. 22, 1892]

The 65th General Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon November 22nd, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], being unable to be present, the Club was called to order by the First Vice President, Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], who presided at this Meeting.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the Meeting of November 15th;--which were adopted.

It was announced that Mrs. Johnson, the lady who has the responsible position of superintendent, of the prison for women[ER5]  at Sherborn, Massachusetts, will be in Baltimore at the approaching Prison Reform Congress; and that our fellow member, Mrs. Perry [Mrs. M. N. Perry], will open her parlors,--920 Madison Avenue,--on Tuesday, November 29th at half past 11 A.M., to those of us who wish to meet Mrs. Johnson; and will be glad to have the members of the Club avail themselves of the opportunity to make that lady’s acquaintance.

Miss Adams was requested to tell us something more about Mrs. Johnson, and her work. Miss Adams spoke of a visit of three days she had made to see this prison--exclusively for women,--not for the worst criminals of the sex,--but for women convicted of minor offenses,--such as drunkenness[12], and similar transgressions.

In the last fifteen years, the institution has been wonderfully successful in its work of preserving women, who may have just turned into a downward course, from sinking any lower; and giving them a chance to rise to something higher and better. The place is home-like, and the inmates take an interest in the work done there;--such word as wash-


ing for the city of Boston, making butter, raising flowers, sewing, etc. The superintendent has found great benefit in inducing the women to care for animals,--sheep, cows, etc.,--and in raising very fine chickens.

Being a prison, of course, the inmates are not anxious to stay in the place; but sometimes they show that it is the best habitation for them. She told us of one woman who, at a sort of evening entertainment, recited poetry so very well, that she asked, the next day;--why such a woman should be in such a place at all? The superintendent took her to the woman’s room; and showed her that, in a terrible fit of temper, this poetical elocutionist had broken up all the furniture, and torn up everything capable of being torn there. A little solitary confinement was prescribed to restore her equanimity. But generally the women were tractable and well-behaved; and treated the superintendent with respect and affection.

The announcement was then made that the members of the Woman’s Literary Club were invited to attend the Exhibition of Pictures given by the Baltimore Water Color Club.

Announcement was made of the Queen [?Suire] Festival, to be held in December.

It was announced that this Meeting was under the direction of the Committee on Essays and Reviews.

The first Article of the programme was by Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham], and was an “Essay on Emerson”.

She spoke of Emerson as having been borne in the high pure air belonging to Boston, and its vicinity; and of his life with kindred spirits who breathed the same fine atmosphere.


She went on to speak of Emerson as a poet, philosopher and essayist. She referred to those of his readers, who consider a grave mistake to call him a poet;--while acknowledging his claims as a philosopher. But she thought that by his own definition, and by that of many another high authority, he proved himself both poet, and philosopher. That he lived in that spirit of faith and aspiration, which forbids co-writing of the muses; but needs only the opening of the soul for the inspiration to flow into it. As Sir Philip Sidney said: Look in thine heart; and write!”

Of his essays, Mrs. Graham said, you must read them for yourself;--and find them strong, fine and comparable. That a Nemesis presides over all intellectual work;--the question is: How much water will it draw? Will it be swept out to sea? or will it sail steadily into port? That his essays were like mosaics, written at odd times, on scraps of paper which he used to hunt up and weave together. He never really wrote to order; his theory of inspiration forbade it.

She spoke of “the friends that God gave him”;--of Margaret Filler, of Carlyle, of Hawthorne, of Thoreau, of Alcott and others.

Then of his assertion that true civilization is the influence of good women; men being what their mothers make them;--a law as imperative as Newton’s laws in Physics.

That he was one so fully in touch with reality[13], that another generation will read him as we read him. To him even death was beautiful;--believing that God is one, that Jesus never speaks <em patois /em>, and that when he said: "The kingdom of heaven is within you",


he would have us forego all low curiosity, and work and live. As for immortality,--the question and answer is one. "God shines over all; all goes to teach us faith".

"There is no great, and no small

For the Soul that maketh all."

Emerson sympathized with the great movements of history; yet read history, not passively, but actively.

We were told that Concord may have held a envious throng; but that it was like a great light house, when Emerson and his dearest friends and soul-kindred lived there;--refusing to turn aside for [?law] rewards, rendering homage, not to the times,--but to the eternities.

They thought when a man meets his mate, society begins,--when you answer the meaning, and not the words.

She went on to speak of the divine law of graitation; by which the pure in heart attract whatsoever is pure in others to themselves;--the true thought transference and affinity.

It seemed to be growing late; and Mrs. Graham concluded to omit the rest of her Article, in order to give full time for the next reading.

This one was of an Essay by Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord], on "Washington Irving, and Our Essayists,--English and American".

Mrs. Lord spoke of Essays and Essayists, in general;--of the writers of the Spectator,--the Tattler,--the Rambler,--of the Essays of Elia, our dear Charles Lamb.

Our essayists, she said, are very near the border land of poetry and romance. That some essayists [are] poets; but fewer poets are essayists.

That if, among American essayists, we can give Emerson the first place, we can give Washington Irving the second; and, of we can rank Emerson


with Carlyle, we can rank Irving with Addison and Charles Lamb.

Irving's life in England gave him rare opportunities for culture. His descriptions of Abbotsford, and of Sir Walter Scott himself, of Byron's life, of Newstead Abbey and of the home of the Annesleys, are written with rare power. Through Irving's eyes we see the romance of old England, and feel the pride of the child in the Fatherland. We comprehend the old feudal relations, which can never exist in our own hand.

His Spanish descriptions,--with fascinating personal adventures, his tales of the Alhambra, his Moorish romances, as no less charming.

Irving's good fortune, in his opportunities for the use of his picturesque powers, followed him in his native land also. Even the stories of Diedrick Knickerbocker, give us a new respect for our own history. He led the way for Hawthorne, and his friends, for Bret Harte, for Thomas Nelson Page, and our own Mrs. Tiernan,--and for many others.

Irving's Life of Washington has the same charm. He can paint Colonial times; the Indian wars; the Revolution, and the Statesmanship that followed it; till we feel almost inclined to place the historian before the essayists.

But, continued Mrs. Lord, he has enriched our American literature in various departments; he has been one of our first educators,--and one of the world's educators also.

The announcement was made of the programme for the next Meeting; including a paper by Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton],


and a Story by Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock]. Also, an Explanation by the Librarian, of the affairs of the library of the Club.

Mrs. Graham, then, finding the time comparatively early, consented to finish the reading of her "Essay on Emerson".

She read from the "Threnody", the poem on the death of his son, a few lines, which seems to contain the highest and most beautiful expression of Emerson's poetic power, human love, and religious faith, he has perhaps ever given us.

Mrs. Graham then went on to speak of his so-called Pantheism;--of his belief in the hidden relation between man and all other things;--in the priestly function of man in Nature,--being himself part and parcel with God.

She spoke of another view of Emerson's life; how he, the product of seven generations of ministerial blood, left the ministry of the Unitarian faith, because he could not conscientiously do the duties required by it, but--

"Himself from God he could not free".

and--"wrought in sad sincerity".

Perhaps, after listening to a very highly appreciative account of him, even those of us who have differed from him in many things may believe that--

"He builded better than he knew"--

both for this world, and the next one.

The Meeting then adjourned.


Board of Management Meeting [Nov. 28, 1892]

A Meeting of the Board of Management of the Woman's Literary Club was held on Monday, November 28th, 1892, at No 12 East Centre Street. There were seven members present:--the 1st Vice President, 2 Secretaries, Mrs. Johnson [Mrs. W. Woolsey Johnson],


Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock], Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace], Miss Brown [Mary Wilcox Brown], Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold].

Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] presided.

Specimens of the curtains for the new rooms we are expecting to occupy were exhibited, and statements of their cost were given. They were approved, and the Committee authorized to order them. After estimating the cost for tiling the fireplaces and for the fixtures and furnishing of the same, and their surroundings, the Board of Management voted to devote 100 dollars to the objects designated.

There was some discussion on the subject of book-cases or of book-shelves; also on having a long box for the keeping of old--but not worthless--papers; which box could be inexpensively upholstered, and serve as a lounge in the small of our two new rooms. Door-curtains of selvage-carpet were described by Miss Haughton, the suggestion meeting approval. Other articles of furniture were discussed also.

The question of the janitress was again brought forward; and Mrs. Bullock offered to make inquiries with regard to the cost of a maid of our own for special service.

It had been before understood that our usual annual reception was to be omitted this year, in order that the treasury might bear the strain of our moving, furnishing, etc.

The question again arose of omitting our monthly "teas" to save expense. It was proposed to have the provisions for the teas contributed by the members specially and separately,--and some generous offers were made, in answer to this proposition;--but no final decision was made on this subject.

After informal discussion, on various points;--the Meeting adjourned.

An attempt was made to visit the new rooms, together; but they were found to be locked.



66th General Meeting. [Nov. 29, 1892]

The 66th General Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, November 29th, 1892 at No 12 East Centre Street.

The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], being absent, the First Vice President, Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], occupied the chair. and called the Meeting to order.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the Meeting on November 22nd.

Miss Haughton gave a message from Mrs. Turnbull of regret for her absence from the meetings of the Club, on account of sickness in her family, and of thanks for the notes and inquiries of her fellow members, to which she had been unable to send special answers.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] moved a resolution of sympathy with Mrs. Turnbull; which was seconded by Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock], and adopted.

Mrs. Graham then announced that a meeting of all those who are interested in the Woman's Work for the World's Fair at Chicago, was to be held this same afternoon at the Young Men's Christian Association Building, to which this Club was invited by Mrs. William Reed, who has charge of the Maryland Branch of the Committee of Woman's Work for the Fair.

Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin] moved that we now adjourn; in order to attend the Meeting at the Christian Association Building. She also said she hoped as many of us as possible would attend that Meeting.

Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] spoke of our wish to hear the Articles of Mrs. Whitelock and Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] appointed to be read at this Meeting of our Club.

Mrs. Colvin and Mrs. Graham said they hoped to hear these Articles on a future occasion.

Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord]  thought it would not be fair to put them off.

Miss Haughton said that to do so would be to defer them, at least, till next Spring; as all of our programmes were made up until then.

Miss Grace moved to request Mrs. Whitelock to read her Story to us. Mrs. Whitelock moved that she Story should be passed over.


Miss Piggott [Margaret Moore Piggot] moved that we should adjourn at 5 o'clock, to attend the Meeting to which we were invited.

Mrs. Cobin  moved that the programme should be put forward in time.

Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman] moved that a few member should attend the Meeting, as the representatives of the Club.

Miss Morison [Alice Morison] seconded the motion; which was carried.

Mrs. Easter [Marguerite E. Easter] moved that the Chair appoint the delegation to attend the Meeting; which was seconded by Mrs. Colvin; and adopted.

The Chair appointed Mrs. Graham, Mrs. Colvin, Mrs. Perry [Mrs. M. N. Perry] and Mrs. Easter to represent the Club at the Meeting of the World's Fair Commitee;--and the delegation immediately went to assume its duties.

Mrs. Whitelock then read her Story: "Lady Cloud-Cap's Guide;--A Fashionable Aberration."

She told of some English tourists in Switzerland;--Lady Cloud-Cap;--her husband, Sir John;--their two sons, Miles and Victor; their servants;--and, their Guide. Lady Cloud-Cap was an English beauty, with a will of her own; and not accustomed to having it crossed, by any one[14],--especially not by her husband. That good well-bred Baronet was accustomed to see his young wife's pretty head turned to one side, and to hear her say: "Now John!"--whereupon with old-fashioned gallantry, he was ready to affirm or to deny any statement she made or contradicted;--was ready to go to the places, or upon the excursions selected by the fair commanding officer of the party.

Just now they were going over the Gemmi Pass. Notwithstanding the warnings of a coming storm, Lady Cloud-Cap was bent on their making the ascent, under the guidance of François De [?Sorne]; a handsome fellow,


half Swiss, half Italian; already a pet guide;--though it was inconvenient that one could not talk to him as one could to a pet poodle.

The storm comes on; the party is broken up; the guide saves the lady's life; the children are saved also; but Sir John, out of sight and hearing of his really fond wife, is rolled down the rocks, and killed.

The guide breaks the news to the lady with untaught propriety and kindness. The shock and her self-reproach, make her ill, there, in the rude shelter of a resting place in the mountains;--and the young mountaneer becomes more than a guide;--a friend in need,--though his native sense of propriety seems never to desert him. We are made to feel and understand it all.

A year and a half after the terrible adventure, letters come from England to Madame De [?Sorne], admiringly congratulating her on her having given up her title, and having married her "Hevetian Adonis", her prince in disguise";--although the writers thereof, of course, among themselves always called him: Lady Cloud-Cap's guide. And they were truly right, in calling him so, too.

But the guide in his mountain guide's dress was handsomer, even more noble looking, than in any conventional dress-suit he could now wear. He does not wish to go to England;--to live in luxury there. And we are told in this Story, that even a selfish woman, when she is in love, is capable of heroism. Consequently, the former Lady Cloud-Cap concludes to live in Switzerland, among her husband's "people"; bidding farewell to her former life; and to Lady Cap herself.

We enjoyed the characteristic words and actions of the lady and her guide, having heard that; "all hearts


in love use their own tongues". It is Bulwer Lylton who says: "Persons in the higher ranks of society, so exposed to <em ennui /em>, are either rendered totally incapable of real love,--or they love far more intensely than those in a lower station".

Our next Article was by Miss Middleton, and was on: "Time and Time-pieces".

She spoke of the earliest times and time pieces;--of the heavenly bodies, "set to rule over the day, and over the night",--of the old myth of Saturn, or Chronos, offspring of Heaven and Earth,--of the measurement of time by the stars, as they became or ceased to be visible in the heavens,--of the Chaldeau shepherds, with their early Astronomy,--of the clepsydra, and of the sun-dials used by the monks in the 12th century,--of the altar at Stonehendge,--of the candles and lanterns of the middle ages,--on to the days of Guliles and to more modern times,--down to the highly improved clocks and watches of the present day.

Then leaving the time measurers, Miss Middleton took up time itself, in its earthly and limited meaning, and in its grander sense also.

She closed by reading a poem by Charles Stuart Calverly on Forever. "Forever", he said, "is now one word, but our rude forefathers deemed it two";--and, after dwelling on the meaning and spirit of the word, with humor and pathos, he says he is not altogether sure that our ancestors erred in dividing it.

Miss Piggot next gave us a poem of her own, formerly read before the "Lend a Hand Club" of Mt. Washington. It was called: "How Queen Isabella Lent a Hand".

She described a certain Christopher Columbus,


as having discovered, from the cracking of an egg-shell, that the world is round; and forthwith endeavoring to induce somebody to lend a hand to discover America. And Queen Isabella, as one of those good women who have a mission; one who, in our days, would have endeavored to convert the [?Feeges]; and, in her own days, did try to convert the Morlems, though the sermons of the missionaries were then apt to be delivered by men with guns. The poems went on to tell of her endeavoring to fulfill[15]her own mission, without which praiseworthy resolution our own fair land might be remained undiscovered.

The presiding officer then announced that there were some books to be acknowledged as having been presented to the Club;--some which had failed to be acknowledged last Spring, and some recent gifts.

Among others were: Mr. E. C. Stedman's Percy Turnbull Lectures, dedicated to Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence Turnbull, and to the Memory of their Son. Also, Poems, by Mrs. Turnbull;--a book by our fellow member, Miss Margaret Briscoe [Margaret Sutton Briscoe];--Opportunity, by Anne Moncure Crane,--a work by Sidney Lanier, and several works by Mr. D. C. Gilman, President of the Johns Hopkins University.

Announcement was made of a series of German lectures and meetings for German conversation.

Reference was made to the Library of Maryland Authors we are endeavoring to collect, also of a List of the books written by the women of Maryland, to go to the Chicago Columbian Exhibition.

After the announcement that the Meeting of next Tuesday would be under the direction of the Committee on Modern Poetry,--the Meeting adjourned.

End of 66th Meeting.

[END of MS 988 BOX 3, BOOK 1]       


[MS 988, Box 3, Book 2]


Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore.

Record of Meetings. Volume II


December 6th 1892 to December 19th 1893


[The first volume contained the records of General Meetings and Meetings of the Board of Management also. It has now been thought better to separate them; and this volume is to contain only the Minutes of General Meetings.

Lydia Crane

Recording Secretary.]


[The meeting of Nov. 29th was not a Salon. Record in the other book. L.C.]


Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore

67th General Meeting. [Dec. 6, 1892]

The 67th general meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, December 6th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

It was under the direction of the Committee on Modern Poetry,--of which Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese is Chairman.

Miss Haughton Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], the first Vice President presided at this meeting.

The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the previous meeting on November 29th.

Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin] then spoke of the proposed representation of the works of the female authors of Maryland at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The Committee having charge of Woman's Work for the State of Maryland, at this Exposition, wish to have two copies of every published book writeen by a native or resident Maryland woman, to be sent to Chicago; as a gift and a loan, that is: one copy to be retained and placed in the Woman's Memorial Building at Chicago; the other, to be returned to Baltimore. If two copies can not be procured of any one book, the Committee will be glad even to have one. A slip of paper should be pasted inside the binding, letting whether the book is given or loaned. It is hoped that living authors will give their works to this collection; and, with regard to those who have died, it is hoped that


their executors and friends will make the effort to contribute their works also.

Mrs. Colvin proposed to read to us the list of Maryland female authors prepared by Dr. John Morriss; which was, she said, very short, and, evidently, not a full one.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] said that some other names might, she thought, be obtained from the collection of the old Mercantile Library Association; for from Mr. Donaldson, the former librarian of that Association.

The list was then read,--containing twenty one names.

Mrs. Colvin said she hoped to read to us a new and fuller list next Tuesday.

Miss Briscoe [Margaret Sutton Briscoe] asked permission to say a few words on the same subject as that of the paper she gave us a few weeks ago:--The Free Breakfast Association. She told us that the men having charge of that work feel themselves somewhat distressed by the need of woman's work as an auxiliary power to continue the efforts made by them. The clothing sent to them has not been properly distributed. She spoke of the meeting to consider this subject to be held at Mrs. Early's [Maud Graham Early] house on Monday next, at three o'clock. Miss Briscoe also invited any of us who might wish to see something of the work done by The Free Breakfast Association, to meet her next Tuesday morning, at the "Berkeley", a little before nine o'clock, and to go with to the early


service at the old Associate Reformed Church. She spoke of the recent results of this word,--of one young man who brought two more tramps to the boarding house, and guaranteed their board, until they could get something to do;--he himself having been lately picked up out of the gutter, and now striving to pick up others also.

The first Article of our Programme was of two Poems, written by our President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], and read by Mrs. Graham. They were: "Comradeship", and "[?Love's Apotheosis]." The first took us with wing-like feet into the leafy woods, up the mountain side, under the heavenly blue, among ferns and wild roses and dove-eyed birds; where the grace and beauty all around is half murmur, half perfume;--where we might almost surprise the secret that the woods and the woodland creatures hold.

The second poem, "Love's Apotheosis", told us that "Love is not blind, but seeth far, and high above the clear radiance of the star;--that Love which has fadeless youth; which is never born of littleness, nor bitterness, nor fickleness;--that Love which abideth true.

The next Article of the programme was of two Poems by Miss Grace Denio Litchfield, read by Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman]. The first was: "A Love Song", and the second called: "To my Love".

The lover sings of her who came into his life one golden day, when he knew that she


was there only by fragrance and by glory everywhere."

Then the song was of the love too vast for speech, like the prayers that must remain unspoken--like the god of the heavens under the touch of God's finger, ere earth ceases to be.

The third Article on our programme was an Essay by Mrs. Haman, on: James Russell Lowell, as a Poet". She spoke of Lowell's life and, of his works. She said that he came of the best Puritan stock, descended from the men who came to this country in times of "storm and stress". That his mother, whose name was Spence, was descended from Sir Patrick Spens, of the "grand old" Scotch "ballad". She was a fine linguist, and her son inherited her taste for poetry: having lisped ballads at her knee. He learned a beautiful Mythology, not from dusty books, but as given by Nature herself to her true lover. Mrs. Haman quoted from Lowell's poem "To the Dandelion," wheat he says of the robin's song,--

--"and I, secure in childish piety

Listened as if I heard an angel sing

With news from heaven--"

"Fresh every day to my untainted ears,

When birds and flowers and I were happy peers."

She said he made friends often of those older than himself;--as Emerson, Hawthorne, Channing, and others. He loved his country home; his nature was serious and religious, yet full of humor and satire. He studied social questions, with full consciousness of the gravest


mysteries of life and death;--and in philanthropy and in politics he ranked himself with what was--from his point of view--liberty and progress.

He wrote early in life, publishing his first book at the age of twenty two; and another one, of much greater merit, three years later, in 1844. We were given some lovely lines from his early poems of sentiment;--and then were reminded of his Biglow Papers, in which the dialect, the wit, and humor seemed almost entirely new to literature. Then of the favorable criticism these papers met with from English, as well as from American critics.

Mrs. Haman then took up the Fable for the Critics,--with its descriptions of American authors; as of Washington Irving, to whom he gives credit for "writing of Spain, with something like the charm of Cervantes;" of being "England's gentle Addison, without the chill"; and of being--

"--not wholly deserving

The name of English, or Yankee,--but just Irving."

Then of himself--Lowell,as "coming on with a whole pack of ism on his back".--and as having "never learned the distinction between saying and preaching."

Mrs. Haman read extracts from the "Vision of of[16] Sir [?Sannfal], and from other poems of Lowell; but many of our favorites had to be left out in her notices of his works. But I think we could feel the presence of "The poet", as Milton says; "soaring in the high reason of his fancies, with


his garland and singing robes about him."

The fourth article on the programme was a poem by Mrs. Easter [Marguerite E. Easter], called an "Ode to Love", and read by Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace]. It was prefaced, by the very complementary opinion of Mr. Alden, the critical writer for the "Harpers", who said that this poem recalled the charm of the Elizabethan poets.

The poem told of Love's bringing into the sky a tint it never had before;--that all accents since lips had language belong to Love. He can do all things, to all others impossible,--can see with blind eyes, and conquer Death.

The next Article was a poem by Miss Virginia Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud]; read by Mrs. Dammann. It was called "A Stradivarius". It asks this old music-maker, coming from mysterious gloom;--what secrets it holds trembling on its strings?--what voice of bird?--or light of star?--or smile of lovely face?--or strange, pent up music of all silence? Let it speak, for the Creator's touch has given it a soul-voice for its own.

The last Article was by Miss Reese, on "Some Old English Love-Songs." She gave us a little preface about those people who bewail the loss of the glad poets of Greece; and do not see that we can gain gladness nearer than from Greece;--from poets, not very great perhaps, but who still had the instinct to aim at a star instead of at a tree. She said that the world loves a lover; and the shepherds and shepherdesses, who laugh and sing,--and weep too sometimes,--and invite the whole world to join them.


She spoke of some minor English poets of the time when there were more of these shepherds than now. She told us of Waller, with his "inconstant Celia", and his "lovely Rose"; of Thomas Heywood, with his notes from the lark;--of Lovelace, with his well-known lines "to [?Lucasta]", and his--

"Stone walls do not a prison make,

Nor iron bars a cage;--"

--of George Wither, Round-head as well as poet, with his

"--Shall I, wasting in despair,

Die, because a woman's fair?"

--of Sir Philip Sidney true her as well as poet;--of Dr. Donne and Bishop King;--of Sir John Suckling,--and Herrick, and others.

Miss Reese spoke of the abounding youth of very many of these poets, and of their glad charm,--so great that we refuse to believe them reprobates--when we are told they were so. We enjoyed hearing such poems, that told us to "gather rosebuds while we may,"--without thinking of the thorns we may gather, with them.

The programme having been given, it was announced that Miss Mary Wilcox Brown had been appointed Assistant Librarian of the Club.

The meeting then adjourned.




68th General Meeting. [Dec. 13, 1892]

The 68th General Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, December 13th, 1892, at No 12 East Centre Street.

Before the meeting wsa called to order, the officers present were presented with the latest Annual Report of the Woman's Literary Club of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from its Secretary, Adelaide Stevens. The presentation was made through our fellow member, Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin].

Our President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], being unavoidably absent, the first Vice President, Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], was again called upon to preside.

The time for the meeting having arrived, and the number of members present being quite small, the presiding officer asked whether it might not be well to postpone the exercises of the programme, from this very rainy afternoon, until the meeting of next Tuesday.

Mrs. Franklin [Christine Ladd-Franklin] asked if that might not seem an encouragement to stay at home on rainy days?

Other members having come in, a vote was taken; which resulted in favor of giving the programme to those of us who were present.

Miss Haughton then called the meeting to order;--and the Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the previous meeting on


December 6th.

The first Article of the programme was an Essay by Miss Mary Wilcox Brown, on "Genoa, Its Economic Condition in the days of Columbus."

She spoke of the rise and progress of great cities; from Bablyon and Nineveh, down to those of modern times. Then of the past and present beauty and glory of Genoa;--of the power that it attained in the middle ages. Also of its commercial rank, its great maritime eminence; of its colonial enterprise; of its successful rivalship with Venice,--sometimes even rising into superiority over the sister-republic. She said that labor was not despised in, Genoa, and that this was especially true with regard to the kinds of labor that added to the wealth of the country. That much of the greatness of Genoa was owing to the Crusades; they modified serfdom, and gave power to the middle class. That while like England, France and Germany, the Italian States fought for the glory of the Cross, they grained great commercial benefits by their connections with the Christian settlements in the East, and even by trade with the Saracens themselves. There was a flow of gold from Constantinople to the Italian cities. Their trade spread into Asia and Africa.

We were told of the conflicts of Genoa with Pisa, and with Venice; also, of its different


forms of government, especially of the two centuries of the rule of the Doges. We were given an animated description of the beautiful city--which even now does not fail to arouse the enthusiasm of those who visit "Genova la superba",--of its churches and palaces, with their curious relics and works of art. Then of the great admiral Andrea Doria, with his magnificent style of living, with his retainers and slaves, with his private mint,--and, also, of his services to the State.

Our Essayist reminded us that feudalism received its death blow in the old European Countries after the invention of printing, and the introduction of gunpowder. The system had lived on under the old methods of war and learning, and--for too long--cupidity had blinded the eyes of the ruling classes to the wealth of the soil. Still, that under the old barons, land was wealth, guarded by primogeniture and entail. That the use of metals as the standards of values tended to level the barriers between the classes. That Genoa[17] taught her neighbors the uses of money; besides giving them a new world by means of her greatest son. She taught banking. The Crusaders needed money,--and money-changers were alive to the advancement of trade. The indefatigable Genoese citizens made loans with other nations, and always kept their eyes on the main chance. By this power of lending they had, for a time, the control


of the Greek emperor himself.

Miss Brown went on to tell of the great power conferred upon the Bank of St. George of Genoa, of the authority given to it over the colonies, and of its functions in the State. That the bank was a state within a state,--each helping the other.

She said that, after long external and internal struggles, on of Genoa's own citizens went on a new Crusade; but it made Lisbon rise and Genoa fail, but turning the direction of the tides of trade.

After painting the decadence of the city, and the changes that modern times have wrought in it, our Essayist said that: "Genoa did her work well,--she sent out her missionaries. She lost strength, but the world gained economic power."

The second Article of our programme was by Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord]: "Selections" from her "Drama of Columbus".

She read us the scene where the brother of Columbus is begging him to give up his hopes and his purposes, when they are intercepted by friends and neighbors, coming to congratulate the future great discoverer on his marriage to Felipa,"--the fairest maid in Portugal". These sing a drinking son of--Good luck to the groom and good luck to the bride,

In the gay Easter tide."

The brother tells our Columbus that love ought to fill his heart too full to have room for dreams. But he is answered that "Felipa


is as good as she is fair,--that love itself bids him haste away on his voyage."

We were then given the scene in the church, where Felipa comes to pray for him, and tries to dissuade him from wedding with magic, in seeking to have his horoscope cast by a Mohammedan sorceress. Of this fortuneteller, Columbus contended, that if she is not of heaven, she is not of hell either. He refers to the wise men who saw and followed the Star of Bethlehem. And so, saying: "Pray for me!" he goes to know his fate.

Then we had the interview between Columbus and the sorceress; begun, and continued, with mutual distrust, until she sees a nimbus around his head, and hails him as a man chosen by Allah,--one who can teach seers,--and then she goes on to foreshadow his great and strange future.

We were told of gay songs and dances;--then of the interview of Columbus with King John of Portugal; and with the junta chosen by the king to pass judgment on his pretensions. Then of their discussion of the powers and rights of Church and State. Then of the despondency of Columbus, and the support and consolations of Felipa,--the seaman's daughter; followed by an animated description of a contest with bandits in the woods.

Probably we all feel, the more the discoverer of our continent is describer to us, that--as has been said,--"of he was not


a saint, he was a hero."

The third Article of our programme was the "Psalm of the West". by Sidney Lanier. It was to have been read by our President, Mrs. Turnbull; but, owing to her much regretted absence, and the lateness of the hour, it was omitted.

Mrs. Franklin next spoke of our custom,--more frequently observed in the early days of our Club than of late,--of having some discussions and questions upon the papers read to us. She wished to ask Miss Brown:--when the Bank of Genoa was given judicial functions? In the answer it was stated that the Bank was first given control over all its own affairs; afterwards over colonial affairs; and, in 1407, judicial rights over debts due to it.

Miss Brown also spoke, in the course of discussion, of the rules regulating what was called "Treasure Trove",--or the finding of hidden treasures in the earth; and the rights of monarchs and states in such discoveries.

After further discussion participated in by Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock], Mrs. Tait [Anna Dolores Tiernan Tait] and other, the meeting adjourned.

Imperfect Notes.


69th General Meeting. [Dec. 20, 1892]

The 69th general meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on December 20th, 1892, at No 12, East Centre Street.

The meeting was called to order by the President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull].

She reminded us our our approaching change of quarters, and of the necessary expense attending the


furnishing of our new rooms; and went on to speak of two propositions having been made for meeting this new outlay.

The first was in some sort of the nature of an assessment, or, rahter, of a present to be made by each member to the Club at this time. The second was of the character of a loan; that is that each member should pay three dollars ($3.00) into the Treasury; the same amount to be deducted from her dues next year,--making them seven instead of ten dollars for the coming Club year.

Of course these proposals were to be presented once more to the Club, probably at the next meeting, which would be a Salon, the last one of this year.

The President also said that there were no programmes for the present meeting[18]; there being but one literary article to be read, namely: "The Report of the Educational Committee of the Club on the Public Schools of Baltimore;--written, and to be read by Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin], the Chairman of the Committee on Education.

Mrs. Colvin spoke first of the invitation extended by Professor Wise, State Superintendent[19] of Public Schools, to this Committee to visit the Public Schools of the city. The Report stated that the examination had been confined chiefly to the schools for girls;--their Primary,--Grammar and High Schools.

[The Recording Secretary had been prevented from deciphering the notes she took on Mrs. Colvin's very interesting article. She can only refer to the published account of it in the morn-


ing paper,--The Sun--, of December 21st, 1892;--which was comparatively quite full; though not of course doing full justice to Mrs. Colvin's Report.][20]

Of the ten Recommendations with which the article closed, and which were not given consecutively in the newspaper, Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] has kindly taken a copy, and they are so good as they stand, that it may be well to recall them.

[Recommendations copied by Miss Grace.]

"I close by briefly recapitulating the different reforms which have been herein mentioned.

"1st, Introduction of a two year system of Kindergartens,

"2nd, A modification of the Primary work, introducing greater variety in the teaching, less Arithmetic, and more Elementary Science, Geography and History; and, above all, better methods in the teaching of Reading and English.

"3rd, The Grammar School course should be modified in the same directions; there should be more and better Geography, History and Science teaching.

"4th, The course (of French in (?) the High Schools*) should be made the same as that of the City College.

"5th, Above all the requirements as to the qualifications of teachers should be increased. No teacher should be considered eligible unless, in addition to being a graduate of the High School, she has had at least a year's practical training in modern and proved methods.

"6th, A training School, with the necessary practice Schools, should be established for the purpose of supplying this instruction.

"7th, Manual Training should be introduced into the Gram-

*--"The course of the French High Schools should be made etc."


mar Schools for the boys; and booking Schools for the girls.

"8th, More systematic attention should be paid to Physical Training and Drawing, which branches should be under the supervision of suitably trained Matters, instead of being left to the whim or will of individual teachers.

"9th, Small Libraries, carefully selected should be furnished for each School House.

"10th, Several Assistant Superintendents should be appointed to assist the Superintendent, and to ensure a more effective supervision of the Schools."

After the reading of the Report by Mrs. Colvin, the members of the Educational Committee were requested to come forward and sit near the platform, as some of their fellow members wished to ask a few questions.

The Committee complied with the request.

Miss Carter [Mabel Carter], a member of the Committee stated that it was due to the Public Board of Education to state that Latin was now to be introduced into the High Schools.

Miss Bond, also of the Committee, spoke of the efforts made by the Superintendent to introduce History and Literature into the Public Schools,--and of our wish to do him full justice.

Miss Duer [Edith Duer] spoke of the Normal School, and of the small number of its graduates who are teaching in the city of Baltimore, as compared with those in the rest of the State.

Mrs. Turnbull spoke of Dr. Wise's request to her that this Committee of the Club should visit and inspect the Public Schools. She also spoke of the opinion expressed by one of the professors of the Johns Hopkins University,


that the students from the City College have taken almost the highest grade of all who have offered to enter the University.

Miss Bond spoke of a proposed change in the schools, with regard to girls passing from class to class without examination in Language and Arithmetic.

Miss Carter thought that the great amount of mere mechanical work done caused a loss of power, and retarded development.

A request for the publication of the Report was answered by Mrs. Colvin, that the Superintendent ought to go over it first.

A suggestion was made of the difference in social status between boys and girls in the Public Schools--a lady being sometimes willing to send her boy, but not her girl, to them,--as having something to do with the higher grade of education for the boys: somewhat according to the laws of supply and demand.

Miss Piggot [Margaret Moore Piggot] gave some interesting experiences of her own; having known something about Public and Normal School teaching in Baltimore, and in one of the rural--very rural--districts of the State.

Mention was made of the very limited amount of education given in the Primary Schools; which is often all that many children receive. Also of the greater need for culture for these children than for those who attend private schools--generally.

Miss Bond spoke of her experience in meeting with grown up "public school girls" in Sunday School and Bible Class work, etc. One girl, she said, while holding and tapping an Elementary History, told her that this was the first time she had ever had a


"history book" in her hand. After she had elaborately explained to another girl that he Roman Empire dominated the world at the time of the Christian Era, she found that the idea received has been that the Roman Catholic Church held sway over the nations of the earth at that time. The word Roman conveyed only a religious notion to that girl's mind. Possibly hers was a very dull or a very ignorantly religious mind, however. We have many of us met such minds, in and out of Sunday Schools and Bible Classes.

After some other suggestions, and conversation, the meeting adjourned.


20th Salon [Dec. 27, 1892]

The twentieth Salon of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on December 27th, 1892, at No. 12 East Centre Street. The Recording Secretary was unavoidably absent, and no notes were taken of the meeting. The only account of it accessible to the Secretary was the one which appeared in the "Baltimore Sun" of the next morning, Wednesday, December 28th, 1892. In order not to be entirely without a record of this meeting, the Secretary has concluded to copy the "Sun's" account;--as follows.

"<em Woman's Literary Club /em>.--In honor of the holiday season the rooms of the Woman's Literary Club yesterday were decorated with holly,


mistletoe and evergreens, and the afternoon was spent in informed conversation and in the enjoyment of refreshments. The only paper read was by Miss Margaret Piggott [Margaret Moore Piggot], whose subject was: "A War-Time Christmas in a North Carolina Plantation." Miss Piggott's father was a commandant of the Confederate State's Medical Laboratory near Lincolnton, North Carolina. An amusing description was given of the Christmas feast, over which the guests made merry, notwithstanding the fact that its principal features were cakes made of [?sorghum] molasses, and egg-flip made of brandy distilled from persimmons or of rum from the sorghum molasses, and the modest meal illuminated by candles made by the hostess herself, with wicks plaited by her little children.

A number of gifts of books were received yesterday by the Club, including Cardinal Gibbons's "Faith of our Fathers" and "Our Christian Heritage", presented and inscribed by the author, "Goth's Tales of the Chesapeake" and "Mrs. Reynolds and Hamilton", presented by the author "Goth", (George Alfred Townsend,) and Mrs. M. E. Easter's [Marguerite E. Easter] volume of poems "[?Clytie]".


70th Meeting. [Jan. 3, 1893]

Notes kindly taken by the Corresponding Secretary.

The seventieth Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club, of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon January 3rd, 1893, at No. 12 East Centre Street.


In the absence of the President the First Vice-President presided.

The Corresponding Secretary filling temporarily the place of the Recording Secretary, no minutes were read.

Announcement was made that the semi-annual meeting of the Executive Board for the consideration of names presented for membership was postponed until January 10th;--no names having been officially received.

It was moved by Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] that a resolution of sympathy be passed and tendered to the Recording Secretary in her bereavement. This resolution, seconded by Mrs. Eames [Mrs. Henry H. Eames], and carried, was duly formed and forwarded by the Corresponding Secretary.

Miss Duer [Edith Duer] then moved that an alteration be made in Article IV, Section 5 of the Constitution, and Mrs. Griffin [Rebecca Griffin] suggested an amendment.

This matter was carried over to be proposed and voted upon at the next meeting of the Club on January 10th.

The first literary article of the programme was by Mrs. Sloan. It gave a careful and artistic account of "The Influence of Egyptian and Assyrian Art upon the Greeks". It treated of the Country's geographical disadvantages, physical limitations, and necessary conservatism, evolving eventually[21] that marvelous[22] sculpture which is still young today to it wisest interpreters.

The second paper was presented by Miss Morison [Alice Morison], and was a thorough and interesting description of "The Temple of Mike Apteros, and its relation to Greek Architecture".


It told of the small by exquisite Temple erected on the Hill of the Acropolis in 470 B.C., and named so significantly by Cimon after the triumphs of the Athenians over the Persians, Nike Apteros--Wingless Victory--; and of the evolution of Athenian Architecture from that date until the demolition of this Temple in 1687, when Athens was besieged by the Venitians.

Miss Brown [Mary Wilcox Brown] then reported a gift of twenty books from Murphy and Company, publishers, through the interest of Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace].

The meeting adjourned.


71st Meeting. [Jan. 10, 1893]

Notes by the Corresponding Secretary.

The seventy first Meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 10th, 1893, at No 12 East Centre Street.

The First Vice President presided.

In behalf of the World's Columbian Fair Commission, Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin] then asked for information concerning Maryland Authors.

The Librarian reported books received--from Dr. Bombaugh,--Mrs. I. E. Owens,--Miss Gibbes,--and Mrs. Chrichton.

Miss Duer [Edith Duer] then quoted Article IV, Section 5 of the Constitution*, and made a motion that the last paragraph of that Section be cut off, or, if not, be changed to read as follows:

"They must also state that they believe such a person to be capable of fulfilling the required duties."

*"On Members"


Discussion followed, and a motion was made and carried that the matter should be referred to a Committee; said  Committee to be appointed by the President, and to make its report at the meeting of the Club on January 24th.

Miss Malloy [Louise Malloy] then read an excellent paper on "American Newspapers." It treated the "Press" from different points of view;--as a public power,--a political factor,--and as the literal voice of the people;--spoke of its often unpardonable license, but oftener unexpected reticence and tact. Miss Malloy spoke of journalism as a field for women; and also as a literary training school for more than one man who had entered it unequipped by education.

Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] then read the "Story of a Lost Trunk", written by Miss Alice Brookes, whose pen-name "Alix" is found over so many charming sketches.

The names were then read of those who had been approved by the Board of Management for Membership; also the name of Mrs. Florence Earle Coates, to whom Honorary Membership had been extended by the Board of Management.

The meeting adjourned.


72nd Meeting. [Jan. 17, 1893]

The seventy second meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 17th, 1893, at No. 12 East Centre Street.

The President called the meeting to order.


The Recording Secretary then read the Minutes of the previous meeting on January 10th, written by the Corresponding Secretary.

The President announced that some complimentary tickets had been sent to the Club for an entertainment to be given by the St. Agnes Reading Circle of St. Ignatius's Church on St. Agnes's Eve, January 19th.

A letter was presented by Mrs. Easby [Gertrude Pierce Easby] conveying an Invitation from the New Century Club of Wilmington, Delaware to the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore, to a Literary Entertainment and Reception, on the occasion of the Opening of the new Club House of the New Century Club on the 31st of January.

They hope to have present two or more representatives from each of ten or twelve literary clubs. It was proposed that Mrs. Easby, who is a member of our Club, and also one of the Club in Wilmington, and at least one other one of our members, should accept this polite invitation, as the delegates or representatives of our Club. Various names were proposed, including those of Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman], Miss Adams, Mrs. Griffin [Rebecca Griffin] and Mrs. Johnson [W. Woolsey Johnson]. Mrs. Johnson agreed to accept the invitation; and it was expected that Miss Brown would also be able to do so.

The first Article on our Programme was by Mrs. Wrenshall on "The American Mounds and Mound-Builders." It was finely illustrated by drawings and maps. Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] had herself seen the mounds lately opened at Macon, Georgia.

She spoke of prehistoric remains in the old world, and in in[23] the new one; of the struggle


of the old life of this world with the great despoiler, Time; of [?sepulclural] monuments in, and perhaps before, the days of Homer. She then went on to describe particularly those found in our own country with trees centuries centuries[24] old growing upon them,--particularly one in Georgia with a live oak ten feet in diameter growing out of it. She spoke of their uses as tombs, altars and fortresses; of their regularity in construction; of the evidence of their having been in many instances well supplied with water, not only when they were places of refuge or defense[25], but also when they have been consecrated to religious services,--ablutions being common to the rites of many religions. Some had round towers, and wells with what were, apparently, stone covers for them.

She told us of mounds in different parts of our country, from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico, and of the remarkable features of all of them; and the--if possible--more remarkable remains--human--, and of human interest--found in them;--the skeletons with flattened heads, the copper or silver or bone implements[26] or ornaments, among these last the cross cut out of copper, but not like the cross familiar in our day, far more as the ancient Hindu[27], Phoenician or Greek represented it, with some mystic meanings of their own.

Mrs. Wrenshall spoke of the traces of the worship of the Sun-God also. Then of the likeness and the unlikeness of the old mounds to the Indian works of today. Then of the resemblance between the mounds of Ohio and the tombs lately opened at Mycale;


--"as if", she said, "the ancient Greek had been waiting for his American brother to reveal with him the secret trophies of the long forgotten past."

The next Article on our Programme was by Mrs. Griffin, under whose direction, as Chairman of the "Committee on Studies in American History" the afternoon's literary entertainment was given.

Mrs. Griffin's Article was on "The Pre-Historic Explorers". She took up the fascinating story of the Northmen in America,--of Leif Ericsson and Thorfinn and Gudred and Snorro, and many others, bringing before us delightful little stories others, bringing before us delightful little stores and sayings, many of them showing research, and not generally found in the ordinary accounts of those old voyages, who sailed as we may think to Labrador, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, as well as to Greenland.

She told of the new convert who went to take Christianity to the heathen, of whom his father was willing to admit that his good deeds offset his bad ones; of the good wife who built a church; of the South-Countryman's pleasure in funding wild grapes; and of the opportune black bull who frightened away the savages. Then how about the year 1135, by the waters of Baffin's Bay, the services of Ascension week were celebrated with peculiar solemnity. How the old Vikings' ships were stronger than those of Columbus, and how sometimes a hero was buried in the ship he had loved to sail in. How the ships were made with plates like shingles, with seats for rowers, not built in


rude or awkward fashion, but with what a sailor would call beautiful lines.

She thought those old sailors were honest story-tellers,--though the savages they told of were not like any savages then known to Europeans. She spoke of the good old priests, who wrote good vigorous Latin; of old Ari, descended from Snorro, as was the sculptor Thorwaldsen also. But we have only an abridgment[28] of the stories Ari told for us.

She told of the Bishops of Greenland and of Vinland as far back as the year 1191; of the old Cathedral in Greenland, now in ruins, where the creed was wont to be chanted, and processions of priests walked up the aisle, with their vestments and censers.

She spoke of the old descriptions of what we know to be the coast of North America; and told of one of the Chroniclers, who in 1450 gave a good account of "How one can go from Greenland to Markland and Vinland,--which, perhaps, is a part of Africa."

She described a feast of the old Norsemen,--ending with the wonderful song of a woman.

Mrs. Griffin then gave us a "Sea Rover's Song", with some curious allusions and symbolisms belonging to the Christianity of that old time,--and of some later times also. We listened, and seemed almost to see the--

--"Grim Vikings in their rapture".

--but not so much--

"In the Sea-fight and the capture",

as in the nobler and better work they did in their day and generation.

The two articles of this meeting interested us so much, especially as relating to the early days of our own country, that a proposal was made, and agreed to, to make the discussion of both of them the literary entertainment of our next Salon on January 31st.

The meeting adjourned.




73rd Meeting [January 24th, 1893]

The seventy third meeting of the Woman's Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 24th, 1893, at No 12 East Center Street, with the President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], in the chair.

The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of January 17th.

The President read to us a note informing her that Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller, known, by her reputation at least, to most of us, and Mrs. Backus, the President of the Woman's Literary Club of Brooklyn, New York, were experts to be present on the anniversary occasion of the New Century Club of Wilmington, Delaware, on January 31st; and she thought they might perhaps attend one of our meetings at about the same time,-- if there was to be anything of special interest in our meetings to which we could invite them.

It is perhaps a little unfortunate that our Salon this month takes place on the same day


as the anniversary meeting at Wilmington, as at this Salon, Mrs. Griffin [Rebecca Griffin] and Mrs. Wrenshall [Letitia Humphreys Yonge Wrenshall] are expected to preside over the discussion of the very interesting papers given to us by them on January 17th. Mrs. Miller and Mrs. Backus might however be inclined to visit us, and perhaps to contribute to our entertainment during the next few weeks.

Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat], from the Committee appointed to consider the resolution for amending the Constitution, in Article W. Section 5., reported that only some little progress had been made; one member of their Committee having been absent from their deliberations, they could not make a full report to the Club at this time; but that if the numbers of the Committee were full in the future, they would do so at a later meeting.

Some books were presented to the Club from Miss Alice Brooks.

The first Article on the Programme was by Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent], and was on "The English of American Literature.["]

She reminded us that when the beautiful Saxons first appear in history, they come carrying on their banners, into their battle-fields the representations of the lion and of the red rose,-- the symbols of strength and of beauty. That they came speaking a language which was one of the great so called Indo-European family—akin to the Sanskrit—and which has developed into the one we speak now;


keeping us in touch with our early forefathers. That there is really no great gulf fixed between the great periods of history; that we are united to those early heroes by one great band, one great truth of kinship. That our speech has come down to us in words, used first in family life, in war, and in religion, from the time when great Odin was believed to have led his forced from the Black Sea to spread over Europe.

Miss Brent spoke of the characteristics which remain to us of this blonde race, this brave, frank, reasoning, investigating people, prone to religious ideas; more than to religious forms;-- the characteristics still to be traced in their words, which are still our own.

She gave us some specimens of words in Sanskrit, and in Saxon and kindred tongues, and their modern equivalents.

"But English, our mother tongue was brought to our shores after many elements had been combined in it, to make it a noble whole. It was brought also by a proud and cultured people,-- lovers of romance and beauty. It came to with the precious inheritance of a noble literature, which, like that of ancient Greece, is in some senses an almost inexhaustible mine of treasures. Let us appreciate, and, if possible, improve this grand old language, ours to love and to use.

Our Essayist said that of course the first American Literature was imitative; and for a time, it was almost entirely theological or at


least religious,- this latter quality owing greatly to the circumstances surrounding the early emigration to America. As our history went on "War Songs["] wrote,-- and then followed the writings of Benjamin Franklin, of Hamilton, of Irving, and of a long line of skilled writers, down to Hawthrone, Longfellow, Holmes, Page, and Craddock,-- and many others, and many others, North, South, East, and West, down into our own days.

She spoke of the remarkable word-painting of the novel Ben-Hus. Then of journalism;-- then of criticism;-- and then especially of the new, fresh Southern literature, whose praise is in all the land. Also of the position of woman in literature at the present time.

Mrs. Ruskin calls English "-- at its best, a nobler language than ever Latin was." And surely we can join with Miss Brent in believing the great future of the language "we use and love."

The next Article on our Programme was by Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold], and was called “An Experiment in Colonization.”

She told us that in the year 593 a king of Spain issued a decree forbidding all Jews in his kingdom to hold land, and confiscating the real estate belonging to his subjects of that race or religion. That this law was the progenitor of many others of the same kind against the people of Israel; by reason of which they, who had been originally an agricultural


people, were restricted to a few trades and professions, and debarred from acquiring homesteads or cultivating farms. That, although in Austria, the liberal policy of Joseph the Second gave many privileges to the ancient nation, it is not more than a generation ago that the restriction against holding land has been swept away in some parts of Europe. In Russia the Anti-Semitic persecutions of the last twelve years have turned a full tide of emigration to this continent; and the theory has been enthusiastically advanced that the Russian Jews might be successful farmers in American and in Palestine;-- resulting in the beginning of some ten agricultural colonies in this country. One of these was established in Charles County, Maryland. They emigrants who went there staked their all,-- and lost it. They had good will, but not knowledge of our circumstances and condition in this country. The animals did not thrive,-- nor the crops; the colonists were reduced to despair, and the colony went the way of all flesh,-- and of Brook Farm.

Only two colonies have succeeded;-- on strict business principles. The magnificent gift of Baron de Hirsch is being used more for educations ends than for the ordinary purposes of helping distress. It is used in a system of loans,-- not gifts. The trustees are only morale[?] by accountable to the giver of the fund; and are at liberty to use the principal of the gift


when the existing need is over, for any other benevolent works, they shall deem worthy of it.

Miss Szold is of the colony established under this patronage in the Argentine Republic.

She then went on to speak of the farming community established by the trustees of Baron de Hirsch at Woodbine, New Jersey on the road between Philadelphia and Lake May,-- which has lasted a year, at least, prosperously. The Superintendent and instructor in farming is a Russian from Odessa, who knows both Russian and American conditions of life and of agriculture,-- and besides has a heart. The people are engaged in truck-faming, which requires less capital than some other kinds of agricultural business, and with the small famers of Europe succeeds well, only, near large cites. As in the colony of Vineland, during its first decade, the summer farm-work is supplemented by factory-work in the winter,-- being near the city. But this has a tendency to bring some colonists into the vortex of the social and labor questions of the day. She had heard too that religious scruples had been a disadvantage in some cases;-- also of some unprincipled exactions. That the people of, I believe, the Carmel settlement, were told by the factory superintendents that they, living in the country having smaller rents, and less cost of living, could afford to work for cheaper wages than the city workers,-- which seemed fair enough. But the employers then turned on the city works, and


announced that their wages must be cut down, because the same work was done more cheaply by the country people,-- which seemed manifestly unfair.

Miss Szold described a visit she paid to a colony of Russian Jews last summer. She told of the flower gardens and the fruit trees that she saw, of the farms and the people;-- of the good will with which they met her, especially after hearing that she was a teacher. That she went into the school, and found the young children talking English, and making only English and American mistakes in that language,-- not foreign mistakes. English is made the language of the colony, and she said she “never before heard such good ‘broken’ English.[“] She was shown the finest looking of the farms, and was told that “the man” of that farm was “a woman”;-- woman with eleven children,-- the eldest thirty years old,-- and that her husband was a porter. Her hands were rough perhaps, but her clear eyes and pleasant face were very far from ugly.  

The Superintendent said that among his Jewish and non-Jewish people he had found only two idle men. He spoke of having facilitated a marriage, and of having prevented a divorce in his colony. We were told of one man who was an interesting type of the present day,-- a civil engineer who had lived in Palestine before coming to America.

Miss Szold had expected to be entertained


by the Superintendent at his own house; but on her arrival, found that his house happened to be full of his own relations;-- so she was obliged to accept rather rude accommodations at a lodging house for people of the class of carpenters and builders. But this gave her an excellent opportunity to study the colonists on their own ground, in their real village life. She saw how they helped each other; she saw how their eight-roomed houses;-- the factory being built and was told of the hotel, projected. She listened to the conversations of, sometimes, rather incongruous company; heard American politics and Russian oppressions discussed, sometimes, by men who evidently thought that patriotism and nihilism were synonymous terms, or, apparently, that patriots here would be nihilists in Russia. She was paid the doubtful compliment of being called worthy to be a nihilist,-- in Russia, seemed to be understood.

She sat in their sitting room and heard a discussion on the ideal or real province of literature,-- the realists being very largely in the majority in a company of twenty five. Men who made four dollars a week quoted from almost every known literature;-- from Euripides, Herbert Spencer, and Darwin, from Balzac, the English Dramatists and American writers,-- in their “good broken English.”

For his cottage and grounds an emigrant pays two hundred dollars; and, at the end of ten years, the remainder of the nine hundred


dollars it costs;-- but the want of the required sum probably does not debar a desirable colonist from being received. The improvements are not pushed too rapidly. A New York cloak factory has established a branch house in the colony, and work there is paid for.

Miss Szold then took up the questions whether the “farming colony” of Russian Jews in this country can be considered “a success”? She spoke of the movement as a whole; of the paternal care that has been exercised over it; of some circumstances which may rob it of some of its usefulness; of other elements that may creep into it.

But going back to the picture she had drawn for us, of what she had seen and felt, she spoke of the prosperous farms an apparently prosperous people; of the vineyards of whose grapes she had eaten; with the strong feeling of realization of the words of the old Hebrew Prophet: “Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that the ploughman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that soweth seed; and the mountains shall drop new wine.-- And I will bring again the captivity of my people Israel, and they shall build the waste cities and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards and drink the wine thereof; they shall also make gardens, and eat the fruit of them, and I will plant them upon their land, and they shall no more be pulled up out of their and which I have given them, saith the Lord thy God.” (Amos, 9.13.)

We were promised on our Programme


a paper by Mrs. Easter [Marguerite E. Easter]; but, as they hour was a little late, Mrs. Easter requested that her paper might be left out. The President announced that Mrs. Easter’s paper would be read at the next meeting. A poem which was to have closed this paper was then read by the President, it was called “Shenandoah.” It tells of the mountain rills that seeks “the shining river,-- the beauteous, lamb-like, bird-like, steed-like, then placid river Shenandoah.”

Announcement was made of some books sent to the Club from the Johns Hopkins University. The meeting adjourned. Adopted.  



21st Salon [Tuesday, January 31st, 1893]

The twenty first Salon of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, January 31st, 1893.

The Recording Secretary being again absent, and wishing to make some record of the meeting for future reference, can only copy the newspaper report of the next morning, and add a few notes kindly given by the Corresponding Secretary.

Report in the Baltimore “Sun” of February 1st, 1893. “The Salon or afternoon tea of the Woman’s Literary Club yesterday was marked by an unusually large attendance, nearly all the members being present, besides a large number of strangers who are well known in literary work. The only paper read was a sketch by Mrs. Marguerite


E. Easter, entitled “The Meeting of the Marylanders at Front Royal, May 23rd, 1862.” Mrs. Easter lives during a part of the year in the vicinity of Front Royal, and her descriptions were drawn from personal visits to the battle-field. The incidents related of the battle were told to her by survivors of the conflict. An interesting part of the paper was the description of the leaders on each side. The Club has received 133 books for its library.”


The Library Record was open for the first time.

Letters were read from Mrs. Olive Throne Miller and Mrs. Florence Earle Coates,-- the latter expressing her pleasure at having been elected an Honorary Member of the Club.

An Invitation was received from the “Lend a Hand Club of Mt. Washington[“] to our members, for February 1st;-- Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller being the guest of honor on that day. The names of the seven new members voted by the Board of Management on January 10th, and read to the Club on the same day was again read. These names were: Miss Cewas,-- Miss Cousins [Miss Lucy Cousins],-- Miss George [Imogen George],-- Mrs. Morris,-- Miss Rust [Pauline Covington Rust],-- Mrs. Frederick Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson],-- and Miss Wilmer. After refreshments and conversation, the meeting adjourned.



74th Meeting [February 7th, 1893]

The seventy fourth meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, February 7th, 1893, at No 12 East Centre Street.

The President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the meeting of January 24th.

The President announced that we were to have this afternoon a visit from Miss Julia Marlowe; -- also that Mr. Ford had sent to the Club some fine photographs of Miss Marlowe, taken in her different dramatic characters.

The President then requested the new members present to come forward, and be presented to the Club. Miss Cenas, Mrs. Tyson [Florence McIntyre Tyson] and Miss Comins complied with this request.

The President then read the Club’s Certificate of the Membership. She said that some persons had objected to its statements with regard to our aims and efforts as a Club, -- thinking them entirely too serious. But, as we had only two hours to be together in each week, we did not know how to do better than to be helpful to each other.

The President then announced that this meeting was to be under the direction of Miss Adams, the chairman of the Committee on Art.

The first Article on the Programme was by Miss Volck [Annie C. Volck], and was called “Chips from Blocks, Old and New.” Miss Volck told


us she hoped her “chips” might not be very dry ones, though they might be taken from very old blocks. She could only give us a glance at one branch of illustrative art, -- that of wood engraving or xylography.

She reminded us of the fact that with all great inventions, some one else seems always to have preceeded [preceded] the the authentically known inventor, -- to rob him of his glory, by having done the same thing before he did it. But that the art of wood engraving is like a mighty tree, with divided branches, and various blossoms, whose roots have, far off in the dark ages, disappeared from our view. That it is of oriental origin is generally believed; and the Chinese seem to have been the first people certainly known to have shown acquaintance with this art. They claim to have practiced it some 1100 years before the Christian Era, -- but, at least wood engraving, or wood cutting, was used by them 300 years before Christ.

Perhaps our own ancestors may have known something of this kind of decoration earlier than the 13th Century; but we have no reliable proof of their having put it into practice before that time.

Miss Volck of the journeys of Marco Polo and of his father and uncle to China and Mongolia, and of their return about the time that we first find any reference to anything that we can call wood engraving in Europe. The early wood engraving of


of Europe seems to have been exercised chiefly on playing cards, and—on Sacred pictures. The alleged ancient oriental origin of playing cards seems to agree with the earliest mode of producing them.

We were reminded that the celebrated print of Saint Christopher and the Child Christ has the date 1423. Also of the Biblia Pauperum, or Bible of the Poor, that sacred picture-book of the middle ages, with illustrative texts and sentences; first printed with blocks,-- and afterwards with types, and went on to tell us of the early and later history of wood engraving in France and Italy, in England and Germany. She spoke of Allrecht Dürer, and his illustrations of the “History of the Virgin,” and of other works;-- of Holbein, and the other German and Dutch “wood-callers.” Also of the people to whom pictures were literature, -- or gospel.” She went on to speak of Pappillion, of Bewick, and of some of the great names and the great work of the two gloden [golden] ages of this art,-- the 16th, and the 19th Centuries.

She said that in the 17th Century this art seemed to meet its death blow, by the very movement of reform, demanding artificial refinement, when copper engraving and etching book its place for a time, -- But, later, came its revival.

Miss Volck closed her appreciative and


well appreciated article, reminding us that it is hardly necessary to speak of the illustrated newspapers and literary periodicals of our own day; nor of our books, to prove that the art of Xylography is keeping step with the times, and with the popular life; that it is ministering to the intelligent progress of an art-loving as well as a book-reading republic.

Miss Duer [Edith Duer] then rose to make the motion that the report of the Committee on the Amendment to the Constution [Constitution] of the Club be deferred to February 21st, and be presented at the meeting of that day: Miss Hoffman [Fanny Hoffman] seconded the motion, and it was carried, without opposition.

The next article on the programme was by Miss Adams and was called: “Impressionism in Art.” Miss Adams spoke of the idea of impressionism in art; which seems, by some persons, almost to be confounded with the idea of dashed of color on canvas. But there must be some definition of what very many intelligent people believe to be the coming of Art itself. It may be what we see only with the eye, or what the heart and the mind see, of their first knowledge, -- of the first kiss of a mother or, of the first Spring in Italy, to one from New England, to whom the Italian spring is a revelation. When, a high soul leads the hand; when there is aspiration with


inspiration, then Art has its true mission.

She spoke of some impressionists who are without emotion, -- with grand mechanism of life, without feeling.

Miss Adams spoke of Millais, the great impressionist; of Bastien le Page; of Gèrome; of Bougereau.

She spoke of Egyptian Art, -- of the earliest impressionism; when sometimes out of the repose over all there comes a face full of intense feeling, Then of the grand art of Greece, -- of the first great page of noble impressionism. Then of the art now being unfolded at Pompeii, -- not of painting but of sculpture, bronzes, etc. Then of the combination of Greek and Oriental idea which became Byzantine art.

In speaking of Venetian art, Miss Adams referred to, and then read to us Ruskin’s description of Venice, -- “so beautiful, so strange,”--”the golden clasp on the girdle of the earth,”--“the emblem of fortitude and splendor, etc.”

We were told of the time “when Florence felt that something must be done for humanity,” – then of Cimabue; then of Dante and of Savonarola; -- then of the Spanish Velasquez; --and of the still undying charm of impressionism.

Miss Adams went on to speak of William Blake; and afterwards of Rosetti and Burne Jones; and of others, who, she said, showed a tender, hopeful sentiment and faith.

She showed us a copy of Rosetti’s picture of Beatrice dying; with Dante in the background; -- representing she said neither Death nor Life, but a strange intermingling of both, -- the idea of the Vita Nuova, caught by the artist; -- of Beatrice, “rapt from earth to heaven.”

We were reminded of Vedder’s illustrations to Omar Kazzam [Khayyam]; of Hunt; of Whistler; of Turner; and of others.

Miss Adams closed by speaking of the highest and noblest purposes of Art, -- of all arts; -- and of the rich gifts the bring to us.

It seemed appropriate that our literary, having being devoted to the consideration of two kindred branches of Art, should be followed by the visit of the devotee to another form of art, -- the dramatic one, in the person of Miss Julia Marlowe: She and her companion in the same profession, Miss Lindemann, -- or Mrs. Woodward, -- now arrived among us accompanied by our fellow member Miss Malloy [Louise Malloy].

The President presented Miss Marlowe to the Club and she and Miss Lindemann received cordial greetings.

It has been said that Miss Marlowe’s chief charm, on the stage, is her graceful womanliness; --and we, who have now seen her, off the stage, can perhaps fully appreciate the assertion. As women, as lovers of art, literature, and beauty, we can certainly appreciate a charming personality. We were introduced to the two ladies, who gave


their autographs to our visitors[’] book, and to some of our members, individualy [individually].

The meeting adjourned.


75th Meeting [February 14th, 1893]

The seventy fifth Meeting of the Women’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, February 14th, 1893 at No 12 East Centre Street.

The club met, and was called to order by the first Vice-President, who presided at this meeting.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the meeting of February 7th; which were adopted.

The attention of the Club was called to the notice of a Reading to be given by the well-known author, Mr. J. Marion Crawford, for a charitable object. It was to consist of selections from this author’s own works; and tickets could be procured from several ladies mentioned, -- including our fellow member, Mrs. Dammann [Aileen B. C. Dammann].

Miss Brown [Mary Wilcox Brown] announced that some books and pamphlets had been presented to the Club; by the Reverend Dr. Hodges, by Mr. Ball, and by Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock].

Our Programme for this evening was made up of “Authors’ Readings, -- Selections from the Work of Club Members.”

The first Reading was given by Miss Brown of an Article written by Miss Marian V. Dorsey, called: “An Unworked Field for the Realist.”

Miss Dorsey spoke of the effect of our environment on our mental quality, and on our mental growth; and quoted the saying that “a man can no more lift himself by force out of his mind’s environment than he can lift his body over a fence by pulling on his boot-straps.” She went on to recall to us the effect of environment on literature, or rather, on fiction and poetry; -- showing itself in local color, in dialect and provincialisms, and in the character of recorded thought and impressions.

She reminded us while Virginia possessed the creator of “Marse Chan” and “Meh Lady,” [Thomas Nelson Page] --and the farther South, the creator of “Uncle Remus,” [Joel Chandler Harris] -- while the South West has Craddock[29] and others like her, -- Maryland seems virtually still an unworked field for the Realist.

It was admitted that we have among us the author of the “Dukesbors’ Tales;” – but Dukesbors prosesses [professes?] to be in Georgia, -- and Colonel Johnson’s pictures, however much appreciated in Maryland, have the color of a more Southern background than our own.

But, she thought that surely no state is richer than ours in capabilities for showing local color and characteristics; -- even if we do partake of the tone of the beloved Virginia on one side, and of our good prosperous neighbor Pennsylvania


on the other. She also recalled the equally unworked field of our sister-state of Delaware.

Miss Dorsey went on to speak of the boggy swampy regions within our borders, where it is constantly reported of the poor while people that, when their crops fail, they eat clay; and consequently, have a correspondingly clay-like complexion, -- and a somewhat retarded civilization. On the other hand, even the Baltimore girls, -- or rather, let us say – the women of Maryland have not yet found their full recognition in literature.

The Maryland girl is like the well saved china and antique furniture, brought across the sea, and which she shows you in country houses, in company with the portrait of her great-grandfather, -- “the signer of the Declaration of Independence, you know,” – either for Maryland, or Virginia, or some other state perhaps.

In the country neighborhoods, the Parish or Church register is a sort of Burke’s Peerage.

On the Eastern, and on the Western Shore, a hospitality still reigns, something like that of the olden time.

We were told of the cushion on which Queen Anne knelt at her coronation, afterwards presented by herself to a church in Maryland; and preserved there, piously – as the good people thought, but impiously, in the opinion of a certain good bishop of Irish blood, who ordered it off from its


place of honor; as only the footstool of one of God’s creatures, and unworthy of any distinction in His temple.

There is an untold wealth of romantic interest too in the tales of the old Catholic settlers and their descendants.

There ought to be a “treasure trove in the old Indian names, -- and all that they stand for, -- to one who can see, hear, and understand them.”

We were then told of the camp meetings in the neighborhoods that seem to be nothing, if not Methodist; -- where, while the religious fervor reaches its high water mark around the preaching stand, some unregenerate kinsman -- or follower – of the worshippers, will invite you, at the back of his carriage, away from the tents, to come and cut a watermelon with him. That the hospitable Spaniard tells you his house is yours; the Arab puts his tent at your service; -- but the Southern Marylander asks you to “assist” at the cutting of a watermelon.

Miss Dorsey spoke of the old homesteads, never bought or sold, with perhaps, hanging on their walls, the original grants from the Lords Proprietary to the ancestors of the present owners.

We were given some lively accounts of the poor people – white and colored, especially the latter class, in the lower counties; many of whom can not understand that religion includes mortality, and yet can never be so wicked as to sing a song. Also of the country superstitions, signs and portents.


We were told of the oyster-tonging; -- and of the new branches of industry, whereby the “gospel of labor is at last penetrating into Arcadia.[”] 

We could join with Miss Dorsey in hoping that, if Maryland can not have her Nelson Page or Craddock, some Maryland woman may yet gather our native violets, may yet show the beauties of the State we love.

The next reading was by Mrs. Whitelock, of a story of her own. It was called: “Love’s House, a Thought Materialization.”

She painted two young lovers -- like two young birds -- marrying in the spring, and building and furnishing the house for themselves, -- and Love, -- to dwell in. There is a mother-in-law, and a fair young foster-sister of the wife, in the story. Through he first, perhaps consecously [consciously], through the second, unconsciously, we are told, comes, or seems to come:

“--The little rift within the lute Which soon shall make the music mute” --in Love’s House.

At last the wife sees, or thinks she sees, for we know “the eyes of Love are in his mind,” -- the husband and the young Muriel sitting still with their eyes fixed upon each other. Muriel suddenly disappears from the room; and the husband afterwards insists that she has not been there at all.

Then the shadow takes shape, and darkens Love’s House. Then Muriel disappears,


unquestionably, from the shadowed home; and the wife, in good faith and courage, tells her husband to go and bring her back; -- “giving him,” says the author, “a trust that saves his soul.”

When both are gone away, Love’s House is full of ghosts, -- until the husband returns alone. Muriel has gone -- to a convent, to take those vows to which her friends have long refused consent; and by which, in her belief, and very soon in theirs also, her truest vocation and destiny are assumed -- and decided.

And, soon after, the husband and wife give the name of Muriel to a little baby-girl, their very own; and Love’s House is again all brightness and loveliness.

The next reading was by Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman], of a story written by Miss Grace Denio Litchfield. It was called “Hillary’s Husband.”

Hillary is first shown to us standing by her window, watching her lover, Aaron Jones, going away from her, -- just as if she were watching the hearse carrying her best loved one to his burial. Then she goes into the room of her aunt, a helpless paralytic, -- who has no one but Hillary to care for her, and for whose sake she has dismissed her lover, -- and she takes up the duties for which love has been sacrificed.

Then Farmer Perkins and his wife, with whom Hillary boards, are photographed for


us, -- with their surprise on hearing that Aaron Jones has gone to Omaha; with no present intention of coming back The farmer’s wife insists that “no kind of religion ought to ask such a thing” as Hillary has done. But the farmer says only: “Hillary is made of decent stuff, -- she’ll do.”

The next photograph given us, is of Hillary in her own room, after all the family are asleep; dressed in white -- bride-like, even to the veil, a light fleecy shawl, floating around her. She descends to the garden for white roses to put in her breast and hair; and then stands before the glass, lacking nothing -- save some one to say that she is fair. She takes up her prayer-book; finds the right place, and kneels down; -- then remembers the ring. But a piece of yellow silk will do for that. And then, with her hand on the book, she repeats the marriage vows.

From that night a new life begins for Hillary. The silken thread lies under another ring, generally unseen; or, if noticed, explained as put there to remind her of something. She wears Aaron’s favorite colors, she makes presents, and clothes, as she considers them needed for him, -- which are given to the poor, --and she keeps her wedding anniversary, in her own way.

The feeble light of her aunt’s life dies out; the farmer and his wife grow old; and news comes that Aaron Jones is doing well


in the West, and even that he has married a wife. But Hillary keeps her dream-husband still; and he seems to keep step with her.

At last comes a wonderful bit of news, Aaron Jones -- now a rich widower -- has come back to his early home, -- and is asking for her. Then he declares that there is no change in Hillary, -- she is just what he left her.

But he is not the old Aaron, she can not think him back again. He is too noisy, too stout, his clothes fit him too well. When he asks her to go to the West with him now, there is no helpless form to hold her back; -- but this is not the Aaron of her dreams. After being true to him for years, -- how can she throw him over now? Can any shining ring, replace the often renewed silken one she wears? She can not be faithless to the old Aaron, for the sake of the new one.

She sends her lover away again; and this time, he turns and waves his hand to her.

Farmer Perkins looks on, and says: “Hillary, you are made of decent stuff; -- you’ll do; you’ll do.”

Mrs. Dammann then read to us a Section from the “Imaginary Conversations” of Walter Savage Landor. She quoted from Foster’s Life of Landor, that in these Imaginary Conversations between Heroes, Statesmen and Writers, there is always a great deal of Landor himself. She gave us also the opinions of Julius Hare, and of Hazlitt on Landor’s Work.

The Conversation she read to us was the


one between Peter the Great and his son, Alexis, when the father and son first meet after the son has been brought back from his unauthorized vist [visit] to Vienna.

In the beginning Alexis seems scarcely to comprehend fully the savage cruelty of his father’s nature, which grows more and more evident through all his references made to the kind of successor he ought to leave to rule the nation, -- to the founder of Rome, who slew his brother, and his charges of the son’s conspiring against the father’s throne.

At last the son is condemned to die; and, we are told, dies of the shock, of his sentence; -- after which, the father calls for brandy, and caviare, [caviar?] and good strong cheese.

Carlyle, who calls this mysteriously ill-fated Alexis, “a poor foolish Czarowitz [?], miserable, and making others miserable;” -- also calls his father, “a triumphant Czar,” and, “certainly the strangest mirdure [mixture?] of heroic virtue and brutish Samoëidic [?] savagery the world at any time had.”

Landor evidently fails to see the heroic virtue through the brutish savagery of Peter the Great; although the Landor has, as Emerson said, an English appetite for action and heroes.

The Club then engaged in conversations perhaps less heroic than those imagined by Mr. Landor, but, let us hope, not entirely wanting in what Dr. Johnson called “the endearing elegance of female friendship.”

The meeting informally adjourned.



76th Meeting [February 21st, 1893]

The seventy sixth meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, February 21st, 1893, at No. 12 East Centre Street[.]

The meeting was called to order by the President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull].

The customary reading of the Minutes of the last previous meeting was omitted.

The President announced that the first article of the Business before us was the Report of the Committee of five appointed to consider the Amendment proposed by Miss Duer [Edith Duer] to Article IV Section 5 of our Constitution.

The Committee presented majority and minority Reports.

The majority Report, signed by Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock], Mrs. Hamman [Louise C. Haman], Mrs. William Woolsey Johnson, and Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat], announced; that: In their opinion it is not advisable at this time to adopt the proposed Amendment.”

The minority Report, signed by Miss Duer, said that: “She is in favor of adopting the Amendment proposed.”

Miss Crane [Lydia Crane] moved that the majority Report be adopted.

Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] seconded the motion; and, with very little further discussion, it was carried, by a large majority.

Mrs. Johnson proposed a resolution that a Committee of five should be elected by the Club to revise the Constitution; that they should receive suggestions before the 11th of March; that each Section amended should be


submitted to each member of the Club, before the 28th of March; and that the Committee should report the result of their work to the Club on the 4th of April, to be voted upon.

Mrs. Colvin [Mary Noyes Colvin] seconded this motion.

The President reminded us of the careful thought, attention and investigation which preceded and accompanied the formation and adoption of our Constitution; -- but that, after all; it was only the instrument by means of which the wheels are to be made to run smoothly in carrying forward our distinctly literary work. That this work had been interrupted and retarded by proposed amendments to the Constitution; and by discussions on business, which, to many of us, do not seem to conduce to the welfare of the Club, -- nor to our mental refreshment and advancement.

Mrs. Johnson said she thought it would be well to have stated times for business meetings; rather than to have, as now, the risk of any member rising at anytime to propose a question of business. She pointed out that the Constitution, made nearly three years ago, was faulty in some respects; especially in the matter of electing officers, and also in respect to the fact of the small number constituting a quorum of the Board of Management, -- she thought this ought to be seven instead of four.

The President called attention to the fact of our being now very late in the Club year,


and to the consideration we ought to give to our real and important work, -- the work for which we have our existence as a Club.

After some discussion, in which Mrs. Colvin, Miss Duer, Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock] and others look past, -- Mrs. Atkinson [Mrs. Robert Atkinson] asked the President herself: “if she really desired to postpone action on the subjects under discussion till the end of the year?”

On receiving an affirmative reply, Mrs. Atkinson said the -- “the wish of so acceptable a President ought certainly to have weight with us.[“]

This sentiment was applauded.

Mrs. Easby [Gertrude Pierce Easby] requested Mrs. Johnson to withdraw her motion.

Mrs. Johnson, after giving us a few words of explanation, acceded to this request.

Mrs. Sioussat said that Mrs. Johnson having kindly withdrawn her motion, she herself moved that all action on the subjects under discussion be postponed until after the end of the year.

After some further discussion, Mrs. Sioussat’s motion for postponement was carried, -- by a vote of forty five in favor to nine against it. (45 to 9).

As the Club was expected to participate in the Reception given at the opening of the home of the Academy of Sciences, the same evening; -- this last vote was followed by an informal adjournment.

The Programme prepared for this meeting was postponed; not, we trust, like the business under discussion, to the end of the year; but adjourned, like the meeting, to an occasion when


we can “enjoy” the good, --

“-- dear wit and gay rhetoric,

That hath so well been taught,--“

And expressed by the essays of our fellow members.

As part of the history of the Club, I think it just to put on record the full text of Miss Duer’s Resolution to amend Article IV Section 5 of the Constitution, offered in full meeting, on January 3rd 1893: -- and, also, of the majority, and minority Reports of the Committee of five members appointed to consider the said Resolution, offered in the full meeting of February 21st, 1893.

Miss Duer’s Resolution related to the proposer and seconders of the nominations for new members, and was as follows:

Amendment to Article IV Section 5.

The last paragraph shall read --

“They must also state whether thy believe such a person to be capable of fulfilling the required duties.”


Majority Report.

“The Committee appointed to consider Miss Duer’s Amendment to Article IV Section 5” of the Constitution,” -- beg leave to report that in their opinion it is not advisable at this time to adopt the foregoing Amendment.”

Annie Leakin Sioussat, Chairman.

Louise Clarkson Whitelock.

Louise C. Haman.

S, L. Johnson.

January 26th, 1893.



Minority Report.

“The undersigned begs leave to present a minority report, to the effect that; she considers it unwise, unusual, and ungenerous to ask any one to subscribe to the conditions of membership before she is elected; consequently, she reports in favor of adopting the amendment as proposed.”

Edith Duer.

The majority Report was, as previously recorded, adopted, by a large majority, at the full meeting of the Club on February 21st, 1893.

[Reception of the Academy of Sciences.

On the evening of February 21st, 1893, the Academy of Sciences of Baltimore held a Reception to dedicate its new building on the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The Reception was held in the large room furnished and prepared by the Woman’s Literary Club; -- and the Club members were, of course, among the guests of the occasion.]


22nd Salon. W.L.C. [February 28th, 1893], at the comer of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.


Being our first meeting in our new quarters, this Salon partook of the nature of a more general Reception than usual, as invitations were sent to a number of our friends, both ladies and gentlemen to be present.

Though several of the distinguished expected guests did not arrive, the Secretary has been assured that the meeting was one of great social enjoyment.


Special Meeting. [March 3rd, 1893]

The Committee on Economics of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, of which Miss Mary Wilcox Brown is Chairman, having invited the Reverend J. C. Moran, Archdeacon of Maryland, to deliver an address before them, also invited their fellow-members to hold a special meeting of the Club to hear him, with them.

This Meeting was held on Friday, March 3rd, 1893, at the corner of Cathedral and Franklin Streets.

Archdeacon Moran’s Address was on “Women’s Guilds to Aid Woman’s Work.” He gave us some very interesting particulars of the work of himself and others in London, Paris, New York, Baltimore and elsewhere, among the poor; with especial regard to work among poor women.

A few words were said by the Reverend Dr. Leakin. 


An animated discussion on “Woman’s Work and Wages” was carried on, in which Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat], Miss Duer [Edith Duer], Miss Hoffman [Fanny Hoffman], Miss Brown and others participated, with great interest.

The President spoke of the efficient young Chairman of the Committee on Economics, and congratulated the Committee on the work that it had done.

The meeting informally adjourned.


77th Meeting [March 7, 1893]

The seventy seventh meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 7th, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] called the meeting to order.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the two meetings on February 14th and February 21st; which were adopted,

The President said a few words in reference to the meeting of last Friday, March 3rd, under the direction of the Committee on Economics, for which a general invitation had been extended to the whole Club; and at which an address had been given by Archdeacon Moran on “Women’s Guilds to aid Woman’s Work”; and the efforts made for their improvement. Mrs Turnbull went on to speak of the meetings of our Club Committee on Economics,


held on Friday afternoons in our Committee room; and said she hoped as many of our Club members as possible would take an interest in its efforts to do good, where good is needed to be done.

Notice was also given of the meetings of the Committee on Fiction, on Friday mornings a eleven o’clock, in our Committee room.

The President then announced that the Programme for our meeting about to be held had been prepared by Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese], the Chairman of the Committee on Poetry; but that, to our great regret, Miss Reese was unable to be with us this afternoon, owing to the death of her brother. In deference to her, and her affliction, it had been concluded to postpone her programme until she could be with us again, and personally do justice to the care she had bestowed upon it.

Miss Brown made a motion for the expression of our sympathy with Miss Reese in her present sorrow; which was adopted.

Mrs. Turnbull then read a poem by Miss Reese, which seemed appropriate to our thought[s?-illegible] of her on this occasion. It was called: ”The Shepherd comes, the Shepherd goes,- and tells us of the Good Shepherd,” who leads his happy sheep to pastures green and deep”,--“whose call each one must wait;” and of the little lamb who followed him to the fold,”--all in Miss Reese’s own musically measured words.

Miss Bessie Clark next gave us a paper on “Illustrations and Illustrative Art”.


She took us back to the beginning of literature to Egyptian papyrus and hierogliphics, to Greek, Latin and Byzantine Art, on down to the laboriously illustrated and illustrated books of the middle ages. Those last, she said, were not by any means all the work of the monks, but also of an army of workers under the patronage of kings, princes and magnates; and that they bridged over the gulf between classic writing and modern printing. She spoke of Black Letter books, some of which are of artistic value also. She went on to the days of Renaissance, with their treasures of art, varied and wonderful; and of the days when illuminated, hand-pictured and hand-written books began to give place to printed books.

Miss Clark then spoke of the art of engraving,--ancient and modern,-- of Egyptian and Babylonian seals, of old intaglios, and of wood engravings,--of niello and enamel. She spoke of the old true artist engravers, of Dürer and Van Leyden, who could put atmosphere into prints

She reminded us of Miss Volck’s [Annie C. Volck] very interesting article on “Etching,” given to us last Fall.

Miss Clark then went on to speak of Dry-Point, and Mezzotint, and Photography.

She told us that story related by Horace Walpole, in which he makes the soldierly Prince Rupert, the inventor of Mezzotint engraving, as well as of the “drops” called by his name:--of how, being in exile after the death of his unfortunate uncle, King Charles, he


once watched a soldier cleaning his gun, and found in the half-rough and half-bright surface, a new artistic idea.

From the Art of Illustrations, in its various branches, Miss Clark went on to speak of the artists who have been eminent illustrators, and of their most illustrious works.

She also exhibited, in illustration of her article, a number of engravings, etchings, and photographs, which were highly appreciated by the members of the Club.

Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer] then told us of a wonderful old illustrated Missal she had seen and carefully examined. She said that, fifty years ago, she spent some time at the house of Mr. George Ticknor, in Boston, and enjoyed his library and its surroundings,--which no one that had ever seen them would be likely to forget. That Mr. Ticknor had picked up this treasure of a Missal in Florence; where it had—-probably--been taken out of the ducal palace during some of the revolutionary disturbances of that city. It had, Mrs. Latimer said, belonged to Maddalena--a German princess,--who married one of the Grand Dukes of Tuscany, and it was one of her wedding presents. It was beautifully ornamented with pictured saints, as other missals have been; and besides, contained the painted miniatures of a number of the intimate friends of the princess, and also their autographs. And these were the great and distinguished people of their time.


When this princess said her prayers, she could feel herself accompanied by those near and dear to her.

At the present day, the value of this book even as an autograph album, or as a picture gallery, would be hard to estimate, by those of us who love,-and who does not?-the things that are lovely, of the olden time.

The announcement was then made that the next meeting would be under the direction of the Committee on Fiction.

The meeting adjourned.


78th Meeting [March 14, 1893]

The seventy eighth meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, March 14th, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The President called the meeting to order. The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of March 7th,--which were adopted.

The President reminded us of the arrangement made for this meeting and the next following one to begin at three, instead of half past three o’clock, and to close earlier than usual;--to give time for many of our members to attend the lectures of Professor Tyrrell on Latin Poetry. She spoke of the great regret caused by the illness of Professor Tyrrell, which had made necessary a postponement of these lectures; but said that he hoped to be well enough to begin them on Thursday.


She then announced that our Committee on Fiction held its meetings every Friday morning in the Committee room; which meetings were, in the absence of Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock] to be under the direction of Miss Bennett [Sarah H. Bennett].

The announcement was also made of a Reading to be given by Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin, at Hazazar’s Hall, for the benefit of Grace Church Free Kindergarten. Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] also spoke of the Free Kindergarten system, and of the efforts to introduce it into the public schools.

An announcement was made of a Musical Recital at the house of Miss Bond.

We were informed that our next meeting was to be under the direction of the Committee on the Evolution of Charity,-- of which Mrs. James Lake [Margaret Lake] is Chairman.

The President then said that we had as a visitor this evening, Mrs. Tyrrell, the wife of Professor Tyrrell of Dublin; and that, at the close of the meeting, the members would have the pleasure of being presented to her.

The President also reminded us that the next meeting of the Board of Management for the election of new members of the Club will take place on the first Tuesday in May; and that those who wish to propose names for membership may find it well to present them beforehand to any member of the Executive Board:-- a month’s consideration being not too much to be given to this subject of new members, who shall help and further the work for which our Club has its existence.

The Librarian announced that after the last meeting, three books had been presented to the Club:-- “The Law of Periodicity”, by the Reverend Dr. Leakin,-- and the “Early History of Maryland” and “Church Life in Maryland”, the latter two works by the Reverend Theodore G. Gambill [Gambrill?- illeg.].

The first Article on our Programme was by Mrs. Fabian Franklin [Christine Ladd-Franklin], and was on “The Sensation of Color.” She sketched in a few words the present state of scientific premises and conclusions-- or hypotheses-- on this very interesting subject; and gave us a clear explanation and critical examination of the theories of Helmholz and Hering and others.

She spoke of the resemblances of sound and light, and of the present apparent limitations of these analogies;- and described some of the scientific experiments illustrating her subject.

Mrs. Franklin advanced to a new theory of her own, differing from those mentioned,-- and supported it with skill and ability.

She spoke of the development of the sensation of color in animals, and of the high sense of color possessed by birds.

She told us that the power to distinguish brightness or darkness, or black and white, seems to precede, in the human infant’s consciousness, the power to distinguish colors. She spoke of color-blindness; and told of the contribution to science which the people who are color-blind in one eye have only been able to make.


Mrs. Franklin’s essay aroused the interest of her fellow members, as was shown by their questions and comments. Among other things, Mrs. Turnbull spoke of the investigations of Professor Garner into the language of monkeys, and his assertion that they have a word representing the idea of light, or brightness.

We could recall the investigations made some years ago into the color systems of early writers; as for instance, into that of the author, or authors, of Beowulf, the old English Epic; and the apparently very limited acquaintance with color, or rather with colors, possessed by him or by them, who first wrote or recited the old story.

The President announced that the next article called for by our programme was one by Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold], whose writing always interested us, but that she was sorry to say that she had just received a note from Miss Szold, stating that her sister was ill, and that she could not leave her;-- and that the article we had hoped to hear her read would have to be again deferred. She proposed to read in place an article on “The Spurious Letters of General Washington”;-- but had concluded that it would be well to have the third article on the programme read first; and, if there should be time left, to let the substituted article follow it.

Miss Corinne Jackson then read a pleasant, graceful Poem, or poetical Allegory,--of her own: “Love and Life;-- the Life that comes and goes, and the Love that can lend Life a little grace.

Life walks in her garden, among the flowers


and fruits, like them young and fair, and sings like the birds, without either memory or hope. Then the voice of Love calls Life to come with him, telling her that darkness and ugliness and sin will all disappear where Love and Life walk together.  But she says the garden is her world; that ugliness and sin are unknown to her.

Again, Life is in her garden, but no longer free and glad. Again, she hears Love’s voice calling her, but she fears his strange new world; and asks Love to come into her garden. But he answers that Love cannot live in Life’s playground. Life must give herself to Love, Love must guide her, and no harm can come near her. Yet she fears too much.

Again, she is in her garden, and Hope is with her. Some flowers she plucks and places in her bosom, and they become the flowers of eternity. Some she touches, and they are the flowers of truth. Some flowers she has kissed, and they become the flowers of sympathy.

When Love comes again, they leave the garden together, and she has the flowers of eternity in her bosom, to drop wherever they find sickness or sorrow or sin. She is to make the world more beautiful everywhere, but she has left her playground forever. Ignorance and selfishness would soon have destroyed it.

Still the flowers of truth and sympathy are with her, “and eternity itself seems finite, when Love and Life dwell together.”

Mrs. Turnbull then reminded us that everything relating to General Washington has interest for us. She read to us from a work by Mrs. Pitkin, a lady eighty years old, a member of the Mount


Vernon Society of Detroit, Michigan, and account of met with a rare and curious volume in a public library; purporting to be “Letters from General George Washington,” to members of his own family, particularly to his step-son, John Burke Custis, and to his cousin Lund Washington, who had charge of his estate;-- written from New York, in the year 1776, referring to his personal affairs also.

In the letters General Washington is made to write of his fears and forbodings of the defeat and disgrace overshadowing the American Colonies; which he hopes not to survive. The Revolutionists have, it is said, overshot their mark; they will not succeed, and do not deserve to succeed. That he does not wish for independence, and aims only a peace; that we can not do without England, and she will not do without us; that good terms may be gained now; that he loves his king; and much more of the same sort;-- mingled with directions about the Mount Vernon estate, speaking of the negroes by their names, and desiring Mrs. Washington not to come to headquarters at the time of writing, &c.

Mrs. Pitkin says that, being astonished at what she read, she turned to the Preface. She there found that these professed to be intercepted letters;-- that Washington’s body servant, “Billy,” was said to have been captured at Fort Lee, in company with a portmanteau belonging to his master, containing private documents, which had been sent to England, pub--


lished, and brought back to America.

Washington did have a servant named William and these letters seem to have been cunningly devised by some one apparently well acquainted with his affairs, to discredit his patriotism and honor, and to injure the American cause, at a time of great depression and bad fortune.

Washington took, we were told, no notice of the publication, but treated the whole affair with silent contempt.

The letters were revived nearly twenty years afterwards, in 1795, during Washington’s second term as President, at the time of the debates on the treaty with England; and efforts were made to injure and misrepresent him at that time also. But Washington never answered newspaper attacks,-- and the like.

On the last day of his holding the office of President, he wrote a letter to the Secretary of State, in which, after alluding to his retirement that day from public life, and to the-- to him-- more serious event that must soon follow, he makes the solemn declaration, that he never saw or heard of these letters till he saw them in print; that his servant had never been one moment in the power of the enemy; that no piece of his baggage had ever been captured;-- that the whole thing was a base forgery.

We were not told whether the Rivington who published these forged letters was or was not the same Rivington who published “The Royal Gazette,” the Tory newspaper in New York;-- and whom our early American poet Philip Freneau accused of applying to the Prince of Darkness, for--

“-- some further supplies,


For a set of new types, and a set of new lies.”

Certainly Washington’s sole part in the affair was characteristic, and worthy of his courage and fortitude.

The meeting adjourned;-- and the members of the Club were presented to Mrs. Tyrrell, and passed some little time in pleasant conversation.


79th Meeting. [March 21, 1893]

The seventy ninth meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, March 21st, 1893, at the corner of Cathedral and Franklin Streets.

The meeting was called to order by the President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull].

Announcement was made that the next meeting would be a “Tea,” probably, without literary exercises.

The subject of our meeting was announced: “The Evolution of Charity,” –-and the guest of the evening was introduced: Mrs. Welsh, who has successfully conducted the Free Kindergarten of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. This lady aroused much interest by showing the remarkable work done by the children of the Free Kindergarten.

The Introductory Article of our Programme was given by Mrs. Francis H. Easby [Gertrude Pierce Easby]. She spoke of the natural law of evolution, especially in its relation to human affairs and human progress. We were reminded that what we call


“love” was not a factor in savage life; but, that as the conditions of life became more complex, more highly organized, and men were crowded together, there arose the contact of the highest-minds among them. Mrs. Easby spoke of the evolution of altruism; of the self-sacrifice taught by Christ, and professed—practiced—by his true followers. She spoke of the times just before the great discovery of Christopher Columbus; and also of the disorders of the 18th century; and reminded us of Victor Hugo’s description, in “Notre Dame de Paris,” of the organizations of the Beggars of the continent of Europe. She referred to the plans of Count Rumford to abolish the beggary; and to those of the Lord Shaftesbury to abolish child-labor, and other evils. We were told of the public schools of England and of Austria and of those of our own country,-and of the modern free kindergarten.

Mrs. Easby spoke, not without admiration, of the perfect epidemic of charity we saw in Baltimore last winter; but thought that even then many unworthy persons found that they could live without working,--and chose to do so.

She spoke of the great efforts made in modern times to separate the really unfortunate classes from the criminal classes; and for the prevention of evils, moral and physical. Then of the Government aid; and of individual help for individual needs. Our best gift, she told us, was the gift of ourselves,--all of ourselves that we can give,--to our less fortunate fellow creatures;--to keep them from falling into pits, to meet emergencies, to prevent crimes, to purify and ennoble their environment and themselves.


Our next article was by Mrs. Lake [Margaret Lake], on “The Kindergarten Movement.” She reminded us of the sentiment that our benevolence should be “formative, rather than reformative; that we should overcome evil with good; and show our belief in the fatherhood of God. In her opinion, the grandest evolution of Charity was the “Kindergarten Movement.” She spoke of the beginning of this movement in Europe, and of its rapid development in the old world, and in the new one; although during the life of Froebel its originator, Government aid was invoked to suppress it. But, she said, the fanatics of one age are often the apostles of the next one;--and the movement is now fostered where it was formerly opposed.

She referred to the very large number of kindergartens in America; and thought that the outlook was most promising for their being generally incorporated into our public school system, she spoke of the International Kindergarten Union; and also of the large amount of space devoted to this subject in the press,--especially in the magazines of our own day. She gave us an account of many of the Free Kindergartens all over our own country; and told of the distinguished patrons of this work among us, and also of the self-sacrificing women who are engaged in it.

We were interested in Mrs. Lake’s description of the excellent work of these free kindergartens; especially for poor children too young to be admitted into the public schools, who, without this good work, would spend their days in the streets—


generally the bad streets.

After telling of the results of this movement in Baltimore, Mrs. Lake quoted some eloquent words of George William Curtis, spoken at his last appearance in public,--in the education that fits little children for the great school of life, and for the kingdom of God.

The attention of the Club was called to a general public meeting, to be held on the next Thursday evening, for the benefit of the Free Kindergarten Movement in Baltimore.

Mrs. Turnbull, our President, gave us, by request, an interesting account of a paper, published for two years, by one of her children, for the benefit of the free kindergarten conducted by Mrs. Welsh. This paper was entirely the work of of the young editor, printer and publisher, all in one; --while he was between the ages of twelve and fourteen. When the family were in the city, he would go to a closed country house, because his press was there, and spend the day alone, taking his lunch with him,-- that the regular numbers might reach his subscribers at the right time.

We were also shown a photograph of a store-house, built by two children of the same family, between the ages of eleven and thirteen, entirety with their own hands.

The next Article on our programme was by Miss Eliza Ridgely, and was; “A Glimpse at College Settlements.” She described a visit she had made to the College Settlement in Philadelphia, in St. Mary Street, once a dreadful


neighborhood, and not quite immaculate now,--but much changed since this new establishment was begun in April, 1892.

Miss Ridgely said that when she herself, on the above-mentioned visit, walked in this street her hat and feather were a target for snow-balls, of the children, who have not yet learned how to amuse themselves.

What had been a tenement house had been bought by the “Settlement;” the wood-work torn away, and scrubbed with concentrated lye and corrosive sublimate;-- and now the ladies who stay there make friends in the neighborhood. Not far away is the Young Men’s College Settlement.

Miss Ridgely told us of what she saw;-- of the pleasant rooms; the bright halls; the furniture and flowers; the neat, wholesome meals;--for all of which working women pay a very small price; and other women—in preference, college graduates—pay more,-- but a small price still. The ladies, she said, had never been obliged to ring their bells to summon the police, and have had no great occasion for their services.

She related an anecdote of a sick woman, who asked her physician the amount of his fee, and was told twenty five cents;-- on which she said she would rather pay more; and get well sooner.

After giving us much interesting information, Miss Ridgely spoke of the College Settlement as a new effort to bring classes of humanity together,-- to make democracy possible,--to de-


velope a renaissance of early Christianity, --to redress the wrongs of the workers,--to cure, so far as possible, the visible sores of the body politic.

After speaking of the libraries, and the readings, given to make these poor people acquainted with the world’s greatest moral heroes, she said. It really seems that the best educated of us can help the most ignorant, the refined can best help the coarse, the highest can best elevate the lowest, and that there is a true socialism very near to the life of Christ Himself.

Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud], the Librarian, then announced the gift to the club of five volumes of the Works of the late Mrs. Almira Lincoln Phelps, from her children—Judge Phelps, Miss Phelps, and Mrs. O’Brien. They had hoped to present all of their mother’s Works; but some of them were out of print, and inaccessible at present.

The Club was also presented, by our fellow-member, Miss Adams, with a Photograph she had secured in Venice, representing “The Last Home of Robert Browning.[”] The Meeting adjourned.


23rd Salon. [March 28, 1893]

The twenty third Salon of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday,


the 28th of March 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], presided.

The Secretary being absent, the notes were kindly taken, and the Minutes prepared by Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat], the second Vice President.

Miss Clare de Graffenried, an agent of the United States Government—Department of Labor—was introduced as the guest of the Club, and the presenter of a paper on “The Housing of the Poor.”

Mrs. Sioussat’s Report of Miss de Graffenried’s Paper.

“The Housing of the Poor.”

Apart from ethical questions, it is important to consider the home conditions of workers, even of the lowest commercial and sordid basis; because the health of a nation is the wealth of a nation.

The cost of supporting in public institutions the afflicted from epidemics of scarlet fever alone—the deaf and the blind—would more than suffice to abate every tenement nuisance in the land.

It is worthy of note that the percentage of death is even less in spots where the germs originate, than at a distance; for then, being independent of contact—or of residence in the infected districts—cholera, typhus fever and other diseases do their deadliest work as a distance from the breeding place, carried in water—by drains—through defective plumbing, and in the air.’

The strictest precaution observed on our own premises, may be futile, so long as a single source of contagion exists within a mile or two; and, by a strange irony of fate, the


occupants of insanitary tenements escape, while other citizens in other quarters are stricken down by epidemics;--  cessary for self-preservation;--and this calls for closest attention from those who are in earnest in their investigation spread of disease. Acquaintance with the laws of sanitation does not drop like manna from the skies.

We act in spurts, or bursts of energy,-with too sweeping demands,--not duly considering the inertia of public functionaries, whose aid is indispensable.

We set out on a programme of reform,--so huge, so radical, that the very foundation of the present social order would be wrenched away were our schemes successful,--and then repine, because we accomplish so little.

It is not possible in this nineteenth


nor even in the twentieth century, to eradicate poverty; but I do believe that by hammering away at reforms, and persisting in “following” Charles Kingsley’s homely advice:

“Do the thing that’s nearest,

Though it’s dull the whiles,

Helping, when we meet them,

Lame dogs, over stiles;”--

--we may remove some of the causes of poverty in our own midst.

Miss de Graffenried then proceeded to give the comparative statements regarding different cities as to their success or failure to deal with the proper “Housing of the Poor.” She related the astonishment of the good people of Buffalo,-- who found themselves, in spite of their well-meant efforts,-- with a population, by nine thousand souls, more over-crowded than New York; while only twenty per cent of their tenements were in good sanitary condition.

The question has been asked: ”Why trouble ourselves with the condition of these immigrants to whom so largely these conditions are due?” ”Are they not infinitely better off than they ever been at home?”

All things considered, are the occupants of our thickly-peopled tenements better housed than in the purlieus of foreign cities? Whitechapel’s blackest districts consist of shallow houses of two or three stories,--windows back and front,--a gutter running down the middle of the court; and nowhere in the darkest England is there such a place as the street of New York, of which one


block is known as Sing Sing,--the other as The Penitentiary. The streets even the alleys and courts of London’s poorest quarters are cleaner than many of our thoroughfares. Its population is largely British,--its dirt, native dirt,--while ours is of a mixed variety,--composed of the liveliest foreign germs.

They think their alien element of 60,000—tremendous. Such a problem is petty, compared with our immigrant “policy”;-- when New York has over 500 000 German speaking people alone; when, on the ample bosom of Chicago are mothered over 80 000 Bohemians,--70 000 Scandinavians,-- 50 000 Poles; not to mention Italians, Germans, Hungarians, Greeks, Armenians, Russians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Turks and Esquimanx.

Miss de Graffenried gave a glimpse of how Glasgow, Dublin, Manchester and Birmingham has substituted model tenement houses or separate dwellings for the cellar lodging houses;--and predicated that other cities than Buffalo would wake up and find themselves bestridden with a tenement Old Man of the Sea whom they can neither strangle nor shake off.

In the interests of health and decency then, should not the habits of these careless immigrants be regulated?--their license to poison our air and food restrained?

She drew a vivid contrast between the out-door life of the poor in Italy—-where filth becomes innocuous, because so thoroughly oxygenized,--and the sky-scraping tenements, with their unwindowed, dark halls; where, even in summer,


the one room for so many creatures has a stove, which must blaze, far from morning till night, though the adults grow faint, and the baby gasps for breath.

The first tenement was not built until 1838, but the next twenty years found half the population living more than one family in one house.

She drew sketches of Philadelphia, where, although the tenement system never took hold, when one sees behind the scenes where, in order to economize space, they build do that a blank wall forms a cul-de-sac, which retains the foul water-closet vapors, poisoning their lung-food before it reaches the wretched inhabitants, it is explained why Philadelphia has unsuccessfully battled with epidemics, and with diphtheria. Also of Boston with its refinement of inconvenience, where, for the profits of the landlord, the household lives in patches and spots, and the house-mother has miles to travel in the steep stair-cases and separate rooms,--her girls, perhaps sleeping in the next attic to the other tenants’ boys; all for removed from maternal oversight, and with the temptations to misconduct strong. Also of New York’s tenement houses,--the most cosmopolitan, the most crowded in the world,--with there [the?] added burden of night-lodgers; where the tastes are so vitiated that it is impossible to get them out into better quarters.” They can not move,--the landlord gives them time,--the grocer trusts them,--they have no ready money.”

In these tenements the sweating process goes on in its most direful forms, clothing is


made in poisonous dens; the wretched workers have not time, and are not allowed to attend to the wants of nature; and not unfrequently ‘degrading conditions’ are the price of employment. Such existence is not life, it is rather a long tarrying for death.

With all this the number turned out in New York exceeds the sum total of evictions in Ireland. Where did they go? They crowd into other holes, poisoning the air which is breathed by golden-haired darlings in the arms of devoted mothers.

In striking contrast to these abominations, Miss de Graffenried gave her impressions of delight, made by the homes in Nashua, New Hampshire, and in Manchester. She also paid a tribute to our home plants in Laurel and Woodberry, where the “hands” are provided with sanitary accommodations, and with Church and school privileges. The Cumberland Mills in Maine,--where all the paper used for the Century Magazine is made,--were also given as having made an ideal provision for the worker;--where the rents are from six to fourteen dollars a month and the relations of employer to employed are almost paternal.

Mr. A. D. Howland at New Bedford, Massachusetts has also formed a working colony. Having resolved to build only excellent houses, the sewerage cost twenty thousand dollars, and many labor-saving inventions were suggested by Mrs. Howland. Bath-tubs were considered a necessity, on account of the filthy fingers. True, they were put to odd uses;-- one being used as a coal-bin,--the winter’s pork being salted down in an-


other, while a third proved a receptacle for the twin babies of a managing mother.

Miss. Hill’s success in similar work, was mentioned. She owes much to the foresight which enables her to choose fresh, young material,--the knowledge of accounts being a necessity.

Miss Catherine Wolff’s practical help was also described. She has “taken over”-—as the phrase is—-some of the worst tenements in New York, and reformed them.

Miss Alice Lincoln of Boston also furnished an illustration of what a women can do. She owns none of her tenements, but leases them, and, after re-modeling them, at one dollar and eighty cents a week, personally conducting the collecting, and consequent oversight. She has not only paid expenses, but has made six per cent,--with a surplus fund.

In Brief: The redemption of the tenement means more than cutting windows, and making sanitary reforms. It means education to independence; it means a substitution of producers for non-producers,--an application of remedies at hand,-- and personal endeavor and influence, in the stead of the injudicious charity-calculated to allure people to the already over-crowded cities.

At the conclusion of Miss de Graffenried’s vey admirable paper, a rising vote of thanks was tendered her. An informal discussion and conversation followed.

The usual festivities of the Salon were enjoyed by the Club and its guests,--followed by the usual informal adjournment.



80th Meeting. [April 4, 1893]

The eightieth Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday afternoon, April 4th, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], was in the chair.

The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the two meetings on March 14th and March 21st.

It was announced that the notes of the meeting on March 28th, which was a Salon, had, in absence of the Secretary, been kindly taken by Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat], one of our Vice Presidents, who would read to us her Report later in the evening.

The Librarian announced the gift of some books to the Club;--including “Val Maria,” by our own President, Mrs. Turnbull,--three volumes by Mrs. Chrichton, --and “France in the Nineteenth Century,” by our fellow member, Mrs. Latimer [Elizabeth Wormeley Latimer].

The first Article of our programme was the reading by Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord] of two poems of her own,--Sonnets,--called “June” and “September.” The first told us of a lovely day in June, full of fragrance and bloom, green below and colored by bright flowers around us; when all nature seems full of ecstatic prayer to the One who has made such beauty, and of thankfulness for God’s perfect work. In the second, we feel that, if we had last all count of months and days, we should know by the sudden flush of flowers and air and sky that September reigns with ripened beauty, and thoughts of coming rest.

The next article was given by Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] and was her own Translation from the French Sully [?-illeg.] Prud’homme, of a Poem, called; “The Hour of Death.” He asks of those who shall be neat him in the hour to speak no word to him,--he is tired, and can not understand


but, to soothe and bless him, only,--give him harmony. He tells them to seek his old nurse, that she mat sing some old time song of long ago. She will be found,--for the peasant poor live long,--and he is one of those whose time is short, in this vale of tears; and she loves him still. When his heart shall break, let no one speak a word to him,--but give him—melody.

The next article was a poem by Mrs. Turnbull; “A Birthday Invocation.” It is to one, there, where they know not time, not age,--where youth is always young,--where they know not tears. Can we pierce the blue?—or see the veil uplifted? Can they stoop to us? The all perfect Love has garnered them;--and we, give them the old time greetings,--and we know they love us with holy love,--as our souls grow towards heaven.

The next article was by Miss Bennett [Sarah H. Bennett],--a poem called; “A Difficult Lover.” It tells of one who knows her lover loves her not;--poverty is a poor feint,--

“—lack of gold needs not protest,

True lovers’ golf stands manifest.”

Mrs. Turnbull then read Miss Reese’s poem, “The Shepherd comes, the Shepherd goes;”-- telling of the pastures where cooling water flows, where none can go at will, and of one who had not long to wait for his Good Shepherd’s coming.

Mrs. Sioussat was then requested to read her Report of the Salon of March 28th. The only literary exercise of that meeting was a Paper contributed by Miss de Graffenried, a guest of the Club, who is a special agent of the Government in the Department of Labor. Her subject was, “The Housing of the Poor;”—in some [cut off of the page], a difficult matter to treat, but one of which Mrs.


Sioussat, as well as Miss de Graffenried, has made a special study. The excellent report of this interesting paper was received with applause.

Our programme had promised us three contributions by Miss Middleton [Maria H, Middleton]; but that lady was unable to be present, on account of the death of her niece; and the pleasure of hearing her read had to be deferred.

Our next article was by Miss Zacharias [Jane Zacharias]. She gave us first; “A Song of Spring;”—telling us that when it seems too early for field flowers or bright colors in the groves, the cloistered violet betrays itself by perfume, the cowslip shines forth, and the life darkened by sorrow the spring flowers bring their own message.

Miss Zacharias also gave is a poem called: ”Aloes.” She told us that our Epiphany has its trinity of gifts, like that of the Wise Men;--and like the three Marys, we bring our sweet spices to the Savior’s tomb;--may we find Him risen, in the garden where we seek Him!

We had expected to have an article by Miss Evans [May Garrettson Evans], but she was unable to come to the meeting until most of our members had left the room; and it seemed unjust to her to allow her article to be read to the very few of her fellow-members then remaining.

The “Literature” of our meeting had certainly taken a wide range of subjects, from the lodgings of the poor,--as Milton says,

“--in populous city pent,

Where houses thick, and sewers annoy the air,”--

--to bright fields and spring flowers,--to Easter joyfulness,--to the harmonies of earth and of heaven.

The meeting adjourned.



81st Meeting. [April 11, 1893]

The eighty first Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 11th, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets;--with the President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], in the chair.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the meeting of April 4th,--which were approved.

The President announced that this meeting was to have been under the direction of Mrs. Tutwiler [Julia R. Tutwiler], the Chairman of the Committee on the Florentine Commonwealth;--but, that she had just received a note telling her that Mrs. Tutwiler was unable to be present; and, to our great regret, her Article of the Programme, on Fillipo Strozzi, would have to be omitted.

The first article given us was by Mrs. Edward H. Griffin [Rebecca Griffin], and was: “A Few Words about Fra Angelico.” She spoke of having intended to give us at some time the result of a study of Michel Angelo, the great master; but that the time given her now was too short for so grand a subject. And sometimes it is well to look at those good and true and noble artists who are not the greatest masters in Art—to whom we make the lowest reverence;--but who are like natural, innocent children, or like fresh flowers, whose bloom we almost fear to injure by handling.

Of the early life of Fra Angelico we know little; but of his faith and spiritual nature his works have much to tell. After he had accepted the religious life, his allegiance to his vows was perfect. It is related of him that, when dining at the Pope’s table, he declined to eat meat, because his own Prior had not given him leave to do so. He sought for no honors; not


even those of the Church. When an archbishopric was offered to him, he asked that it might be given to his friend Antonino, whose devotion and charity made him worthy of the place. And Antonino,--in whose character our essayist found much in common with one who lived in our own time, Cardinal Newman,--was made an archbishop in place of Fra Angelico.

The flowers of Angelico’s art were flowers of Paradise;--he was a mystic, as truly so as Madame Guyon, or Thomas-a-Kempis;--in simple devotion to his ideals, he looked up from himself to his God. But he did not escape the pitfalls incident to his kind of treatment of Art; and on some minds his pure and spiritual work makes no impression.

Mrs. Griffin spoke of a painter of our own time, who paints nothing that does not show some spiritual beauty;--who, having agreed to paint a picture for a Club, was told that what was wanted was a portrait of President Arthur. He answered: “But he is only a handsome man.”

We were told of the works of Giotto, and of those of Oreagno; and especially of a carving in stone by Oreagno representing the Death of the Virgin;--of which we were shown a beautiful reproduction.

Our essayist spoke of Angelico as being all softness and resignation, instead of force; and yet as lacking none of the maximus of Art. If he is not first natural, then spiritual,--if he seems to begin with the latter quality,—still he is natural in his child-like faith.

The message he gives might almost as well have been given by music. His gardens are of those never formed by man, his religious awe adheres to religious


Types. His style keeps its perfect type, but with the utmost beauty his hand can give us. We miss the grace of movement, the grand sweep of Michel Angelo’s figures;-- Fra Angelico’s have a dead calm, quiet saints around the river of the water of life are quiet saints. But his devils are not devilish. He never began work without prayer;--he never changed the inspiration he received.

Mrs. Griffin spoke of the “Last Judgement” of Michel Angelo as seeming to be a judgement of bodies,--not of souls. She then described some of the pictures of Fra Angelico, and directed our attention to her excellent photographs of them; which were shown to us; especially his own “Last Judgement,”—with Christ enthroned high in the centre, with glorified saints, apostles and angels on his right hand, and, on his left, the last spirits suffering horrors of the same kind as their sins; the slanderers in their tongues, the listeners to evil reports in their ears, &c. His conceptions here are like those of Dante. The saints are like children going through the gate into the city.

“Michel Angelo,” continued our essayist, “seems as as strong as the elements in their power,--and Fra Angelico as beautiful as the flowers in the woods.”

Our next article was by Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent], on, “Two Italian Writers,--Petrarch and Bocaccio.” She spoke of the works done in the days that knew not paper and gunpowder, when the compas was not fully known to sailors, and the ships of the Northmen were directed by the flight of ravens, who were taken into the ship when it set sail, and let loose


after the voyage began. But the orientals, the Chinese—Miss Brent’s favorite orientals—had long known of the compass, among other things of value; and they made long voyages,--even, it is not said to our own American coasts.

In telling us of the rich and beautiful republic of Florence in the fourteenth century, Miss Brent spoke of the Florentine love of beauty in its various manifestations. She then of that time when, if Florence and De Medici were not convertible terms, a Medici might at least say: “I am the State.”

She told us of Petrarch, the son of an exile, much of whose life was passed away from his beloved Florence. Then of the really lovely Laura, who may have been a coquette; but who at least did not drag her lover down from truth and goodness; but elevated and refined him; and, also, inspired those beautiful poems, on which rests his most enduring fame.

Miss Brent painted Petrarch’s life as, on the whole, noble, intellectual and true;--she told of his friends, and of his influence on them, and on the age he lived in.

His own descriptions of the noble and lovely and well-beloved Laura, in a white robe, with her soft dark eyes, and with flowers in her golden hair, and with her tender smile and down-cast look,--was, we could agree a picture of what a poet’s love should be. And that her poet ascribes all his noblest feelings to her; makes her worthy of high honor.

Petrarch’s acquaintance and association with Boccaccio was also described,--and his influence for good over his brother writer.


We were told of Petrarch’s receiving of the laurel crown of the poet in the Capitol at Rome, in 1341, and of honors paid him at Naples and at Paris.

Miss Brent dwelt upon Petrarch’s share in that revival of learning in Italy, which preceeded the revival of Art, and on the close connection of both revivals.

The two interesting articles we had heard read relating to Italian artists and Italian writers made very appropriate the introduction of the subject which next claimed our attention;--“The Theatre of Arts and Letters.” *[30]

The President announced that the next paper on the programme would be deferred, to receive a visitor. That we had probably heard of the Society of the “Theatre of Arts and Letters” of New York and Boston; with which were connected many names representing the highest culture and standing. That its object was the elevation of the Drama. That she introduced as the representation of this society, Miss Fischer, the President of the Twelfth Night Club of New York.

Miss Fischer said that she had not expected to make a speech; that was a member of the company now playing under the auspices of the Theatre of the Arts and Letters at the Lyceum Theatre in this city, and that she was president of a younger club than ours.

She spoke of Mr. Henry B. McDowell, the President of the Theatre of Arts and Letters,


and of the many well-known leading writers, leading actors, and other representatives of thought and culture who belong to it. She said that the Society hopes to have next October a Club-House and Library near the Theatre. She told us that Mr. McDowell had asked her to invite the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore to become honorary members of the Theatre of Arts and Letters. She explained that honorary membership involved no responsibilities and no dues, but that honorary members could have the privilege of balcony or gallery seats at a reduced rate for the subscription performances.

She said that an informal Reception was to be held on Thursday afternoon, at the Lyceum parlors, by members of the Theatre of Arts and Letters, assisted, she hoped, by some of the Baltimore friends of the Society,--to which she invited the Club.

The President of our Club asked if it was not the intention of this society to elevate the Drama and to make it noble,--with also its dramatic literature?

Miss Fischer responded with an account of the work already done, and work projected by the Society, and of its efforts to bring forward the best and purest American writers and actors,--“we care,” she said, “all of us, I suppose, proud of being Americans.”

The President hoped that the society would give the kind of performances to which a mother could take her children;--free from all that has kept some of us away from Theatre in former years. She spoke of the membership’s in-


cluding such names as those of the Reverend Morgan Dix, and of Mr. Seth Low, President of Columbia College, as an endorsement of the aims of the Society.

Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham] moved that we accept the invitation to become members of the Society represented by Miss Fischer; if not as a Club, at least as individuals;--which was seconded by Miss Brown [Mary Wilcox Brown].

After some little discussion the motion to accept Mr. McDowell’s invitation to the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore to become honorary members of the Theatre of Arts and Letters, was made by Mrs. Tait [Anna Dolores Tiernan Tait], and seconded by Mrs. Dammann [Aileen B. C. Dammann];--and carried without opposition.

[Miss Fischer afterwards invited the officers of the Club, and their escorts to occupy a box at the performance of the Theatre of Arts and Letters on Friday Night, as her own guests.]

A proposal was made that Mademoiselle Mellé should now be requested to read to us her article on French Education. A little discussion arose on the question whether the article should be read in English or in French?—but finally the reading was deferred.

The last Article of our programme was by Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock]; and was called: “A Fantasy.” It was read by Mrs. Lord.

Mrs. Whitelock told us of one whom she called the only poet she ever knew;--not perhaps a writer of verses, but a worshipper of the Horatian Art. He had not been taught his ideas of Art in London; but had made use of his marvelous opportunities in Florence,--where Art is still


Inspired;--artist souls seem still to be born there and to become one in spirit with their environment. The poet within him freed itself;--he took notes, breathings of those things that the old artists said to him. Instead of his nineteenth century identity, he was the exponent of the old artists’ speech,--of the eternal truths of Art. Happy poet!—the makers of Florence looked out upon him from their marbles. Giotto told him of works more real than marble, created before Rafael was born.

“How can you classify them all?” she said, “if you despise catalogues and guide books?” “Why classify at all?” he answered, “sacred Art never demanded it.” “—We do not count by five great masters,--or by one hundred. Art is not all Italian.” “There is an innumerable host of beautiful painters,--there are those who cry to you:” You have left us out!”—the whole illustrious number of the great unknown. They do not haunt me,--they are all remembered. There are the saints and martyrs true to nature, in the time when Art was a reality, instead of a trade;--when the artist asked the lofty privilege of frescoing the walls of his monastery. I take notes, different from guide-books. Publishers will not take them. There are scores of books,--critical ones about the old masters. If I wrote a book, a guide to the soul,--might not a publisher have a soul? The poet discerns not as the critic; he unfolds the soul; but the world wants not poetry. I will give you my books.”

“When she read it,” says Mrs. Whitelock, I concluded that my poet was right about the publishers.”

The meeting adjourned.



82nd Meeting. [Apr. 18, 1893]

The eighty second Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 18th, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets;--with the President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] in the chair.

The Recording Secretary read the the previous meeting on April 11th.

The President announced the programme for next meeting on April 25th; which would be a Salon; but she reminded the members present that it had been decided to have some literary exercises on the evenings of our social meetings; and to postpone the adjournment, on these occasions, until six o’clock, in order to give time for the literary as well as for the social features of our Salons. Mrs. Turnbull next read a letter from an elderly lady in Brooklin, giving an interesting account of the collection of Woman’s Works of Kings County, New York, to be sent to the Chicago Exposition. She told of the remarkable and somewhat unexpected success with which the efforts to make this collection have been rewarded. Besides very many strictly literary works, going to the year 1743, there were those of an astronomer, a geologist, a map-drawer, a writer of music, and of other departments of menial labor among women, who had been too modest for any noisy fame formerly.

The letter was written to Mrs. Turnbull, who was personally interested, and also identified with the contributors to the collection described. The writer, as our President told us, seems late in life to preserve the mental vigor and lively interests of youth.

The letter went on to speak with great and


grateful praise of the wise and successful labors of the lady to whom the business of making this collection had been mainly committed;-- Mrs. [Packer], formerly Miss Jones of Baltimore, a sister of our former fellow-member, Mrs. Alan [P]. Smith [May (?) Smith].

Announcement was made of gifts to our library--including Miss Emily Mason’s [Emily V. Mason] “Southern Poems of the War.”

The programme of this evening was under the direction of Miss Mary Worthington Milnor, Chairman of the Committee on “The Artists and Authors of Maryland”.

The first article on our programme was by Miss Bennett [Sarah H. Bennett], and was on “Rhinehart, Our Maryland Sculptor.” She spoke of a visit to Rhinehart’s early home in Carroll County. Also of her meeting there an old man, who expressed a sort of mild wonder over the summer boarders and visitors who came to that place, and take pictures of it, and ask questions about the young man, who, many years ago, lived there; who worked in stone, “and wanted to make images,-- he did not care for much else.”

As the old man talked, the artist of the visiting said; “Art is the real witness of what is behind this show.”

“His people,” the old man went on [to] tell, “were well to do; but they did not care for the image business. He went away with either thirty nine or sixty nine cents in his pocket to Baltimore, and got work in a marble yard in Howard Street; where they [gave] him very particular work to to do,-- mantlepieces, and even monuments,- and he might have been a partner in the marble works,-- but he wouldn’t give up the images; and he heard of a place where they make them better than they do here; and he would go there”,-- The old man added;


“I [wasn’t] raised here, and the most I know about Rhinehart is hearsay.”

It was well to turn from this version of the opinions of Rhinehart’s early neighbors, to the unchanged face of Nature, and see what Rhinehart saw when his artist soul was born, and first began to grow[,] before he went to that desirable country where they do the work he loved better than they do it here;-- and to hear the artist of the party repeat, “Art is the real witness of what is behind this show.”

Miss Milnor then read an account of the ceremony attending the unveiling of Rhinehart’s stature of Chief Justice Taney, near our Washington Monument; the actual unveiling having been done by a great grandson of the Chief Justice.

We were told of the seventy five thousand dollars left by Rhinehart for the promotion of Art, and for the benefit of young sculptors in Maryland.

In contrast we were told of his having begun his work at the marble cutter’s for two dollars and fifty cents a week; which only sufficed for his board and washing;-- his father having given him his trunk, fifty cents, and a lesson in economy. We heard also of the appreciation and patronage of our fellow citizen, Mr. Walters, who was instrumental in his going to Italy, and in much of his subsequent success.

His works were mentioned;-- especially The Woman of Samaria, now in Walter’s Gallery; [Clythe?], which he called his master-piece; [Endymion?]; the Bronze doors in the Capitol at Washington; The Angel of the Resurrection; &c.

Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] was requested to tell us something of


Her acquaintance with Rhinehart in Rome. She spoke of having seen him in Baltimore, and of having shown politeness to the then young, unknown artist; which was years afterwards rewarded in the Eternal City,-- where people from the same place are often glad to meet each other. She spoke of once meeting, at a Cardinal’s reception, a lady who called her by name,-- whom, she said, “I found to be just one of us at home, who had effloresced into an Italian countess.

“Rhinehart,” said Miss Grace, “had the head of a demi-god, and the body of a peasant,-- and the most luminous kind of eyes, like a pair of stars. He ate bread and butter like other mortals; his conversation was not remarkable,-- yet he was a delightful companion. We know that there was a romance in his life-- he was engaged to Miss Kummer, who had the felicity of dying in his presence; if that was a felicity.

Mrs. Turnbull then spoke of the artist Powers as having had most beautiful eyes,-- divinely beautiful, in the sense in which Art can be called divine,-- and a superb head.

Miss Grace then read a poem by Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent] called “The Toying Page.” Before she began reading, our attention was called to the fine bronze statue of “The Toying Page,” by Keyser, another Maryland artist. The statue is three quarters life size, and is owned by Mrs. O’Donovan, who had kindly loaned it --through Miss Milnor-- to the Club for this occasion.

Miss Brent’s poem spoke of the handsome careless young page, toying with fine tempered steel, which thoughts of lady’s bower, or battle field,-- until he feels a little wound.

Then of the youth and maiden, who stand before the statue, and as he looks at her, he knows himself wound-


-ed,-- he knows himself bound.

Miss Milnor gave us some account of the works of [Ephraim?] Keyser,-- his De Kalb Monument,-- his Psyche,--his Pet Falcon,-- his bust of Cardinal Gibbons, &c. Also his Memorial to President Arthur of Albany,-- and the statue of the same President, ordered to be placed in the city of New York.

Miss Brent referred to the large bequest of Rhinehart for the education of young students of sculpture in Maryland; also to the beauty, grace and dignity of his works; and said that she feared that his services to his own State were all forgotten, as she had never seen a flower upon his grave.

The suggestion was made that the member of our Club should, at least once a year decorate the graves of Rhinehart, Edgar Poe, Sidney Lanier and of any others of the authors of artists of Maryland whose graves are with us. To the suggestion of doing this on Decoration Day; Miss Brent answered, that “it was a day sacred

“[Love?] and tears for the blue,

Tears and love for the gray!”

To the suggestion of All Saints’ Day, she said that “so many of our people would go to “God’s Acre” on that day, it might be well for the Club to make another choice.”

After some discussion, a resolution was offered by Miss Brown, and seconded by Miss Grace appointing All Saints’ Day, November 2nd, for decorating the graves of Lanier, Poe, Rhinehart, and others of the artists and authors of Maryland; and appointing Miss Milnor and Miss Brent [the?] Committee to have this affair in [charge?], with the power to add other members to their Committee to assist them. This notion was carried without opposition.


The next article on our programme was by Mrs. Edward Shippen, and was on “War Songs.”

She said that she had wished very much to correct the errors in an Article in the Century Magazine, signed by Mr. Brander Mathews; in which the strange assertion was made that our national song, The Star Spangled Banner, was written to fit an old tune. In the same article also, an erroneous account was given of the setting to music of the song “Maryland, My Maryland.”

Mrs. Shippen, who owns the original manuscript of The Star Spangled Banner, as begun on the back of an old letter, told us how Francis S. Key and a friend of his, went, in the kindness of their hearts, on board one of the English War Ships to try to obtain the release of another American and civilian friend of theirs, detained a prisoner of the enemy. Though finally successful in their mission, they were themselves detained on ship-board, while the attack on Fort McHenry was being made. How they afterwards described with great animation the surprise and anxiety of the three Americans while the firing went on. How the trouble of their souls grew greater when, before day,” the red glare and the bombs bursting in air” ceased to be seen and heard, and the fear came to them that the [cessation] meant surrender. But as soon as there was enough morning light to see that “our flag was still there”, Mr. Key, in the first enthusiasm of that assurance, began to write his song, on the back of an old letter. He wrote it out fully that same night after he came back to Baltimore, and showed it to his brother-in-law, Judge Nicholson, Chief Justice of the State. It was Judge Nicholson who fitted it to the tune of [Anacreon?] in Heaven, which


suited it wonderfully well; and who received the gift of the original manuscript. It was soon known and sung all over Baltimore; and very soon afterward, all over our country.

The tune of Maryland My Maryland was also not a native one, although like that of the Star Spangled Banner, it would seem as though it ought to have been so.

Mrs. Shippen told us that one day, while our Civil War was raging, Mr. [Rozier?] Dulany took a copy of the song Maryland My Maryland,-- then recently written by Mr. J.R. Randall,- to the house of Mr. Carroll, where a party of the fair young ladies of Baltimore were accustomed to meet and spend their time making clothes for the Confederate soldiers. The song was received with enthusiasm; so was the suggestion to sing it; and various airs and old college tunes were tried to be fitted to it. Miss Jennie Cary at last chose one of these old college tunes which suited the words extremely well.

Mr. Dulany was forthwith requested to have the words and music published together; but he positively declined to do so,-- for the reason that; “Fort McHenry was entirely too near. Some of the young ladies suggested that “men were too timid for anything.” Finally Miss Rebecca Lloyd Nicholson said that “her father was a Union man, and she was not afraid;”-- she would publish it herself. She took it to the music store of Muller and [Reacham?] for publication;-- and soon the words and music were known all over the South,-- and elsewhere too.

Mrs. Shippen authenticated her account, not only by attesting her presence in the party of girls described, but by the further statement: “I was the Miss Rebecca Lloyd Nicholson, who had the song published,-- myself.”

She said that her father was a believer in State


Rights; but he thought that the battle ought to be fought out at the polls, and not with the sword. She spoke of those who gave their lives, and of those gave the loved ones dearer than their own lives, to fight for what they believed to be Right. But she thought we could all of us now join in a few lines she quoted from Maryland My Maryland, and a few more from The Star Spangled Banner.

We were given other sad or stirring songs by Southern writers;-- one on the dying words of a young soldier who had been the only suport [support] of an aged mother: “Who will care for Mother, now”;-- “A Mother’s Prayer,” with words and music by Mr. Otto [Sutro?];- the ringing “Stonewall Jackson’s Way,” by Dr. Palmer;--“The Vacant Chair,” written in Massachusetts, but sung both in North and South; “Dixie’s Land,” an old Minstrels’ Song;-- “The Southern Cross,” set to the same tune as The Star Spangled Banner;-- a song “To the Exchanged Prisoners,” written by Mr. S. Teackle Wallis, when he was a prisoner in Fort Warren, in 1862;-- and “God Gave the South,” by Mr. George H. Miles of Baltimore. Of course, “The Girl I Left Behind Me” was a song not forgotten by soldiers of either side.

Mrs. Shippen’s very entertaining article was received with applause.

Mrs. Turnbull announced, that the Committee for decorating the graves of authors and the artists of Maryland, next All Souls’ Day, would publish a notice a week before that time, that those interested in this work may send flowers to the Committee room of the Club. She wished that this work might be known as the work of the Club.

Mrs. Turnbull also spoke of the great sorrow that had fallen on a member of our Board of Management, Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold], in the death of her sister, Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat] was requested to draw up a resolution ex-[?] symathy [sympathy] of her fellow members for Miss Szold.

A vote of thanks was passed to Mrs. O’Donovan for


loan of her bronze statue of “The Toying Page.”

The meeting adjourned.


24th Salon. [April 25, 1893]

The twenty fourth Salon of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, April 25, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The Recording Secretary having been absent can only copy the newspaper report of this meeting.

Report in the Baltimore Sun of April 26th, 1893.

“The Woman’s Literary Club enjoyed yesterday afterday afternoon the usual monthly “Salon,” at which the reading of papers and poems was followed by informed talk and five o’ clock tea. A bright and interesting paper on “The Education of French Girls” was read by Mademoiselle Mellé, instructor in French at Bryn Mawr School.-- Several unpublished letters by Sidney Lanier, written in the poet’s exquisite style, were read by Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull];-- who also read a charming little poem entitled “Twilight’s Hush-- an Etching,” by Mrs. Marguerite E. Easter.--Mrs. John M. Miller [Mrs. John Miller] read a letter written by Madame Jerome Bonaparte, who was the beautiful Betsy Patterson, to her father while she was in England, and inclosing a piece of a ball gown, which she wore on some special occasion.--“My Lady’s Eyes,” a poem by Miss Anna Vernon Dorsey of Washington was also read.”



83rd Meeting. [May 2, 1893]

The eighty third meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 2nd, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] was in the chair.

The Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the meeting on Tuesday April 18th.

The Recording Secretary also read the names of new members presented at the meeting of the Board of Management, just adjourned, which had been approved by the Board, and were now duly submitted to the Club.

The President announced that our next meeting would be under the direction of the Committee on Economics. Also that our present meeting would be under the direction of the Committee on Fiction, of which Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock] and Miss Bennett [Sarah H. Bennett] were the Chairmen.

Our programme called for two articles on the Definitions of the Romantic and Realistic Schools of Fiction;-- but it was announced that the first Essay would be omitted, and that only the one of the Realistic School would be read to us. The name of the author of this article was not given. It was read by Miss Perot [Annie S. Perot].

It spoke of facts, with nothing extenuated, and naught set down in malice. Realism may give us noble ideals of life, but it does not analyze motives; it deals only with results. It portrays life often in humble conditions, but it needs not to describe vulgarities,-- nor to thrust them before us;-- it ought to preserve the dignity of literature. Theories are not denied,-- but only recognized bu their results. Realism may laugh at Romanticism, and tell us that man can not live on love alone, but all


the realities of life belong to it, while life remains.

We may be reminded of Mr. Ruskin’s assertion that: “Finding the world of Literature more or less divided into Thinkers and Seers, I believe we shall find also that the Seers are wholly the greater race of the two.”

Our next article was by Mrs. Whitelock [Louise Clarkson Whitelock], and was read by Mrs. Sloan [Mrs. John A. Sloan]. It was on “Morality in Fiction.”

Mrs. Whitelock [spoke] of moral Fiction as not that which is especially opposed to immorality, but as that which is pure and unhurtful. She spoke of those who read and admire Zola; and yet who would abhor and find disgusting in actual life the scenes he paints. She reminded us of the late “Agnostic Novels” also. Then of the apparently well-meaning stores which have a bad lack of moral tone, and no comprehension of the higher life, or of what Wordsworth calls “high thinking.” But she thought it was possible to teach without preaching, and those of us who have young daughters and nieces will perhaps be disposed to give them the old fashioned moral novel to read.

Mrs. Whitelock spoke of Hyperion, and of the works of “Miss Mulock,” as many of us continue to call her. We may call them “romantic,” but they give us high ideals and we can hope and believe that such ideals will not fail us in the future.

Our programme promised us several short stories; and these had been written under the direction of the Fiction Committee. The subject was the same in every case, and it had been given to the several writers by the Committee. This subject was the meeting, after separation, of a man and a woman who had [text missing from image] lovers[:]- and each story was limited to two thou-


-sand words.

The first of these stories was written by Miss Bennet, and read by herself. Its title was “Shadows.”

She described a little town, half-buried in snow, the trees bending under their heavy white covering, while a hard beaten track, shining like silver, led up to the top of a hill. At one end of this path a tall, thin man was beating his hands together. From the other came a short and stout woman, with black hair and eyes, who carried a basket on her arm, and was thinking aloud. The subject of her audible meditation was the momentous question question [words repeated] of turning and repairing a dress, which had not only seen good service, but had apparently been turned and repaired before.

“Gimp at seventeen cents a yard won’t do, and the dressmaker won’t skimp,” she said. “Ruffles would be better, taken out of the back breadth, and then nobody would know it for the same dress.”

Suddenly she recognizes Luke Rollins, and with the voice and manner of bygone years tells him that he is the last man she would have expected to see that day;--while he answers that “Ca’line Smoot” is the last woman he would have looked for there.

 “Ca’line Smallwood,” she answered, adding that she old rhyme said: “Change the name not the letter, Change for worse and not for better;-- but she wouldn’t say that in her case this had been true. She told him, moreover, that she was staying there with her “Cousin Lisbet[text out of frame]

As they talked on the woman was saying to herself: I won’t ask after Maria. She played me a mean trick.” Nor did the man ask after Jonah Smallwood, his successful rival. And so they went on talking, with


The shadows of Maria and Jonah Smallwood, unbidden,-- forbidden recognition,- but actively felt.

The woman said Cousin ‘Lisbeth was most particular, and it wouldn’t do to keep her table waiting for supper. But then they talked of winter evening, long before, when there had been music and dancing, and they were both sure nobody else could ever play as well as the old colored fiddler did then. Still, no matter what subject they discussed, Ca’line whispered, “I won’t ask after Maria.”

But at last when Luke turned to go, she called after him, “Luke, how’s Maria?”

“Maria?” said Luke, “Why, Maria’s dead. She died five years ago. Poor Maria changed very much before she died. How’s Jonah?”

“He’s dead too,-- eighteen months ago,” answered Ca’line. “He was a good provider.”

“I’m going your way Ca’line,” said Like, “and I can carry the basket just as well as not.

The moon rose, and they thought of the new moon of a time long past, when they looked over their shoulders to make wishes they believed would come true.

Then, like overgrown children, they repeated their wishes as they walked on under the new moon that was rising again, now.

The next story was; “An Episode in [Chamouni], written and read by Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord].

She told of a party travelling in Switzerland. It comprised an American lady, not unconscious nor unappreciative of the grand scenery around them, but sometimes constrained to yawn,-- her little daughter,-- her husband who was a prosperous American, and a Frenchman with whom he talked about money, while both of the two latter appeared unmoved by the grandeur and sublimity of Nature.

“Mrs. Irving is always tired,” says her husband. She sympathizes with the mountaineers as he notices the laborious life they lead; but when she offers them money, and they refuse it, she is reminded that they are peasants, but not beggars.

Reaching a hotel in the evening, and feeling tired of the carriage, she goes out with her little daughter to take a walk. They find such Alpine roses and blue bells as they have seen nowhere else, but they also lose their way.

And here she meets again the man who had put the span half the world between them, after that time when they had met and parted, in England, years before. He asks whether she is happy in her worship of the golden calf, and he claims the right to ask, because of all she once condemned him to suffer. She answers that she has two dear children, and an indulgent husband. She hoped he had forgiven and forgotten the past, and that the world had been kind to him also.

He picked the tired child; and told her he was Mr. Gray no longer. Two cousins had died, making him a lord. If she had known that would happen, it would have been unnecessary to sell her birthright. But they were quits,-- and each knew than [that?] another mile-stone on on [words repeated] life’s road had been passed.

On their return, when she introduced her friend, Lord Hatton to her husband, it was a little difficult to interpret the artless prattle of the child to the money-king about the golden calf.

But Mrs. Irving has to rise to the occasion, then,


and also afterwards, when the young lord presents a beautiful woman as his wife, She says, “I shall always thank [Chamouni?] for this meeting;”- and her husband says, “In America, you know, we are all lords.”

The next story was by Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], and was called; “So Runs the World Away.”

Adolphus had gone away from Penelope ten years earlier, and woman learn much in that length of time. She kept his photograph,-- and he had said “Auf Wiedersehen”;-- but he had not come back yet, and perhaps he did not get many of her thoughts.

There were rivals for her love,-- two artists, especially, who hated each other as rivals in love, and artists can. The beautiful piece of work by artist number one,-- representing Penelope in the act of refusing the suit of Philander--artist number two--was very much admired. Some people said there must be a Ulysses somewhere else,-- otherwise she could not afford to wait. These of course were her dear, dear friends.

One day Adolphus comes to call, and is asked to come back to dine. While he is gone, she sits down to the piano, to think. Perhaps she must take a poor counterfeit, if not a reality;-- but the heart once warm may have grown careless. The ten years might have been longer still;-- there might have been some one else.

In due course of time they were married. Were they happy? Well, yes;-- but she has devoted herself to music, and Adolphus has hated it.

Miss Bennett gave us the Minutes of the Fiction Class of our Club, written by Mrs. Whitelock. There had been much original work done, consist-


ing of stories, essays, critiques; reviews of Mr. Howells’s sometimes very unjust criticisms, and of those by Mr. Brander Mathews. The attendance had always been good, and the interest unflagging.

Our programme had been shortened, and Mrs. Turnbull had been requested to read to us some extracts from her own last book, “Val Maria”,-- and she had consented to do so.

She read first the opening of the book, to give the setting of the story. She painted the estate of Val Maria, and the home of Count Louis de Monlat, with his wife and only child, Felix, as a spot of seclusion and peace; with the statue and shrine of the Madonna of Val Maria,-- a statue not beautiful artistically, or even capable of being beautified by the mellowing touch of time; but sacred to the village folks, who were free to find on this Virgin’s face whatever expression it was in their hearts to give her.

It was at the time of the Directory, the Reign of Terror was past, and the young general Bonaparte was rising into notice. The life of the village and the life of the castle unfold before us naturally and attractively. The child Felix is beautiful and enthusiastic,-- too spirited for length of days, and with a purity unsullied by earthly evil. The Count has a knightly soul, and, giving the First Consul credit for an absorbing and disinterested love for France, accepts the position of senator, scarcely confessing to himself that he had begun to count on Bonaparte as the savior of his country.

The child shares his father’s enthusiasm, and


Makes of the First Consul, and afterwards of the Emperor, in his own mind, the truest and noblest of heroes.

Mrs. Turnbull read the scene in the studio, where the boy-artist shows his father his studies for the head of Napoleon, some day to be put into marble.

“--still is Nature’s priest;

And by the vision splendid

Is on his way attended;”


“--the man [perceives] it die away,

And fade into the light of common day.”

Mrs. Turnbull also read to us a scene in Florence, where the mother takes her son to what had been her own early home, and the boy is delighted by the wonders he finds there.

Finally we were given the last scene in the book. The boy has made the bust of his beloved ruler of men,-- as his pure eyes saw him. This last scene is a striking piece of [word-painting]. The time is during the fateful “hundred days;”--and the world--worn emperor is brought face to face with the image of himself--as he perhaps might and ought to have been;- in the presence of the image’s creator, the youthful sculptor, lying calmly waiting for “the unbidden guest,” in “the beauty of holiness,” in

“--the faith that looks through death.”

The thanks of of [words repeated] the Club having been given to our President for her reading the meeting adjourned.



84th Meeting. [May 9th, 1893]

The eighty fourth meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday May 9th, 1893, at the corner of Cathedral and Franklin Streets.

Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], the President called the meeting to order; and the Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the meeting of May 2nd.

The announcement was made that two books had been presented to the Club, one by Miss Whitney [Anne Weston Whitney], and one by Professor Milton Whitney.

The names of new members which had received favorable action by the Board of Management,--and no objection from the Club--were again read to the Club. They were six in number;--Mrs. Bertha Hall [Ahvens?],--Mrs. R. K. Cautley [Lucy Randolph Cautley]--Miss Mary D. Davis [Mary Dorsey Davis],--Mrs. Sidney Turner [Clara B. Newman Turner],--Mrs. Henry J. [Oudesbeys?],--and Mrs. R. M. Wiley.

Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock], the Treasurer, read her yearly Report,--in this case,--dating from last November, when she accepted the office, until the present time. It was a clear and satisfactory statement of the items of receipts and expenditures,--showing good management, and avoidance of debt, and closing with a balance in bank. The balance with which our Treasurer began her work was forty eight dollars seventy nine cents,--Received up to May 1893, eight hundred thirty dollars one cent, making the Assets eight hundred seventy eight dollars eighty cents--$878.80. The Expenditures were seven hundred twenty two dollars seventy two cents--$722.72--, leaving a Balance of one hundred fifty six dollars eight cents--[$156.08?]. Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace] said we ought to be congratulated on


receiving such a Report,--and moved a vote of thanks to the Treasurer.

Our President said that we had never been in debt.

Miss Grace’s motion was seconded by Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese], and was carried without opposition.

The President showed us a cup and saucer presented to the Club by Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely],--a beautiful specimen of gilding, looking like gold itself, which was the discovery and work of a woman.

It was announced the the meeting of the next Tuesday would be under the direction of the Committee on Current Criticism, of which Mrs. Dammann [Aileen B. C. Dammann] is chairman. The meeting being held was under the direction of the Committee on Economics, under the Chairmanship of Miss Mary Wilcox Brown.

It was announced that we would be unable to have this evening the paper promised on our programme to be given by Miss Zacharias [Jane Zacharias].

Mrs. Anderson [Mrs. W. H. Anderson] was called on to give us the Report of the work done by our Class in Economics. She told us that in the year 1891, a few-some six[-?] of our members met, at the house of Miss Thompson, to study Political Economy. They began with the book of Mrs. Millicent Fawcett,--Fawcett being a name of good omen since a daughter of that house has won the right to stand before the Senior Wrangler at Oxford. Our political economists studied the requisites of Production--Land Labor, and Capital;--plodded through the problems belonging to values and wages, supply and demand, [limettalism?],--and Adam Smith’s four [lamons] of Taxation. Such fun as this went on until the brains felt bruised and battered; and the meetings generally


closed with a cup of tea, to refresh exhausted vitality. Mr. Thackeray, [Tlelieve?] said Heaven meant kindly by women when tea was made.

When the warm weather came, the inspirer of the Political Economy Class had gone across the Atlantic; and soon the numbers dwindled, to two lone women; who, without hesitation, decided Political Economy to be a cold weather study.

Beginning again with new courage in the autumn, the place of meeting was changed to the rooms of Miss Milnor [Mary Worthington Milnor]; and the class studied several approved authors; including Professor Simon Newcomb and Mr. Mill; and even made acquaintance with the works of Mr. Henry George. Mrs. Anderson [Mrs. W. H. Anderson] quoted to us the saying of a woman that the carrying out of one of Mr. George’s theories was like the burning down a house to roast a pig. This woman would seem to relegate Mr. George back to the companionship of Charles Lamb’s prehistoric Chinaman, in the Essay on Roast Pig.

Mrs. Anderson went on to describe the study accomplished and the work done by the Committee on Economics, after the moving into the handsome new quarters of our Club, and the having possession of our pleasant Committee room. She spoke of the meeting addressed by Archdeacon Moran, to which the whole Club was invited; and of the interest of other Committee meetings, to which other speakers and writers have contributed.

Also of articles given at our general meetings; especially of the very interesting one of Miss Ridgely [Eliza Ridgely] on the College Settlement in Philadelphia; and of that of Miss de [Gnaffe-???] on The Housing of the Poor. Then on the vital interest that has been aroused in vital questions, in


the efforts of the present, and the hopes of the future.

Our programme promised us “A Talk about Pullman,” by Miss Mary Wilcox Brown. Miss Brown said that, before describing her visit to Pullman, which is now considered a suburb of Chicago, she would lead up to her subject by mentioning some of the things that have been done for [ameliorating?] the condition of the laboring classes in America, elsewhere. She spoke of the difference between the conditions of the present and those of the past; of the protection given to the laborer, of co-operation, and trades-unions[.] She told us of Robert Owen of England, and of many who followed him; of the Rochdale pioneers; of the work done in France, and in America, and even in our own city of Baltimore. She dwelt on the difference between work done for charity or philanthropy, and work done, on strict business principles, for the god of all concerned, now,--and henceforward. Mr. Pullman, she said, is working to prevent evil, not to cure it, and disclaims the name of philanthropist.

Miss Brown went to Pullman alone, and arrived safely at the Hotel Florence,--named after Mr. Pullman’s daughter; he himself, being the owner of the whole place. She found the settlement clean, bright and attractive. There are twelve hundred houses, chiefly of brick,--not more than seventy five frame houses in the place. There is a park; and a public library of four thousand volumes, to which additions are often made. She described the Arcade Buildings, and also the halls in which religious services of different denominations are held. Also the halls


for musical, literary and theatrical entertainments. Also of the loan and savings bank, which receives deposits of respectable amounts, especially on Saturday evenings, after the workmen are paid off. She spoke of the excellent sanitary arrangements, on which one million dollars are said to have been spent. The work shops are comfortable, the dust of the furnaces is consumed, and not breathed. There are almost all languages talked, and almost all nationalities represented among the workmen. The best workmen are said to be the Swedes. The work is all piece work, not days-work; and the men generally work ten hours a day. The public schools are part of the system of Chicago. Almost everything for the Pullman cars is made at the Works, except the plush, curtain materials, china-ware and glass. At the hour for dinner the workmen come out, looking clean, and with their coats on. There is no direct profit sharing; but it seems to be made for the interest of all to do good work.

Mr. Pullman says that the time has not yet come for the workmen to own land in Pullman; but half a mile off in the country they [cand?], and, to some extent, do own houses of their own.

Miss Brown told us that there had never been a strike in Pullman;--that there were five doctors there, but no lawyer.

Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] congratulated the Committee on Economics; which, with so young a chairman as theirs, had been able to add so much to the interest of our Club.

Mrs. Easby [Gertrude Pierce Easby] next gave us some account of the Cannon Foundry of the Krupps at Essen in


Germany. She regretted that the facts she had to give us were not new,--but rather an old story. The Krupp Works are larger than those at Pullman[;?] and are managed on the principle that it pays to take care of workmen, and make them comfortable. There are stores, where necessaries are furnished at something like cost rates. There are relief associations; there are special surgeons provided; also an oculist,--as working in iron is apt to be dangerous to the eyes. There is no theatre, however; for, as Mr. Conway says; “People who work from ten to twelve hours a day have no time to enjoy dramatic art.”

Mrs. Anderson next read a letter from Mr. Howard, a labor statistician, on co-operative unions in Baltimore. He told of an attempt made some time ago to buy coal in large quantities, at summer prices, and to sell it in the winter, at summer rates also;--which failed; owing to a lack of comprehension, or of appreciation, or the dislike of a new venture in those who were intended specifically to be benefitted by the plan.

Miss Nelson [Jenny Nelson] also gave us a letter from Mr. Howard, giving some information relating to the Tailors’ Co-operative Union, and to the garment cutters’ strike of some little time ago.

In the discussion that followed, it was recalled to us that workmen continually fail to appreciate that the enormous majority of men are not fitted to be leaders; and many object to the semblance of being led.

Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat] quoted the opinion of Frederick Maurice that the principles of Christianity must be applied to trade and industry, and must be


proved not incompatible with them. She spoke of the work done in Boston buy the Church of the Carpenter; where co-operation is carried on to give employment to those who need it, in the name of the great Founder of such co-operation. It is this kind of work that can add the keystone to the arch that shall bridge the gulf so long yawning before us.

Miss Comins next spoke of the beautiful gilding on the cup and saucer presented to the Club by Miss Ridgely; and said that Miss Ely, the discoverer of the new process, had wished her sister to introduce her to a Mr. Cooley, who would be likely to buy her right in the secret of this production. The interview was polite, but amusing; as Miss Ely did not dare to make experiments in Mr. Cooley’s presence, nor to tell him enough of the secret to make him take the risk of a chance,--which might not be the main chance to him.

Miss Comins however believed now that the discoverer of the process had made arrangements by which it could be carried on under her own direction.

The meeting adjourned.


85th Meeting. [May 15th, 1893]

The eighty fifth meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore was held on Tuesday, May 15th, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The meeting was called to order by Mrs.


Turnbull, the President; and the Recording Secretary read the Minutes of the previous meeting on May 9th.

The President read a letter from Miss Keyser, the sister of Mr. Ephrain Keyser, the Sculptor. It expressed the gratification of Mr. Keyser from the high appreciation shown by the Woman’s Literary Club of his own State for his work as an artist. He had expressed particular pleasure that one of his works had inspired the poetic muse of a member of the Club.

Our President then spoke of the honor lately conferred upon one of our honorary members, Miss Sarah Adams, the sister of our own Miss Elizabeth Adams. Our honorary member has come back to America from Europe, with a gold medal presented to her by the German Government in token of their appreciation of her efforts toward the success of the lately erected Memorials to Goethe and Schiller. Miss Sarah Adams had also been chosen by Grimm as the translator of his Works into English.

A letter was then read by the Vice President Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton], from our fellow member, Miss Elizabeth Adams; “To the Ladies of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore,” presenting to us a beautiful portrait, painted by herself, of our first, and for three years only President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull]. Miss Adams’s letter spoke of the excellent work done by the Club in the various departments of Literature and Art, during the three years of its existence,--“in


all of which the guiding hand of Mrs. Turnbull has been felt.” “For all this,” says the letter, “let us thank her; and let me hope that this portrait will bring her in full remembrance to you all.[“]

A vote to thank Miss Adams was moved by Miss Brent, and seconded by Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace]; and of course, carried immediately.

Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock] then read to us an Article in the last Churchman, giving an account of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore. It spoke of the founders and prominent members of our Club,--of our President,--of the late Mrs. Tiernan [Mary Spear Tiernan],--Mrs. Franklin [Christine Ladd-Franklin],--Miss Hester Crawford Dorsey [Hester Crawford Dorsey Richardson],--Miss Woods [Katharine Pearson Woods],--Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese], and others; and gave some account of the excellent work, and growing good influence of the Club. It closed with a very appropriate quotation from the last annual address of our President.

Mrs. Turnbull next announced the request of our Treasurer, Mrs. Bullock, that her Report presented at our last meeting, should be audited by a Committee of her fellow members. As a matter of routine, the President appointed Mrs. Sioussat [Annie Leakin Sioussat] and Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold] as this committee.

The President then announced that at our next meeting the annual election for all the officers of the Club would be held; and that to give time for this important business at half past three as usual. She also announced the Method or Scheme by which this election will be conducted,--as follows:

“A Judge of Election to be appointed to conduct the business of the Election.

“Three tellers to be chosen by the Judge of the Election.


“One Teller to hold and give to the other Tellers, for distribution, blanks corresponding to the number of persons present,--no more,--no less.

“Colored blanks shall be distributed by the Tellers, on which each member is requested to make one nomination for the Presidency.

“These blanks shall be collected, and must correspond to the number of members present.

“All names receiving five (5) nominations will be considered as candidates. These names shall be written on the blackboard, with the number of nominations received.

White blanks shall then be distributed, and members shall vote for President, and the Candidate receiving a majority of the votes cast shall be declared elected. If no candidate receives a majority of the votes cast shall be declared first ballot, other ballots shall be cast until an election is made.

“The other officers to be nominated and voted for in the same manner as for President;--with the exception of the Corresponding Secretary; who is nominated by the President, and voted for by the Club.

“Doorkeepers shall be appointed to see that only members of the Club shall be admitted while the Election shall be in progress.

“Voting by letter shall be done by sealed notes, sent by mail, and with the signature of the voter.”

Announcement was made to the members who have not received their certificates of membership, that they can; if they wish, apply for them.

Announcement was also made that it is [expected?] to


Form in the Club, a Committee on Archeology which members interested in that subject may wish to join.

Also that a Class in Geology in connection with the work of the Academy of Sciences is proposed. Dr. Uhler has spoken of some new discoveries in this department of knowledge in the neighborhood of Baltimore; and he would be glad to see a more wide spread interest taken in the subject. The first meeting of this Class would be held on Thursday, at five o’ clock.

The first literary article on our programme was by Miss Perot [Annie S. Perot], and was on the “Fin de Siecle, School of Fiction.”--She spoke of the Fiction of the present day; its lack of spirituality, its want of the development of the hidden meaning of common things, its treatment of Art as an end, and not as a means to reach something higher still. She spoke of the influence of Browning and of Wagner, and of other leaders of thought and expression in the nineteenth century. She spoke of the Fictions of Russia and Germany and France, as well as of those of England and America,--critically comparing their characteristics.

The review was entertaining; but perhaps we may hope, that before the real Fin de Siecle, we may have better Fiction still than the first three years of the last decade of our century have been giving us; that the literature and and art of even the near future may, in its own way follow the clear leading voice of the late poet laureate,

     “Call me not so often back!
     Forward to the starry track,
     On, and always on!”

Mrs. Tait, of the Committee on Current Criticism, next gave us her review of a Romance: “The Chevalier di [unreadable] Vani,” by Henry B. Fuller. It was a lively de-


scription of scenery and characters, and especially of different points of view. The book is remarkable for the characterization evolved by description, without the aid of conversations; that is, without any talking in the first person at all, except by the author himself.

Mrs. Tait [Anna Dolores Tiernan Tate] brought before us with varied and lively interest the typical Italians,--male and female;--the English Duke, “fully armored in an amalgam of insularity and cosmopolitanism;” and Mr. G. W. Occident, an American. This last young man has left the “general awfulness” of Shelby County, “to see for himself if life were not better worth living than he could make it seem in the region where he had had the misfortune to be born.” Yet he finds it hard to forgive the blunt declaration of one of his Italian friends, that “America might indeed be an example to older countries,--to serve less as a pattern than as a warning.”

Mrs. Tait gave us the Finale; in which Occident finds in the person of a successful Prima Donna in Italy, a girl, from Shelby County also;--and they two conclude to go back to their old home and old friends; taking with them grateful remembrances of the [Cavaliere di Pensiari Vani?].

The next article on our programme was of three Poems by Miss Reese. The first was on “[Bliss?] of the Valley.” She seemed to bring us these flowers of today, and to bring with them the [illegible] times that bloom again for us when they bloom with the old perfume and loveliness. The second was called, “In a Prayer Book;” telling of the warfares that we must wage alone, and of the eternal comfort of knowing that the greatest Love is love still, and still prevails.

Another poem read by Miss Reese tells us that


“Polly looks from her window, and takes the air,”--and “hears the nightingale,”--“when April is in town,” making us feel that even in town the good gift of spring can come to us.

One other poem she read to us was called: “Fra Basil;”--telling of the pious, artless brother, who works in his garden for this Lord; and hopes that when in--or near--his Lord’s presence, he may have a little garden to work in, for his Lord’s praise still.

The next article on our programme was a story by Miss Bennett [Sarah H. Bennett], called: “A Corrected Impression.” In this story we have Margaret, who has brought her knitting and come to spend the evening with Belvedera. Both of them are sixty; both widows; but Belvedera has been a beauty; and a village belle; and Margaret has been “very plain” always[:?] which makes them different being of course[:?] Yet Margaret has had a husband worth having, in her opinion, and in that of her neighbors, apparently;--and she visits his grave very often, saying “it is no much company for her” to be near where he lies. They talk of old times, recalling a certain Sunday when Belvedera wore her new spring bonnet and dress, and set the hearts of boys--and perhaps of the girls too--in a flutter. Margaret confesses that was the only time she ever felt jealous of Belvedera;--just then, when Joe left her, and went to talk to Belvedera for a minute or two. But he came back to her,--and asked her to marry him too. Of course she said “yes,”--“she had not thought she was going to get the pick of the lot.”

Belvedera, after a moment, asks Margaret if she shall tell her what Joe said to her on that occasion? Mar-


garet assenting; Belvedera tells her that Joe said: “Belvedera, let’s take everything back, and be just as we were before.” “I only laughed at him,” she said, “I thought he was just like the rest of the boys;--but he wasn’t.” “You don’t mind Margaret,--do you?” “No, I don’t,” said Margaret;--but she got up, and went home.

A little later she goes to Joe’s grave;--but her very prayer there is an indignant protest that it is not right for Belvedera to have had everything,--even Joe’s love.

The bliss that may have been ignorance, was gone for ever,--or for this world, at any rate.

The last article on our programme was by Miss Brent, and was on “Lorenzo di Medici.” [=?] She quoted [Macauyley’s?] eloquent description of the glory of Florence under the rule of the Medici family. She told us of the early life of Lorenzo; of his literary and artistic tastes; of his immense work for the improving and beautifying of Florence. Also, of his Lonnets to his lady-love,--telling of a love more poetical than passionate, perhaps, for we were reminded of his saying, that poetry had made him a lover,--not love a poet. She spoke of his having been made to marry a lady chosen for him by his father; but she thought that the marriage was a happy one; and, in testimony to his opinion, she read us a pleasant letter to his wife, showing, as she said, that husbands and wives probably wrote to each other in those days very much the same kind of letters that they write to each other now. She told us of the great men of that time; not only those of Florence, but the great men of other countries also, who were attracted by the wealth of art and learning concentrated in the beautiful city on the Arno. [=?] Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent] closed with Mrs.


Tumeson’s description of Florence;--“which seems to gather into itself all that makes life a sunny dream of beauty and delight.”

The meeting adjourned.


86th Meeting. [May 23, 1893]

The eighty sixth Meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore,--being the occasion of the annual election of all the officers of the Club,--was held on May 23rd, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The meeting was called to order by the President, Mrs. Turnbull. The Recording Secretary read the minutes of the meeting of May 16th.

The President announced the last Salon of the year, on Tuesday next, would be our Anniversary Meeting, in which the whole work of the past year would be reviewed. Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull] spoke of the influence of our Club, and of its responsibilities; and, in a few graceful words, invited us to assume the right and privilege of electing our officers for the coming year.

The Scheme or Order of Election, which had been adopted by the Board of Management, and submitted to the Club at its last meeting, was then read to us.

In accordance with this plan, Mrs. Perry [M. N. Perry] was chosen Judge of the Election. She appointed as the three tellers Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord], Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman] and Miss Duer [Edith Duer];--the first to hold and give out the blanks for distribution, and the others to receive and count the votes. Mrs. Dammann [Aileen B. C. Dammann] was made Secretary of the Election, and Miss Fannie Hoffman [Fanny Hoffman] was made the Doorkeeper.


The Roll of members was called by Mrs. Bullock [Caroline Canfield Bullock], the Treasurer. Fifty seven members answered to their names, and afterwards the representation was increased by arrivals and by letters to sixty one names.

The first action in order was the nomination of candidates for President. It had been agreed that all names receiving five or more nominating votes should be written on the blackboard, for the information of the members.

The first nominating ballot resulted in the choice of four names. Brent-Johnson-Adams-King.

The first elective ballot resulted in a majority for Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent],--who was elected President.

The nominating ballot for Vice President resulted in the choice of five names. Adams-King-Johnson-Sioussat-Brown.

The first elective ballot resulted in no majority.

Three of the candidates having withdrawn their names, on the second elective ballot Miss King [Elizabeth T. King] was elected First Vice President. (over Miss Adams.)

The nominating ballot for Recording Secretary showing a full majority for one candidate, the Club in order to save time, voted viva voce to consider the nomination an election, and Miss Crane [Lydia Crane] was declared re-elected Recording Secretary.

The nominating ballot for Treasurer resulted in the choice of two names. Bullock and Szold.

On the first elective ballot Mrs. Bullock was re-elected Treasurer.


The new President, Miss Brent then nominated for Corresponding Secretary, Miss Annie Perot [Annie S. Perot].

By a standing vote, Miss Perot was elected, without opposition, Corresponding Secretary.

Miss Brent then thanked the Club for the honor done her, and expressed her hope and belief that each member of the Club would seek to work with her, and for the mental growth and advancement of us all.

The nominating ballot for the six members of the Executive Committee resulted in the names of twenty one members receiving more than five votes.

After one indecisive ballot,--as it was growing late, and there were evidences of an approaching storm,--the Judge of Election announced that it was necessary to adjourn the meeting to a subsequent occasion, at which the election could be concluded.

The new President appointed the time of meeting again as Saturday Morning, May 27th, at 11 o’clock, until which time, the meeting adjorned.

Special Meeting. [May 27, 1893]

The adjourned meeting of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, held for the special purpose of completing the election of officers for the Club[,] year of 1893 and 1894, took place on Saturday morning, May 27th 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets.

The officers still to be elected were the six members of the Executive Committee.

The Officers of the Election were the same as on


the occasion of the former meeting, with the exception of the tellers, Miss Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud] doing duty in that capacity for Mrs. Haman [Louise C. Haman].

At half past eleven, the Club proceeded to business.

There were thirty eight members present,--and fourteen members sent their written, sealed, votes, making a total of fifty two votes.

During the meeting some discussion arose on the right of members present to refrain from voting. It was ruled that any member desiring to so refrain ought to leave the room.

The first ballot for the election of the first member of the Executive Committee resulted in a majority for Miss Mary Willcox Brown [Mary Wilcox Brown], who was, of course declared elected.

For the second member of the Executive Committee five ballots were taken, the fifth resulting in the of Mrs. Lord [Alice Emma Sauerwein Lord].

The first ballot for the third member of the Executive Committee resulted in the election of Miss Szold [Henrietta Szold].

For the fourth member of the Executive Committee two ballots were taken;--the second ballot resulting in the election of Mrs. Johnson [Mrs. W. Woolsey Johnson].

For the fifth member of the Executive Committee four ballots were taken,--the fourth ballot resulting in the election of Miss Grace [Mary F. Grace].

For the sixth member of the Executive Committee, eight indecisive ballots were taken.


Not only did the candidates seem to have very constant supporters and friends, but the votes sent by mail, which could not be changed, added to the number necessary to be a choice, and consequently to the difficulty of obtaining a majority.

The hour was growing late, and a compromise ticket was proposed presenting two names taken from the list on the blackboard. On this ticket two ballots were taken, resulting in the election of Mrs. Dammann [Aileen B. C. Dammann], as the sixth member of the Executive Committee.

A vote of thanks was given to our members who had acted as officers of the Election, and the meeting adjourned.


25th Salon. [May 20, 1893]

The twenty fifth Salon of the Woman’s Literary Club of Baltimore, being the last meeting of the season of 1892 and 1893 took place on Tuesday, May 30th, 1893, at the corner of Franklin and Cathedral Streets. It was also the anniversary occasion of the year; and was, as previously arranged, under the direction of the officers for the year just closing.

Our first--and, for three years, only--President, Mrs. Turnbull [Francese Litchfield Turnbull], called the meeting to order.

The Recording Secretary read her Report of the year’s literary work of the Club; which was, of course, compiled from her minutes of the meetings of the year, and recollections of specially interesting meetings.


The Librarian, Miss Virginia Cloud [Virginia Woodward Cloud], then gave us her Report, of our library; which in November 1892, numbered sixty three volumes, and now numbered two hundred. After enumerating the books presented during the year, she spoke of our gratitude to our members, and to our other friends, who have increased the number of books in our library.

As our Librarian has also been our Corresponding Secretary for the past year, a vote of thanks for all her work was moved by Mrs. Graham [Elizabeth Turner Graham], and seconded by Mrs. Easter [Marguerite E. Easter]. In this motion the Recording Secretary was also included, and it was passed without opposition.

Mrs. Turnbull then gave us the President’s Anniversary Address, which was also her farewell to us, before leaving for a long visit to Europe. Our retiring President spoke to us of our gathering to celebrate our third Anniversary. There has been a great advance in our material progress,--a thing which might be able to help, or hinder, our mental or spiritual progress. But we trust that the progress and success near to our hearts has been great also, that our work has taken a higher intellectual rank as time has gone on, and that into the domain which is higher still than that of intellect, we have gone, with larger views and nobler ideals.

Mrs. Turnbull went on to speak of the recognition our work has received outside of our own circle. She spoke of her strong faith in the methods that have so far been pursued in our efforts to encourage “right and serious views of live and


literature;” and deprecated some proposed changes in these methods; as, for instance, the more frequent introduction into our social meetings of men as well as women. She thought that our work should be distinctly woman’s work, in the few hours we give to it, and to each other in our weekly meetings.

She spoke also of our Board of Management, and of the work, especially the detailed or preliminary work, which it seems necessary in all organizations to commit to a selected number or portion of the members.

Mrs. Turnbull reminded us of the critical age we live in; of the power of self-criticism; of our efforts to be artists in works; and of the value of artistic reticence. She spoke of the spiritualization of thought, and of the higher plane of literature that we hope for in the future.

She then spoke of her love for the Club, and for the work we have all done together, and of her regret in leaving it, and us. She thanked us for the genuine appreciation of her motives, and for the co-operation she had received in her three years association with us;--and commended to our consideration and support our newly elected President.

Mrs. Turnbull closed her address with the hope that the work dear to her heart, as to ours also, would have in the future a real, spiritual influence, harmonious, restful, and inspired.

Miss Haughton [Louisa Courtland Osburne Haughton] then spoke earnestly and enthusiastically of all that Mrs. Turnbull has done for the Club;--of her wise suggestions and decisions; of her unfailing care and thoughtfulness, which has largely contributed to make the Club a happy


influence in unlooked for directions and circles.

She then presented to Mrs. Turnbull a badge, bearing the Club colors and motto; which our first President was requested to wear, as a token of grateful from fellow members.

In closing, Miss Haughton said that instead of using our own “good-bye,” we would borrow from our German cousins their “Auf Wiedersehen!”

Mrs. Turnbull, in very few words gave thanks for the tributes she had received, and hoped that all the flowers blossoming here today might continue to give beauty and fragrance to the future for all of us.

Mrs. Easter then read a original poem; speaking of the hush that comes to the woods, and to our Areadian dreams in them, when the evening shadows are falling, and of the hush that comes to our spirits also, when the shadow is falling of the the absence of one very near to us.

Miss Middleton [Maria H. Middleton] next read some lines of her own addressed, “To our Friend, who is going away.[“]

Miss Reese [Lizette Woodworth Reese] next gave us one of her happy musical songs, “April in Town,”--and making a graceful reference to the portrait of our retiring President.

Mrs. Turnbull said she felt herself all unworthy, in having no fitting words to give to her friends; but she thought that next to her home she would always hold the Club in her heart. She then spoke of the thanks due to the members of the retiring Board of Management;--also of their unselfish


work with her during the past year. And in now leaving the Chair, she presented to us the new President, and asked for loyal and generous support for her and her high ideals.

Miss Brent [Emma Fenwick Brent] said she wished to fulfill the work of her predecessor; or, at least to do a part of what our first President had done. For herself, she hoped for harmony among old and new friends, in our intellectual and literary wor. She remind[ed] us of the saying of the great philosopher, Sir Isaac Newton, “that he seemed to himself like a child playing on the sea-shire, now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than usual, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before him. That surely in this Spirit, and remembering always that love is the fulfilling of the law,” we can go on to study the little things--the low tones--of home, or the music of the Spheres. We can go on--

     “Till old experience do attain
     To something like prophetic strain.”

“We know that no life is for itself alone, that each life tells something for eternity.

Miss Brent then thanked our first, and until now, only, President for all that she has done for us.

The announcement was made of the literary Committees of the Club for the coming year.

Notice was given that certificates of membership could be applied for by those members who have not received them.

The rest of the evening was chiefly spent in social intercourse,--and, as the programme said:


--“Over the Tea-cups,--and over some other good things.

Mrs. Graham presented to us some refreshing, “non-alcoholic punch,” which was introduced to the Club by lively verses written and read by Miss Piggott [Margaret Moore Piggot],--singing the praises of Lend-a-Hand Punch.

With many parting regrets, but with happy hopes for the future re-unions the meeting adjourned.

[marginal note] Copies from this time made by Miss Hastings of Miss Crane’s Reports.


[1] sacreligious

[2] Turnbul

[3] despatch

[4] apreciated

[5] expresion

[6] cononized

[7] handwritten note after the fact

[8] melacholy

[9] vegitables

[10] john?

[11] sucess

[12] drunkeness

[13] reallity

[14] on

[15] fulfil

[16] of repeated twice

[17] Geoa

[18] meenting

[19] Superindendent

[20] Newspaper article is sewn into the top of page 15 and details the analysis of the womens' inspection of the schools

[21] eventualy

[22] marvellous

[23] in repeated twice

[24] centuries repeated twice

[25] defence

[26] impliments

[27] Hindoo

[28] abridgement

[29] Charles Egbert Craddock, pseudonym of Mary Noailles Murfree, writer of local-color fiction.

[30] I believe the Society of “The Theatre of Arts and Letters” a few months after this meeting, ceased to exist. Recording Secretary

Miss Thompson is the first mention of any of the ladies attending college

relation to Critic article from season 2

really pivotal vote on whether there should be a corresponding secretary appointed by the president. this is after the decision that the president would be given the power likened to a governor

mention of janitress, still trying to get funds, want to hire their own maid

look into women's prison in sherborn